wypowiedzenie ustnej umowy pożyczki podatek od umowy pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki pcc umowa pożyczki wymagania prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw forum kredyt bank częstochowa kontakt bankowy kredyt konsumpcyjny jest przeznaczony na kredyt bank strzelce opolskie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa łódź kredyty bankowe dla msp pożyczki oddłużeniowe na dowód kredyt chwilówka ile procent kredyty bez bik kraków kredyt samochodowy dla firm ing pożyczki bez bik i krd wrocław pożyczki dla zadłużonych bezrobotnych kredyt bank nysa kontakt kredyt w banku pko kalkulator kredyt bank kartuzy optima pożyczki kołobrzeg kredyt pozabankowy pod zastaw nieruchomości najszybsze pożyczki gotówkowe opinie pożyczki provident pożyczki na dowód forum przelew w kredyt banku kredyt bank gwarancje kredyt bank sa leszno getin bank kredyt opinie klientów kredyt dla firm bez zus radom pozyczka bartek bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki od osób prywatnych bez przedpłat pożyczki bez zaświadczeń gdynia kredyty bankowe konto bilansowe kredyt bank w brzegu kredyt bank leasing kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole forum kredyt bank rybnik kontakt szybki kredyt online bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny notus kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie stałe czy zmienne expres pożyczki pozyczka z pracy bezprocentowa w uk warunki pożyczki na dowód pozyczki od osob prywatnych lodz ile kosztuje kredyt w banku kredyty chwilowki sprawdzają bik kredyt bank siedziby warszawa umowa pożyczki ang kredyt bank radlin kontakt kredyt bank chf kurs pożyczki bocian formularz kredyt mieszkaniowy banki ranking pożyczki dla mikro i małych firm umowa pożyczki z oprocentowaniem kredyty na auto bez bik fgp pożyczki pożyczki na dowód bez dochodu pożyczki od osób prywatnych 2013 umorzenie pożyczki a darowizna w jakim banku kredyt na mieszkanie forum kredyt bank kontakt telefoniczny pożyczki na dowód pozabankowe kredyt bez bik wałbrzych irr pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny jak dostać skarabeusz pożyczki przemysl pożyczki gotówkowe telefon deutsche bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyty chwilówki tychy opinie kredyt bez bik gorzów wlkp kredyt bank rejestracja kredyt w wbk na klik pożyczki pabianice kredyt bank augustów kredyt na oświadczenie w credit agricole kredyt bankowy ryzyko premium pożyczki opinie warszawa pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank centrala w warszawie kredyt w banku getin bank pożyczki na dowód słupca kredyt bank logowanie do konta kredyt bank w grójcu kredyt bank ekstrakonto vip bocian pożyczki piotrków trybunalski czy vivus udziela pożyczek zadluzonym kredyt bank ciechocinek godziny otwarcia pożyczki 365 kredyt bank raszyn poniatowskiego restrukturyzacja pożyczki w skok umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki jawnej pożyczki vivus opinie bank pekao sa kalkulator kredytu kredyt bank online logowanie pożyczka przez internet bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki bez bik bez krd kredyt bank dział egzekucji umowa pożyczki między znajomymi wzór pożyczki chwilówki w lesznie pozyczki bez sprawdzania historii kredytowej ostroda kredyt bank szczecin okulickiego godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet pożyczka pozabankowa bank w rzeszowie ktury udziela pozyczek bez biku pożyczki bez weryfikacji kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim forum odmowa udzielenia pożyczki z zfśs pozyczki do domu walbrzych umowa pożyczki osoba prywatna pożyczki lubliniec dwie pożyczki w providencie pożyczki lukas elbląg kredyt chwilówka windykator kredyt bank sochaczew godziny otwarcia kredyt ratalny lukas bank kalkulator bocian pozyczki goleniow pożyczki na procent jelenia góra na jaki numer wysłać kredyt w orange termin przedawnienia spłaty pożyczki sprzedaż kredyt banku santander 2012 ubezpieczenie pożyczki od utraty pracy pożyczki pozabankowe prywatne kredyt bank wejherowo telefon kredyty chwilówki żyrardów kredyt w pko sa forum kredyt bank bełchatów godziny otwarcia kredyty dla malych firm bez bik kredyt bank centrala wrocław kalkulator pożyczki kredytu kredyty chwilówki chorzów uni cash pożyczki kredyt bankowy a pożyczka pieniężna atiz pożyczka kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolności pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem szczecin kredyt bank lokaty oprocentowanie ubezpieczenie pożyczki pekao sa kredyty bez biku dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najłatwiej kredyt bank kępno godziny otwarcia kredyt bankowy na działalność gospodarczą kredyty bez bik gorzów wlkp firma pro domo łomż pożyczki kredyt bank kod bic ebroker pożyczki opinie kredyt bank w czestochowie przedawnienie pożyczki odnawialnej naliczanie odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs kredyt na rok kredyt konsolidacyjny zestawienie banków kredyt bank w wadowicach pożyczki na procent szczecin kredyty chwilówki system partner pl prywatne pożyczki w lublinie getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy forum w jakim banku wziąć kredyt bez zaświadczenia kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki rekreacyjnej kredyty chwilówki grochowska 332 firmy leasingowe pożyczki kredyt bank 6 kredyt bank franczyza kredyty chwilówki zaliczka kredyt w orange na karte 2 zł pożyczki pod weksel warszawa kredyt bank lublin tomasza zana kredyt bank wagrowiec pożyczki w domu klienta bytom kredyt bank wesoła godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik i krd na dowód dobra umowa pożyczki pożyczki w krakowie kredyt bank 24 doładowanie telefonu pilnie potrzebuję pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt bank olsztyn aura medicover kredyt bank warszawa udzielenie pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe kołobrzeg potrącenia pożyczki z wynagrodzenia pożyczki chwilówki ostróda pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki do spełnienia pożyczki chwilówki stalowa wola kredyt bank fax pozyczka od reki na dowod plock bank pko kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt mieszkaniowy przed ślubem a rozwód pożyczki pozabankowe nie provident pożyczki gotówkowe porównywarka kronos pożyczki kontakt pożyczki bez poręczyciela pozyczki w pko pożyczki opolskie kredyt bank w ząbkach uzyczę pożyczki na procent kredyt bankowy encyklopedia kredyty pozabankowe i prywatne kredyt bank w bielanach wrocławskich kredyt bank raport roczny 2011 pożyczki na zasadach de minimis kredyt bank siedziba adres bank pekao sa kredyty kalkulator pożyczki starogard gdański kredyt mieszkaniowy zwrot podatku pko bank polski sa kredyt studencki pożyczki bez krd lublin kredyt bank rzeszów rejtana godziny otwarcia kredyty bankowe to pasywa czy aktywa kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych wrocław pożyczki pozabankowe podlaskie kredyt ustawa prawo bankowe pożyczki gotówkowe płock kredyt inwestycyjny w idea bank kredyty mieszkaniowe od 2014 roku kredyt samochodowy dominet bank w jakim banku najtanszy kredyt gotowkowy pożyczki opole godziny otwarcia kredyt bank walcz kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór umowy pożyczki bez bik dla rencistów bocian pożyczki opinie praca pożyczki bez bik łuków kredyt bank aleje marcinkowskiego poznań niskooprocentowane pożyczki z funduszy unijnych kredyty chwilówki stargard szczeciński kredyty bez biku dla zadluzonych pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bank nip umowa pożyczki dla rodziny wzór oprocentowanie kredytu w banku santander getin bank centrum kredytów samochodowych kontakt umowa pożyczki angielski umowa pożyczki nie stwierdzona pismem szybki kredyt gotówkowy przez internet bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw zawiercie kredyt bank pelplin kredyt bank niepołomice przedmiotem umowy pożyczki mogą być kredyty bez bik kołobrzeg kredyt bank ipad eurobank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank w bialej podlaskiej pozyczka na pit bez bik w bydgoszcz kredyty konsolidacyjne expander pożyczki hajnówka kredyt bank lodz godziny otwarcia ewidencja odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki pożyczki nasielsk czy kredyt bankowy jest przychodem kredyty chwilówki fabryczna 12 tychy pożyczki na dowód mbank kredyty bankowe warunki kredyt samochodowy na firmę korzyści umowa pożyczki pieniędzy znajomemu kredyt bank liczba placówek pożyczki chwilówki swarzędz kredyt w tesco bank w uk pożyczki chwilówki mogilno pozyczka z bociana dla kogo kredyt marża banku gros pozyczki pleszew bez bica potrzebuję pożyczki prywatnej kredyty i pożyczki charakterystyka kredyt bank piekary pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złą historią w bik pożyczki jst pożyczki oprocentowanie porównanie poręczenie pożyczki w pracy kredyty chwilówki windykator kredyt odnawialny pekao pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości warszawa kredyt bank zielona gora kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe białystok kredyty chwilówki tychy fabryczna 5 kredyty chwilówki jarosław getin zawiesić na rok kredyt kredyty bez biku kielce kredyty konsolidacyjne na 10 lat getin bank wojewódzki fundusz ochrony środowiska pożyczki poręczyciel pożyczki kredyt bank milanówek kredyt odnawialny pekao kredyty chwilówki giżycko pożyczki przez internet pierwsza za darmo kredyty w krakowie bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank śledziewski kredyt bank lokata 6 miesięcy konto osobiste w kredyt banku opinie kredyt bank wpłaty pożyczki społecznościowe 2012 umowa pożyczki od udziałowca zagranicznego pożyczki pozabankowe na 15lat odsetki od pożyczki cypr kredyt bank wydział zajęć komorniczych kredyt konsolidacyjny i gotowka pożyczki społecznościowe abis szybkie pożyczki bez bik kraków bank pko bp kredyt firmowy pożyczki wśród najbliższych kredyty mieszkaniowe ranking czerwiec 2013 umowa pożyczki z bankiem pcc pożyczki prywatne mazowieckie kredyt konsolidacyjny na 15 lat bez zabezpieczeń banki udzielajace kredyt na pit krakow pożyczki lombardowe oprocentowanie kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe opinie czy skoki maja oferte pozyczki dla zadluzonych pko pożyczki gotówkowe ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt deklaracja odsetki od pożyczki eden pozyczki zielona gora kredyt bank bialystok ul radzyminska kredyt konsolidacyjny w kredyt banku kredyty bez bik gorzow wlkp kredyt bank przemyśl ul dworskiego pożyczki gotówkowe dla rolników getin noble bank kredyt opinie szybki kredyt bez bik przez internet kredyt mieszkaniowy ubezpieczenie mieszkania mikropożyczki indie kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie zarobki pożyczki trzebiatów tablica kredyt mieszkaniowy na 30 lat forum kredyt bank osiedle polan poznań duet pożyczki częstochowa kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny który bank kredyt bank sa lubin oprocentowanie debetu w kredyt banku pożyczki unijne 2014 wielkopolska w jakim banku kredyt online kredyt bank pbi sa warszawa umowa pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa pożyczki chwilówki puławy kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz pożyczki podobne do providenta płock pożyczki bocian reklama mikropożyczki definicja pożyczki gotówkowe sezam sp z oo szybkie pożyczki vivus kredyt bez biku jaworzno kredyt bank kosciuszki lodz kredyty samochodowe bez bik opinie adresy kredyt banku w poznaniu kredyty chwilówki katowice szopienice kredyty bank pko bp pożyczki długoterminowe na dowód pożyczki na dowód świdnica kredyt bank facebook abis pozyczka głogów kredyt studencki pko zawieszenie kredyt bank czynny w sobote warszawa oddziały kredyt banku we wrocławiu kredyty bez bik w olsztynie pożyczki chwilówki tarnów formularz pożyczki wzór kredyty chwilówki zaświadczenie kredyt bank zduńska wola kontakt pożyczki na dowód kwidzyn gdzie dostac kredyt samochodowy bez bik kredyt chwilówki tarnobrzeg akcje spółki kredyt bank sa kredyt w aig bank kredyt konsolidacyjny zalety olsztyn pożyczki prywatne prywatne udziele pożyczki w kościanie dokumentacja podatkowa pożyczki pożyczki provident oprocentowanie pożyczki w banku millennium odsetki od pożyczki kto płaci podatek umowa pożyczki aneks kredyty konsolidacyjne gotowkowe pożyczki długoterminowe przez internet patryk raczkowski pożyczki kredyt bank przelew ekspresowy sulechow pozyczki w domu na dowod kredyt bank w leżajsku szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe lublin pożyczki kredyt dla zadłużonych kredyt bank 1 oddział warszawa kronos pozyczki przyznawalnosc kredyt bank morawskiego godziny otwarcia pozyczki mikrokasa opinie umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pod zastaw pożyczki na pit pozyczki bez umowy o prace pożyczki alior sync kredyt bank kody jednorazowe pożyczki w czechach bocian pożyczki gotówkowe kalisz czy od pożyczki w banku płaci się podatek kredyty bankowe dla msp pożyczki dla zadłużonych uk kredyt bankowy millenium pożyczki peer to peer konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy a pcc kredyty pozabankowe luban pożyczki kasa fiskalna pożyczki od udziałowców a pcc prodomo pożyczki toruń pożyczki od osób prywatnych belchatow kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli warunki bank dajacy kredyt 30 tys zl na oswiadczenie pożyczki kredyty bez historii kredyty pozabankowe dla osob z komornikiem pożyczki ferratum pożyczki gotówkowe ełk pożyczki chwilówki bez bik poznań kredyt millenium bank opinie kredyt studencki spłata forum dyskusyjne kredyt konsolidacyjny dla kazdego bocian pożyczki złóż wniosek kredyt bez bik w koninie ewidencja księgowa pożyczki dla pracownika getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego umowa pożyczki i przewłaszczenia na zabezpieczenie pożyczki piaseczno zwolnienia w kredyt banku 2012 bezzwrotne pożyczki dla mikrofirm kredyt 3x33 w santander consumer bank kredyt mieszkaniowy w uk forum alior bank kredyt dla rolników umowa pożyczki wzór weksla regulamin rachunku w kredyt banku decyzja pozyczkowa na telefon lub online polisa pożyczki kredyt samochodowy paribas bank kalkulator w ktorym banku wziasc kredyt pt pożyczki druk udzielenia pożyczki kredyty bez bik bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank w jastrzębiu zdroju kredyty bez sprawdzania bazy bik kredyt bank klienci credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny czy łatwo dostać kredyt w credit agricole kredyt bank adres warszawa kredyt bank address kredyty chwilówki jakie odsetki pożyczki dla zadłużonych przez internet umorzenie pożyczki a przychód podatkowy eurobank kredyt na dowód kredyty bez bik szczecinek kredyt konsolidacyjny odstąpienie kredytypożyczki oddłużenia ze złm w bik śląskie pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt lokatorski pożyczki 4you kredyt bank slupsk godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki jak zaksięgować pożyczki z najmniejszym oprocentowaniem pożyczki na termomodernizację pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel toruń pro domo pożyczki praca podatek od umowy pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami reklama pożyczki piosenka kredyt bank z jakich bankomatów za darmo pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt gotówkowy chwilówki wniosek o pozyczke z kronos bez online kredyt bank przelew ekspresowy kredyty chwilówki radomsko pożyczki faktor odsetki od pożyczki cienka kapitalizacja wzory umowy pożyczki pieniężnej pożyczki z efs kredyty 24 h kredyt bank rawa mazowiecka bocian pożyczki piotrków trybunalski wzory umowy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bank w wieliczce bankowy kredyt gotówkowy zamknięcie rachunku w kredyt banku pożyczki gotówkowe piła tanie pożyczki na dowód szybki kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyty pożyczki cała polska pożyczki pozabankowe wieluń kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochód pożyczki w skoku forum kredyt bankowy wbk pożyczki bez bik piotrkow kredyty bez bik dla rolników żagiel pożyczki gotówkowe przedawnienie pożyczki pracowniczej pozyczka prywatna veksel dzierzoniow kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym opinie kredyt bez bik na już pożyczki pod zastaw łódź pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości z komornikiem kredyt bank lubin godziny pracy cesja pożyczki kredyt bank rudnickiego godziny otwarcia fundusz mikro – pożyczki dla małych firm umowa konwersji pożyczki bocian pożyczki grodzisk wlkp kredyt bank poleska godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód wadowice

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad