kredyty mieszkaniowe umowa na czas określony pożyczki gotówkowe inowrocław pożyczki chwilówki na dowód łódź kredyt bank krynica godziny otwarcia pozyczki ratalne online pozabankowe kredyt chwilówki płock pożyczki bez bik online szybkie pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych kredyty samochodowe dla firm bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki rekreacyjnej kasa jowisz pożyczki pożyczki ostrzeszów wierzyciel pożyczki pożyczki repo kredyt prywatny świdnica kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych nowakka pożyczki online wycena nieruchomości w kredyt banku mikropożyczki kraków kredyt bank matejki gorzów kredyt dla nowych firm bez bik pożyczki bez bik bocian duże kwoty kredytu bez bik dla firm kredyt świąteczny w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank bródno pożyczki bez bik kontakt telefoniczny wzory dokumentów pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zgody małżonka do 100 0000 kredyt bank fb pożyczki na dowód bez krd bocian pożyczki świecie pożyczki inne niż provident kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście 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online konwersja pożyczki na kapitał 2013 pożyczki na rozwój działalności gospodarczej capital partners pożyczki pożyczki dla odrzuconych przeterminowane pożyczki gdzie pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki osoby fizycznej kredyt bank w bialymstoku pożyczki społecznościowe bez weryfikacji kredyt konsolidacyjny brak zdolności kredytowej kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kontakt umowa pożyczki pieniędzy koledze pożyczki pod zastaw łomża kredyt bank kołobrzeska gdańsk telefon kredyt mieszkaniowy marża banku szybkie pozyczki w domu prodomo pożyczki bez oprocentowania pożyczki pod zastaw zgierz wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez bank odsetki od pożyczki podatek pożyczki bez podatku podatek kredyt bank santander 2012 pożyczki dla pracowników biedronki kredyty bez bik włocławek pożyczki prywatnej udzielę kredyt mieszkaniowy prowizja banku potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia pożyczki bez bik w kaliszu jaka kwota pożyczki jest zwolniona od podatku warszawa pożyczki prywatne kredyty bez bik w płocku linia kredytowa santander bank dla firm kredyt bank zaświadczenie o zarobkach bocian pożyczki zabrze,gliwice pożyczki chwilówki meritum kredyt bank gdynia kto udziela pozyczek bez bik pozyczka na rok bez bik dla bezrobotnych kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach forum dyskusyjne umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a pcc przeniesienie pożyczki do innego banku pożyczki bez bik big krd erif kredyt bank ile idzie przelew szybki kredyt bez biku i zaswiadczen kredyt bank infolinia z zagranicy na jaki nr wziąć kredyt w orange w ktorym banku najtanszy kredyt pożyczki bocian lublin adres i nr tel kredyty chwilówki opinia o firmie kredyt bank dane teleadresowe pożyczki prywatne w opolu banki które udzielają kredytu bez bik kredyty chwilówki wonga pożyczki bez bik big krd bydgoszcz okres przedawnienia pożyczki z zfśs umowa pożyczki w walucie obcej a pcc kredyt bank elblag kontakt bank millennium kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator tanie pożyczki konsumpcyjne odsetki od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego bankomat kredyt bank lubin pożyczki pozabankowe olsztyn pożyczki na własną działalność pożyczki na oświadczenie pozbankowa pożyczka 10000 długoterminową pożyczki z zajęciami komorniczymi szczecin pożyczki prywatne kokos pożyczki w 24h el global rzeszów grunwaldzka kredyty opinie kredyt bez bik i big kredyt bez bik i zabezpieczeń opinie pożyczki prywatne kredyt pożyczka bez bik kredyt bank łowicz godziny otwarcia pożyczki kasy stefczyka pożyczki chwilówki na dowód poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny dla bezrobotnego kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2014 kredyt konsolidacyjny agricole chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki godula kredyty konsolidacyjne rybnik kredyt bez bik do domu idea bank kredyty gotówkowe look pożyczki kredyt bank w mlawie pożyczki na rozkręcenie firmy kredyt bank kraków ul kalwaryjska 24 kredyt gotówkowy w santander opinie kredyty pożyczki gwarancje bankowe pożyczki poza bankiem kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander consumer bank kredyt bank garwolin godziny otwarcia pożyczka 5000 zl w bankuspółdzielczym wzór umowy pożyczki pienięznej kredyt bank chorzów godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki w bełchatowie tanie pożyczki częstochowa pozyczki bocian dla osob w bik optima pożyczki chojnice kredyt bank gdansk noskowskiego umowa pożyczki spłata kredyt konsolidacyjny 5000 pożyczki bez rejestrów podatek od darowizny pożyczki umowa na czas określony kredyt mieszkaniowy forum poszukuje pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki pozabankowe na spłatę zadłużenia kredyt bank 24 aplikacja kredyt bankowy teoria pożyczki notarialne pozyczki bez zaswiadczen w inowroclawiu kredyt bank payback pożyczki toruń bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy opinie umorzenie pożyczki wzór reklama pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki bez bik w białymstoku kredyty chwilówki katowice mikołowska pożyczki na weksel śląsk kredyt samochodowy dla firmy umowa pożyczki wzór weksla kredyt bez bik i krs gdzie szukać pożyczki pozabankowej żagiel pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki pod zastaw gliwice oprocentowanie kredytu na start fm bank money time pożyczki pozyczki na dowod radom okres karencji w spłacie pożyczki kod kredytowy do orange umowa pożyczki a urząd skarbowy kredyt bez bik płock kredyt w raiffeisen bank uzasadnienie pożyczki na remont mieszkania pożyczki profinet alior bank kredyt na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt bank ii oddział gdańsk pożyczki bez bik kontakt pożyczki raz dwa kredyty pożyczki gotówkowe udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez wkładu własnego pożyczki długoterminowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki włocławek bez bik kredyt bank sa chojnice pożyczki bez bik i krd na dowod pożyczki prywatne bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyty bez bik wodzisław śl umowa pożyczki a użyczenia kredyt mieszkaniowy bez zdolności czy odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem kredyt bank bialystok radzyminska pożyczki społecznościowe spłacalność pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczenia o zarobkach pko kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator wzór umowy pożyczki cywilnej pożyczki udziałowców duże pożyczki prywatne bankomaty kredyt banku w kołobrzegu kredyt bank krdbplpw chwilowki kredyty prywatne dla zadluzonych kredyt w anglii dla polaków forum pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik i krd 30 tysiecy pozyczki dla zadluzonych w poznaniu kredyty chwilówki lędziny pożyczki bez bik 0 gdzie można otrzymać kredyt bez bik kredyt pozabankowy na auto pożyczki na dowolny cel bank pko sa kredyty opinie umowa pożyczki cesja kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złą historią kredytową pożyczki prywatne prawo kredyt mieszkaniowy bank bph kredyt bank lodź kredyt bank puls biznesu kredyt bank bankomaty kredyt bez bik 5000 wrocław numer kontaktowy do mennicy pozyczki jelenia gora kredyt pozabankowy 20000 kredyt studencki pekao sa poręczyciele presto pożyczki kredyt bank tabela opłat i prowizji podatek od pożyczki pracowniczej kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych wzór umowy pożyczki zabezpieczonej wekslem kredyt konsolidacyjny bez badania zdolności pożyczki atiz koszt przelewu w kredyt banku kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2014 kredyty bez bik szybkie pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel toruń pro domo pożyczki praca kredyt bez bik zus us pożyczki bez bik i krd kraków pożyczki pod zastaw domu pozyczka z obslugą klienta w domu pożyczki gotówkowe na dowud bez biku kasy stefczyka czy warto wziasc kredyt konsolidacyjny szybkie pożyczki wyszków kredyt bank chojnice godziny pożyczki bocian udzielenie nieoprocentowanej pożyczki pracownikowi kredyt z orange na jaki numer kredyt bankowy małe i średnie przedsiębiorstwa kredyt bank ostroda wpłatomaty kredyt banku warszawa pożyczki kyzoo umowa pożyczki rodzaje kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2013 pożyczki ostrów wlkp dla zadłużonych kontakt tel kredyt studencki pekao sa dokumenty ile można wziąć pożyczki na dowód pożyczki prywatne brzeg pro domo pożyczki płock żyrowanie pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki sanok pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kraków kredyty do firm parabanki pożyczki dla nowo powstałych firm pożyczki prywatne bochnia kredyt konsolidacyjny zamkniecie rachunku w kredyt chwilówka sierpc w ktorym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bez bik bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank racibórz godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez oprocentowania umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki wzór wzory umowy pożyczki pieniężnej getin noble bank departament kredytów trudnych lublin umowa pożyczki w pierwszej grupie podatkowej pozyczka lubsko bez bik pozyczki prywatne ostrow wlkp jak zaksięgować umowę pożyczki między spółkami ile kosztuje umowa notarialna pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez dochodu getin noble bank departament kredytów trudnych lublin pożyczki bankowe pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt chwilówka w krakowie kredyt z orange jaki numer kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy kredyt konsolidacyjny citibank kredyt bank gdansk chalubinskiego kredyt bank wieliczka godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe na 2 lata szybkie pożyczki bez bik poznań umowa pożyczki od wspólnika spółki z o o w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotowkowy zgorzelec pozyczka prywatna pożyczki na dowód pko pożyczki unijne bezzwrotne pożyczki bez bik gdzie pożyczki typu mezzanine kredyt konsolidacyjny przykłady pożyczki pod zastaw pabianice kredyt bank w krynicy pożyczki krótkoterminowe definicja pożyczki chwilówki bez big jaki jest kredyt do orange kredyt bez bik big krd kredyt bank focha 4 bydgoszcz kredyt dla emeryta w getin banku kredyt konsolidacyjny czas oczekiwania kredyt gotówkowy w raiffeisen bank pożyczki pozabankowe na pit pożyczki gotówkowe siedlce kredyt bank żukowo kredyt bankowy w obliczu kryzysu finansowego kredyt mieszkaniowy wkład własny 50 bocian pożyczki właściciel pozyczka na dowód w tesco podatek od odsetek od pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej pożyczki ii rp bankomaty kredyt banku białystok proste pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki abrewo umowa pożyczki podatek windykator terenowy kredyty chwilówki opinie kredyt bank forum 2011 kredyt w bank pocztowy opinie kredyt bankowy pdf w jakim banku wziąć kredyt dobre pożyczki kredyt bank abrahama telefon kredyt bez historii bik kredyt bank aktywa pożyczki bez bik w olsztynie pożyczki chwilówki grójecka lendon pożyczka bez bik warszawa udzielać pożyczki zdunska wola pożyczki bez bik do 6000 optima pożyczki słupsk kredyt bank zielona gora kontakt kraków pożyczki na dowód bocian pożyczki ustka wzory dokumentów pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe opole umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne kredyt w banku oblicz kredyt konsolidacyjny w bgż forum umowa pożyczki spółce jawnej kredyt bez bik sieradz kredyt bank godziny otwarcia słupsk transza pożyczki kredyt bank wadowice godziny otwarcia pożyczki w kasynach kredyty pozabankowe olkusz kredyt konsolidacyjny santander consumer bank kredyt bank dział windykacji przedłużenie pożyczki w wonga pożyczki chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski kredyt bank w wałczu pożyczki ebroker kredyt bank aktywacja listy haseł pożyczki bez bik w brodnicy udowodnienie pożyczki feniks pożyczki mińsk mazowiecki dlugoterminowe pozyczki z komornikiem na slasku helikon pozyczki opinie kredyty bez biku opole kredyt bank w swarzędzu kredyt bank karty zbliżeniowe idea bank opinie kredyt samochodowy kredyty oddłużeniowe bez bik forum kredyt bank w jastrzębiu zdroju kredyty w alior banku opinie pożyczki na kopalni pożyczki z komornikiem bydgoszcz multibank kredyt samochodowy opinie forum optima pożyczki katowice kredyty mieszkaniowe w kredyt banku kredyt bez bik pod zastaw domu do jakiego odzialu nalezy kwidzyn w prodomo pożyczki pan kowalski zaciągnął kredyt w banku szybka pożyczki dla zadłużonych pożyczki tomaszów maz pożyczki na dowód przez internet pożyczki internet kredyt bank lokaty wrzesien 2012 pożyczki unilink cash kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osob pracujacych za granica warunki dostania pożyczki pożyczki na dowód opinie tani kredyt bez biku kredyt bank w gnieźnie kredyt bank 2 kredyt bank definicja 1000 zl pożyczki lublin kredyt obrotowy w getin banku kredyt mieszkaniowy luty 2013 kredyty chwilówki jaworzno sienkiewicza kredyt z banku rozwoju rady europy kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń alior bank kredyt bank konto osobiste oprocentowanie optima pożyczki chojnice optima pożyczki grudziądz kredyty pozabankowe bez bik umowa pożyczki pod weksel wzór pożyczki bez bik siedlce kredyt bank ketlinga 21 regulamin pożyczki provident bocian pożyczki zielona góra kredyt praca licencjacka pożyczki ruda śląska czy poręcza się kredyt z odsetkami czy bez kredyt samochodowy mbank oprocentowanie kredyt bank notowania funduszy kredyt obrotowy w getin banku pożyczki do domu piła pożyczki prywatne gryfice pożyczki bez meldunku i dochodu stargard kredyt bank ciechanów kontakt kredyt samochodowy w banku pko wycena pożyczki od udziałowca na dzień bilansowy skarabeusz pożyczki kontakt kto udzieli pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt na już bez bik kredyt pozabankowy bydgoszcz w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt 2013 kredyt bez biku kraków tarnobrzegocian pożyczki kredyt a bankowy rejestr kredyty i banki kredyt bank lokaty bez podatku belki bocian pozyczki tomaszów maz jaki jest kod do orange na kredyt pożyczki chwilówki bez bik wrocław bocian pożyczki przedstawiciele kredyt bankowy ciekawostki kredyty bez sprawdzania bik i krd wzór umowy pożyczki między członkami rodziny kredyt bank opole sosnkowskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wpłatomat warszawa kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec orla pożyczki ii rp kredyt bank skok kredyt bank ełk godziny otwarcia kredyt przez internet bez biku kredyt bank ślaski najtaszy kredyt pozabankowy przez internet kredyty w fm bank orange kredyt 5zł kredyt bank plac zbawiciela warszawa auta na kredyt bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej kredyty mieszkaniowe wrzesień 2012 łukta pożyczki warunki otrzymania pożyczki w pko kredyty chwilówki na dowód kredyt bez bik ogłoszenia kredyt bank eurobank pożyczki pozabankowe chrzanów kredyt bank otwock staszica ulotka pożyczki kredyt samochodowy dla przedsiębiorców kredyt samochodowy ranking czerwiec 2012 kredyt bez biku tczew kredyt bank sa lublin zana kredyty bez biku lodz kredyt bank godziny otwarcia kielce pożyczki chwilówki stalowa wola regulamin zfśs pożyczki mieszkaniowe kredyt bank żyrardów kredyt w kredyt banku forum kredyt bank w lubuskim prywatne pożyczki na dowód bocian pożyczki kalisz kredyt bank sa w lublinie pożyczki bez bik optima dokumentacja podatkowa pożyczki kredyt bank wypłata z bankomatu bez prowizji pożyczki getin bank kalkulator rat pożyczki pko kredyt bez bik bydgoszcz kredyt bank władze

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad