kredyt bank bezpieczne dziecko pożyczki alibaba pożyczki pod zastaw olsztyn kredyt online bez bik i krd pożyczki pruszków pożyczki chwilowki warszawa przez internet alfa kredyty chwilówki kwota główna pożyczki umowa udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank białołeka bez bik pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych kredyt konsolidacyjny 120 miesięcy kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp 2013 kredyt bank w lęborku odmowa przyznania pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki radom alior bank kredyt technologiczny żyrafa pożyczki kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe millenium pożyczki dla firm porównanie getin bank kredyt gotówkowy online pożyczki chwilówki lista pożyczki chwilówki kalisz kredyt bank w łomiankach kredyty na dowod 18lat olsztyn kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp opinie 2012 alior bank kredyt na auto pożyczki bez bik i krd warszawa pożyczki prywatne z ue kredyt bank jasło godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód w 15 min kredyty chwilowki klobuck getin noble bank regulamin kredytu kredyty mieszkaniowe blog umowa pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym wzór kredyty mieszkaniowe forum 2014 kredyt mieszkaniowy a umowa na czas określony pożyczki chwilówki pozabankowe bez bik kredyt studencki pko bp sa kredyt 5 zł orange pop kredyt bank 1 oddział gdańsk kredyt bank zamość kontakt bankomaty kredyt banku w pile udzielać pożyczki pożyczki od osób prywatnych siedlce pożyczki wysokooprocentowane kredyt bank infolinia żagiel pożyczki przez internet vivus pożyczki prywatne grudziądz gdzie można dostać kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kredyty chwilówki jarocin lukas bank kredyt online kredyt studencki w pko spłata kredyty chwilówki windykacja kredyty chwilówki bez opłat kredyt bank mieszkanie kredyt bank ken godziny otwarcia pożyczka bez bik i krd z komornikiem kredyt mieszkaniowy na 30 lat forum kredyty chwilówki rmf kredyt studencki bz wbk kredyt bank sa warszawa oddziały kredyt bank dabrowa górnicza bocian pozyczki zywiec kontakt kredyt bank w przemyślu podatek od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander kredyt bank krapkowice kontakt mennica pożyczki opinie pozyczka na rok bez bik dla bezrobotnych szukam taniej pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik łódź pożyczki dla pracowników a pcc zarobki kredyt bank forum kredyt konsolidacyjny bank zachodni pożyczki na dowód siedlce pożyczki pozabankowe piotrków trybunalski kredyt bez bik nowy tomyśl umowa pożyczki w prawie niemieckim kredyt bank sprzedany santander kredyt bank opole kredyt samochodowy mbank regulamin santander consumer bank kredyt kontakt umowa ubezpieczenia pożyczki kalkulator odsetek pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole opinie kredyt pozabankowy lublin pożyczki z unii na rozwój firmy kredyt studencki pko aneks do umowy kredyt samochodowy w alior banku opinie kredyt pozabankowy na mieszkanie szczecin kredyty mieszkaniowe starego portfela kredyt refinansowy bank pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit 2013 drugi kredyt konsolidacyjny bocian pożyczki krotoszyn pożyczki na dowód bez krd siódemka pożyczki kredyty bez bik tychy pożyczki chwilówki kutno trudne pozyczki warszawa przeterminowanie pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy mieszkanie spółdzielcze bocian pożyczki zgierz pożyczki na dowód bolesławiec kredyt konsolidacyjny plus dodatkowa gotówka kredyt bank leasing dyskonto pożyczki pożyczki jeremie pomorskie pożyczki kasa stefczyka tanie pożyczki pozabankowe jak księgować pożyczki kredyty bez biku przez internet kredyt studencki warunki uzyskania kredyt bank warszawa konstancińska kredyt bez bik pod zastaw mieszkania alior bank kredyt dokumenty kredyty chwilówki grójec pożyczki na oświadczenie o dochodach kredyt bank aktywacja tokena kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator pozyczki chwilowki prywatne mielec podatek od pożyczki udzielonej firmie pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pożyczki od zaraz wrocław provident odsetki od pożyczki tłumaczenie kredyty chwilówki pruszków pozyczki pozabankowe z dowozem do domu podkarpacie pożyczki na dowód chojnów kredyt bez bik 5000 online kredyt bank email kredyt w orange na karte kod kredyt online bez bik forum pożyczki chwilówki elbląg kredyty pozabankowe oświęcim bank pko sa kredyt studencki dokumenty wzór umowy pożyczki z zastawem jaki nr na kredyt w orange pożyczki umowy kredyt dla emeryta w getin banku pożyczki prywatne opinie pożyczki bez bik bankowe kredyt pozabankowy bez krd duet pożyczki przemyśl siedziba kredyt banku warszawa umowa pożyczki spłata w ratach konwersja pożyczki na kapitał różnice kursowe kredyt bank adresy w warszawie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kielce umowa pożyczki i użyczenia pożyczki bez bik na dłuższy okres kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki w tvn kredyt bank janów pozyczki chwilowki lublin przykładowa umowa pożyczki gotówkowej getin noble bank kredyt opinie kredyt samochodowy a umowa na czas określony umowa pożyczki pieniędzy opodatkowanie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik poznan kredyt bank szczecin okulickiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank kłodzko telefon pożyczki pozabankowe 30000 kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe lokata swobodna kasa stefczyka kalkulator pozyczki kredyt bank bankomaty bydgoszcz pożyczki pozabankowe podlaskie umowa pożyczki między udziałowcem a spółką kredyt bank jawor pożyczki chwilówki na dowód białystok w jakim banku dostane kredyt na dowód pożyczki pozabankowe prudnik kredyt bank dane adresowe pożyczki pekao kredyty dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych oprocentowanie kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń słupsk konwersja pożyczki na kapitał a cit kredyt bank placowka wroclaw kredyt bankowy prezentacja umowa pożyczki realna czy konsensualna kredyt bank w głogowie oświadczenie o otrzymaniu pożyczki kod na kredyt w sieci orange kredyt bez biku torun kredyt bank włochy ul popularna jak księgować pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki chwilówki bez big kredyt mieszkaniowy a ślub rodzaje kredytów bankowych dla przedsiębiorstw kredyt bank w lipnie daily finance pożyczki kredyt bank jachowicza płock kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych złota rybka pożyczki opinie szybkie pożyczki przez internet kredyt w banku rodzina na swoim oddzialy kredyt banku w warszawie kredyt bankowy w rachunku zysków i strat kredyt termomodernizacyjny banki szybki kredyt bez bik i big kredyty chwilówki mikołów kredyty chwilówki bez big pozyczyki atiz kredyty chwilówki biała podlaska kredyt konsolidacyjny zdolność kredyty nordea bank kredyt bank warszawa białołęka pożyczki w instytucjach pozabankowych regulamin pożyczki wysokość pożyczki bez podatku kredyty w fm bank zabezpieczenie pożyczki na nieruchomości chwilówki gliwice pożyczki gliwice chwilówki knurów kredyty chwilówki jak to działa pożyczki pozabankowe jastrzębie zdrój 24h pożyczki trójmiasto kredyt bank otwock andriollego umowa pożyczki w prawie cywilnym kredyt bank pełna nazwa kredyt bankowy podstawa prawna kredyt na mieszkanie w wbk pożyczki na 90 dni pożyczki międzybankowe kredyt studencki jakie warunki kredyt na dowód tarchomin siedziba warszawa kredyty pozabankowe prywatne kredyt bank pelplin telefon kredyt gotówkowy eurobank online pożyczki gotówkowe od 18 lat czy umowa pożyczki jest opodatkowana kredyt na oswiadczenie kredyt bank kraków ul kalwaryjska 24 kredyt bank grupa kredyt bank wielkopolska pożyczki do 15000 szybkie pożyczki gdynia w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki takto forum pożyczki bez bik brzeg kredyt bank radzymińska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank warszawa al krakowska kredyt konsolidacyjny kiedy kredyt bank oszuści kredyt mieszkaniowy w getin bank opinie pożyczki chwilówki dąbrowa górnicza kredyty dla malych firm bez bik allianz bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator miś pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń międzyrzecz tel kredyt konsumpcyjny prawo bankowe potrzebuję pilnej pożyczki pls kredyt przez internet bez bik i krd opłata za obsługę pożyczki w domu kredyt w banku pko kredyt bank w myslenicach kredyt chwilówka bedzin kredyt konsolidacyjny w nordea kredyt bank pocztowy forum kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach forum dyskusyjne neobank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pro domo pożyczki praca kredyt bank w nysie kredyty chwilówki jak otworzyć kredyt bankowy a leasing szybkie pożyczki ostróda kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2013 kredyt bank świecie bez bankowe pozyczki bydgoszcz 20000zl rozwiązanie umowy pożyczki wzór umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne wzór kredyt na pit bez bik i krd pożyczki łódź chwilówki pożyczki 10000 oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego pko bp getin noble bank kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki na dowód od 18 kredyty chwilówki dłużnicy pożyczki bartuś pożyczki kasa stefczyka szybkie pożyczki na dowód bez bik pozyczki w domu klijeta pożyczki pozabankowe piła umowa pożyczki wzór gofin kredyt mieszkaniowy dofinansowany kredyt w fm banku opinie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy spłata w ratach kredyt dla firm bez bik big pożyczki gotówkowe w banku pocztowym getin bank auto kredyt kalkulator obliczenie rat pożyczki kredyt bank piekary śląskie godziny otwarcia przedawnienie pożyczki w skok pożyczki kokos opinie odsetki od pożyczki przychodem osoby fizycznej kredyt konsolidacyjny 40 000 pożyczki na dowod bez sprawdzaniaw olesnie pożyczki lendon kredyt studencki pko bank polski kredyt mieszkaniowy euro oprocentowanie bkie pozyczki domowe kraków hnarutowicza leszno kredyty dla zadluzonych kredyt na mieszkanie w jakim banku forum kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank kalkulator pko kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kalkulator kredyt w banku bez bik tarchomin umowa pożyczki spółka cywilna kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek 2011 umowa pożyczki spółki z o o umowa pożyczki wzór odsetki pozyczki w uk po polsku zopa rola kredyt bankowy kredyt pozabankowy kalisz umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką wspólnikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych w bik kredyt bank opłata za monit forest pożyczki pożyczka prywatna bez sprawdzania baz kraków pożyczki bez bik nowy tomyśl kredyt bank borek wlkp kredyt orange kod kredyt bank tyszowce godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki warunki wiek fundusz górnośląski pożyczki kredyt chwilówka debica kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku bph umowa pożyczki zawarta dnia kredyt pozabankowy na start kredyt bank hrubieszów godziny otwarcia na jaki numer bierze sie kredyt w orange zryczałtowany podatek od odsetek od pożyczki 2012 kredyty pozabankowe bez bik z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku bph opinie pożyczki referat pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach kredyt bez bik stargard szczeciński oświadczenie pożyczki wzór otrzymanie pożyczki a vat kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie pozyczki w domu klijenta jarocin kredyt bank kraków ul kalwaryjska 24 kredyt bez bik zgierz wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki kodeks cywilny pożyczki pozabankowe kartuzy magdalena lis pożyczki czy kredyt w banku ulega przedawnieniu kredyt studencki pko bp terminy multika zywiec kredyty bez bik kredyt bank krasnystaw godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki warszawa jana pawła pożyczki pod weksel trójmiasto deutsche bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kompensata odsetek od pożyczki kredyty gotówkowe bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki preferencyjne śląsk kredyt bank wejherowo telefon kredyt bank polski pożyczki pozabankowe dla osób bezrobotnych najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bez bik mikropożyczki ekonomia społeczna pożyczki chwilówki kielce pożyczki z unii dla firm szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik przez internet pożyczki na dowód gniezno kredyt bank dusznicki kredyty chwilówki szczytno pko bp rzeszów kredyt studencki pod jaki numer wysyła się kredyt w orange kredyt bez biku koszalin kredyt bank fieldorfa kalkulator rat pożyczki ing umowa pożyczki podatek 2011 kredyt bankowy wikipedia kredyt na mieszkanie w getin banku kredyt bez bik do 10000 kredyty bez bik skarzysko pożyczki przeterminowane kredyty gdańska 69 roznoszenie ulotek bydgoszcz kredyt w wbk kalkulator rarr pożyczki na start kredyt bez bik piaseczno opinie pożyczki provident kredyt pelikan z bik i krd kredyty bez bik 20000 kredyt bank w lęborku kredyt bank zgłoszenie zagubienia karty kredyt konsolidacyjny z najniższym oprocentowaniem kredyt bank zamość kredyt optima kontakt pożyczki pod zastaw nowy targ podatek pcc od pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca kredyt bank bławatna które banki dają kredyt w euro kredyt bez bik 24 umowa pożyczki provident pdf pożyczki dla zadłużonych z bik kredyt konsolidacyjny warto ranking banków udzielających kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyty chwilówki bez bik wrocław górna wilda pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rencisty pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik reklama pożyczki przez internet kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście 37 kredyt konsolidacyjny na ryczałcie kredyt bank maciej bardan kredyt w banku ślaskim kredyt bank sa iii oddział w gdańsku getin noble bank departament kredytów trudnych lublin pożyczki pod zastaw krosno pożyczki prywatne bez zaswiadczen kontakt warszawa kredyt bank zmiana limitu dziennego kredyt w eurobanku opinie 2013 przedawnienie pożyczki art kredyt bank grupa kapitałowa umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego zus pożyczki tygodniowe elbląg lista placowek kredyt studencki bank polski kredyt bank dane do przelewu pożyczki pozabankowe ostrowiec kredyty studenckie warunki przyznania pożyczki bez bik z komornikiem pożyczki wikipedia alfa kredyty chwilówki idea bank kredyt na start opinie kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank galibardiego szybki kredyt przez internet bez biku rola kredytów w działalności banków kredyt bez bik rzeszow pożyczki dla firm na oświadczenie skok wspólnota pożyczki pożyczki otrzymane w bilansie odsetki ustawowe od pożyczki pożyczki ze złą historią kredytową umowa pożyczki pomiędzy małżonkami kredyty chwilówki siedlce umowa pożyczki 777 kredyt bank raty pozyczki bez bik i krd przez internet pożyczki chwilówki zestawienie kredyty banku sgb santander kupił kredyt bank luty 2012 kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej mbank pcc od pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu euro providus pożyczki pożyczki na dowód bez dochodów kredyt studencki bankier kalkulator oprocentowania pożyczki kredyty banku pocztowego pożyczki prywatne w czestochowie kredyt bank import przelewów kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty chwilówki kondratowicza pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania warszawa kredyty chwilówki mysłowice grunwaldzka nisko oprocentowane pożyczki pożyczki internetowe bez bik pożyczki lubin kredyty chwilówki jarocin kredyt bank w zielonej górze szybkie pożyczki przez internet na raty kredyt bez bik gorzow kredyt bank dział windykacji lublin pożyczki i poręczenia koszt umowy pożyczki notarialnej kredyt bank gdańsk chałubińskiego godziny otwarcia pokwitowanie odbioru pożyczki wzór kredyt bank prepaid kredyt bank mazowieckie mikropożyczki dla małych firm regulamin pożyczki pracowniczej umowa pożyczki z zfśs wzór pożyczki od osób prywatnych łódź kredyty bankowe konto pasywne czy aktywne kredyt bank warszawa oddzialy kredyt samochodowy bez bik i big kredyty chwilówki samochody kredyt w banku czy przez pośrednika pożyczki gotówkowe chwilówka kredyt bank w olsztynku pożyczki pozabankowe wawa jak wziasc kredyt bez bik kredyt bank forum money kredyt bank warszawa chmielna kredyt chwilówka krakow kredyt bank główny oddział kredyt bez biku dla bezrobotnych pożyczki bez bik chojnice kredyt na start firmy idea bank opinie pożyczki gotówkowe dla rencistów pożyczki pod zastaw suwałki umowa pożyczki ważność odsetki od pożyczki kup pożyczki bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt bank warszawa ul powstańców śląskich zabezpieczenie pożyczki po angielsku pożyczki finansowo pensje w kredyt banku doradcy24 pożyczki kredyt bank bankomaty siedlce

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad