wyłudzenia kredytów tarnowskie góry kredyty pozabankowe do 30000 kredyt w banku czy przez doradcę w jakim banku najłatwiej o kredyt samochodowy kredyty chwilówki bez bik szczecin pożyczka na procent pożyczki bez dochodów i krd prodomo pożyczki opinie kredyty bez biku jelenia góra kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń 2012 potrzebuję pożyczki forum kredyty chwilówki os teatralne ubezpieczenie do pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt samochodowy getin opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny który bank odsetki od pożyczki kiedy podatek alior bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator pożyczki z funduszy unijnych kredyt bank piła adres kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator lukas bank numer konta w kredyt banku pożyczki od ręki bocian czy od pożyczki płaci się podatek kredyt samochodowy bez banku kredyt bez bik pod weksel kredyt bank kraków królewska godziny otwarcia pożyczki osób fizycznych pożyczka od ręki dla 18 latkow kredyt bank w makowie mazowieckim pożyczki prywatne pod weksel 2012 pożyczki ala provident umorzenie pożyczki podatek pożyczki na dowód chwilówka bocian pożyczki ełk pożyczki pod zastaw zielona góra kredyt bank puls biznesu kredyt bank łączy się z bz wbk kredyt konsolidacyjny żagiel kredyty chwilówki bez zdolności wzór umowy pożyczki do druku kredyt bank płock wyszogrodzka kredyt w getin banku opinie 2013 pożyczki bez bik dlugoterminowe kalkulator rat pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik dla firm pożyczki wolska pożyczki bocian bytów umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem a pcc w jakim banku wziąć kredyt studencki kredyty bez bik tablica getin noble bank kredyt deweloperski pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez bik kredyt w lloyds bank wycena bilansowa odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki prywatne na weksel pożyczki na dowód kwidzyn kredyt samochodowy a umowa na czas określony odsetki od pożyczki wht kredyt bank ken kredyty w banku santander kredyty chwilówki wolbrom pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód online kredyt konsolidacyjny na wyciąg pożyczki społecznościowe bez weryfikacji umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pdf pożyczki chorzow przelewy w kredyt banku godziny potrącenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki od 19 lat przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie warunki pożyczka pod hipoteke w białogardzie w banku umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi bez odsetek kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe prywatne pozyczki od reki turek pożyczki pod zastaw nowy sącz pokwitowanie pożyczki kredyt bank online 24 dobre pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki unilink cash pożyczki prywatne dla firm kredyt obrotowy deutsche bank oprocentowanie skarabeusz pożyczki kalkulator kredyt bank warszawa praga północ kredyt balonowy santander bank 50 50 kredyt bank warszawa mokotów prosta umowa pożyczki pożyczki bez bik ostrów mazowiecka pożyczki pozabankowe białystok jak wyliczyć odsetki od pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki chwilówki przez internet kredyt bankowy książka pożyczki na rozwój działalności gospodarczej umowa pożyczki spółki powiązane przedawnienie pożyczki gotówkowej skok kozienice pożyczki pismo z prośbą o umorzenie pożyczki z fśs księgowanie umowy pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt konsolidacyjny tłumaczenie kredyt bank łeba umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a wspólnikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych firm pożyczki w banku ing pozyczki pozabankowe na alimenty bydgoszcz płock pożyczki bez bik kredyt bankowy pko umowa pożyczki prawo kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochód kredyt samochodowy na firmę porównanie pożyczki oprogramowanie kredyty bez big do 30000 szczecin pożyczki na dowód żywiec kredyt bez bik wloclawek pożyczki bank millenium kredyty bez bik warszawa pożyczki społeczne w polsce kredyt bank pruszków kontakt kredyt bank trzebinia kredyt bank w sokołowie podlaskim pozyczki typu provident w jeleniej gorz uruchomienie pożyczki wzór pisma o udzielenie pożyczki jakie banki daja kredyt bez bik pożyczki śrem kredyt bez bik w bytomiu kredyt bez bik w getin banku optima pożyczki współpraca pożyczki przez internet bez bik i krd cele pożyczki kredyt bank sa praca kredyty konsolidacyjne w jakim banku pożyczki pozabankowe nowy targ kredyt samochodowy w alior banku opinie kalkulator rat kredytu pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe szczecin gdzie dostane kredyt bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie banków kredyt konsolidacyjny od jakiej kwoty kredyt bank mońki umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a zus kredyt bank częstochowa piłsudskiego kontakt jaki bank da pozyczke bez biku kredyt rolniczy w banku spółdzielczym kredyty na dowod mielec kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bank polski placówki kredyt banku w warszawie pożyczki dla zadłużonych kredyt bank wbk połączenie pozyczki brodnica od 18lat pożyczki pozabankowe kraków forum pożyczki prywatne z dostawą do domu helikon pozyczki opinie pożyczki w poznaniu pożyczki bez opłaty rejestracyjnej bankomaty kredyt banku rzeszów kredyt bank oddział lubin umowa pożyczki dla fundacji pożyczki na dowód w domu klienta kredyty chwilówki bielsko szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez bik krd kredyty chwilówki żywiec dworcowa kredyty chwilówki końskie kredyt bez bik brodnica kredyt orange pod nr kredyt bank zarząd pożyczki w domu klienta piła kredyt na mieszkanie w getin banku pożyczki od prywatnych firm kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki otrzymania kredyt 20 lat oddłużeniowy ze zła historia kredytowa kredyt bank reklama adamczyk kredyt dla firm bez bik i zabezpieczeń kredyty chwilówki przez internet bez bik pożyczki chwilówki janosik pożyczki współpraca kredyty bez bik ranking pożyczki dla firm śląsk kredyt bank warszawa wilanów kredyt pekao sa kalkulator kredyt w banku pocztowym bez bik pożyczki duże kwoty pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu opinie białystok pożyczki bez bik pożyczki 4000 kredyt mieszkaniowy samotna matka bocian pożyczki chełm kredyt bank giżycko kredyt pozabankowy na zakup mieszkania kredyt bank cennik przelewów pożyczki ściąga pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw warszawa pozyczka na dowod bez biku w wieku 18 lat pożyczki bez bik online oblicz ratę pożyczki pko bp bocian pozyczki radom pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na raty kredyt bank giełda notowania pożyczki pozabankowe ostróda kredyt bank konto internetowe pożyczki pozabankowe bełchatów pożyczki gotówkowe skok stefczyka pozyczki do domu inowroclaw konsolidacja kredytów jak to działa kredyt bank oddział ursynów pozyczki na dowod w domu slask fundusze unijne pożyczki kredyt chwilówka 5000 pożyczki eurocash kredyt studencki pekao sa poręczyciele leasing czy kredyt samochodowy dla firm pożyczki tak to kredyty bez bik łódzkie kredyt cetelem bank tani kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w instytucjach pozabankowych pożyczki dla młodych przedsiębiorców kredyt gotówkowy w banku spółdzielczym opinie pożyczki chwilówki w toruniu wysokość pożyczki bez podatku kredyty chwilówki dg podporzadkowanie pożyczki kredyt bankowy oprocentowanie zajęcie komornicze pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki jeremie łódzkie odstąpienie od umowy pożyczki profi credit alior bank kredyt dla emeryta bocian pożyczki giżycko kredyt orange pop 2 zł warunki spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko bp pożyczki oblicz ratę kredyt konsolidacyjny przy niskich dochodach pożyczki pod zastaw złota tarnowskie góry fundusz górnośląski pożyczki kredyt bank demo kb24 kredyt bank ken 19 warszawa kredyt bank ostrow wlkp godziny otwarcia wzór na odsetki od pożyczki pozyczki internetowe bez sprawdzania bik i krs oprocentowanie pożyczki krótkoterminowej kredyt bank zatrudnienie zwrot nadpłaty pożyczki pożyczki dla będących w bik pożyczki łomża tarr pożyczki pożyczki online pierwsza za darmo nowe konto w kredyt banku kredyty banków spółdzielczych sgb pożyczki bełchatów bankomaty kredyt bank łomża pożyczki dla pracowników banków pożyczki w jakim banku szybkie pożyczki na dowód warszawa pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na raty wypowiedzenie pożyczki wzór pożyczki prywatne nysa nowe pozyczki w domu kredyt bank wyniki kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kalkulator pożyczki domowe bocian kredyt bank rezygnacja z karty kredytowej konwersja pożyczki na kapitał skutki podatkowe kredyty pozabankowe tychy kredyt na samochód w credit agricole kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta zarobki kredyty pożyczki dla zadłużonych optima pożyczki katowice kredyt bez bik szybko pożyczki przez internet forum pozyczka z obslugą klienta w domu pozyczki na oswiadczenie ichwilowki niskoprocentowe pożyczki dla firm kredyt bank w częstochowie kalkulator pożyczki pko sa opłata za obsługę pożyczki w domu optima pożyczki leszno pożyczki dla młodych bocian pożyczki gostyń pożyczki społecznościowe ryzyko kredyt bank otwock praca kredyt studencki pko bp 2014 kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking pożyczki udzielane przez gminę opodatkowanie pożyczki od rodziców umowa spłaty pożyczki oddziały dobrej pożyczki kredyt bank lease kredyt bank legnica powstańców śląskich pożyczki podobne do bocian kredyt bez bik pleszew kredyt bank sulechów godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik do 50000 pożyczki pozabankowe pod weksel pożyczki na oświadczenie bez bik kredyt bank ciechocinek telefon bezpieczny kredyt bez bik opinie umowa pożyczki wzór bez odsetek pożyczki chwilówki bez sprawdzania udziele prywatnej pozyczki swidnica kredyty chwilowki lebork pożyczki dla zadłużonych gdynia kredyt bank sa oddział rybnik kwota pożyczki bez podatku decyzja o umorzeniu pożyczki z zfśs wzór pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik gorzów kredyt bank w lęborku kredyt mieszkaniowy opłaty notarialne kredyty bez bik krosno kredyt bank okulickiego szczecin godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik w starachowicach umowa pożyczki z synem pożyczki pozabankowe uk w jakim banku kredyt online kredyt samochodowy santander kalkulator pożyczki na biznes kredyty bankowe bez prowizji lukas bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pożyczki w domu klienta żnin umowa pożyczki między małżonkami wzór pożyczki bez bik gumtree private banking w kredyt banku pożyczki bez granic siemianowice umowa pożyczki bez weksla pożyczki bez zbędnych formalności pożyczki pozabankowe z bikiem kredyt bank pyskowice kredyty chwilówki przez internet bez bik kredyt bank opłaty za prowadzenie konta kredyt bank jana pawła wesoła kredyt konsolidacyjny polbanku kredyt mieszkaniowy ponad 100 kredyt bankowy kodeks cywilny kredyt bez bik 24 kredyty w alior bank forum kredyt na mieszkanie bez banku kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus opinie pozyczki 18lat bialystok wycena pożyczki od udziałowca na dzień bilansowy kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa godziny otwarcia konto dewizowe w kredyt banku kredyt bank darłowo kredyty chwilówki kraków długa umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi a zus oblicz rate kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank wzór umowy pożyczki zfśs kredyty bankowe forum kredyt samochodowy kredyt bankowy kiedy się przedawnia ubezpieczenie pożyczki w pko prywatne pozyczki chodziez pożyczki pozabankowe wielkopolska pożyczki gotówkowe tarnowskie góry przedawnienia pożyczki kredyt bank knurów pekao sa kredyt studencki 2012 kredyt studencki pko jakie dokumenty kredyty bez bik w plocku kredyt bank ukraina porównanie kredytów mieszkaniowych maj 2013 kredyty chwilówka częstochowa kredyty bankowe pdf optima pożyczki numer telefonu kredyt bank swidnica banki dające wszystkim kredyt samochodowy pożyczki wolska multibank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum oddzialy kredyt banku w warszawie kredyty mieszkaniowe porównanie banków umowa pożyczki dla spólki pozyczki do reki od 18lat w lesznie kredyt dla zor w banku pocztowym kredyty bez bik piła bajecznej pożyczki idea bank kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym opinie getin noble bank pożyczki kredyt studencki pko rezygnacja kredyt studencki warunki spłaty pożyczki chwilówki wąbrzeźno niespłacone pożyczki w uk szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe online kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2013 kredyty chwilówki tarnowskie góry kredyty i pożyczki dla gmin kredyt samochodowy ranking lipiec 2013 kredyt bank filie optima pożyczki kalisz kredyt na orange kod pozyczki z komornikiem krd bik lublin 2014 forum banknot pożyczki łódź eurocash pożyczki kraków pożyczka kredyt pozabankowy najkozystniejszy kredyt gotowkowy dla policjanta kredyt bez bik na 10 lat pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej bydgoszcz kredyty chwilówki tczew pożyczki pod zastaw rtv kraków umowa pożyczki spółka z oo kredyt konsolidacyjny przelicznik pożyczki gotówkowe do domu klienta kredyt bank sa żagiel kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka pożyczki za granicą kredyty chwilówki płock sienkiewicza kredyty chwilówki wrocław kołłątaja najgorsze pożyczki ankieta pożyczki pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej i bik kredyt bez bik piła umowa pożyczki orzecznictwo kredyt bank pustki cisowskie fig pożyczki umowa pożyczki paragraf 777 banki udzielajace kredyty bez bik kredyt na mieszkanie bank millenium kredyt mieszkaniowy 70 tys kredyt odnawialny bez bik i krd finan pożyczki wrocław kredyt bank sa lublin kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp kalkulator pożyczki bialystok umowa pożyczki brak spłaty kredyt bank police kredyt bez bik na 20 lat pożyczki na dowód wadowice odpłatność pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik opinie nowe pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki na otwarcie działalności kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank opinie kredyty bankowe ewidencja kredyt bank i santander pożyczki bgż pożyczki w domu klienta śląsk pożyczki od 18 roku życia pożyczki dla firm toruń kredyty mieszkaniowe dla mlodych malzenstw kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pekao sa kredyt bank koło tel kredyt studencki zasady udzielania kredyt bank konin godziny otwarcia optima szczecin pożyczki kontakt pozyczki od osob rywatnych w zorach pożyczki sł margonem kredyty pozabankowe pod weksel kredyt bank walcz czy pożyczki są opodatkowane atiz przykłady pożyczki kredyt studencki pko wakacje umowa pożyczki pieniędzy między firmami vivus pożyczki rejestracja pożyczka bez krd forum kredyty kielce kredyt bankowy podsumowanie getin noble bank ubezpieczenie kredytu kredyt bank łódź oddziały pozyczka pieniezna w dublinie pożyczki bankowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki ekspresowe elbląg kredyt inwestycyjny idea bank forum pożyczki wbk likwidacja rachunku w kredyt banku pożyczka 20000 bez weryfikacji warszawa kredyty bez bik mazowieckie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki chwilówki lublin pożyczki bez bik proficredit pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej forum udzielone pożyczki długoterminowe bilans profi credit kredyt dla bezrobotnego kredyt bez biku na oświadczenie opodatkowanie udzielenia pożyczki prywatne pozyczki opole jaki kredyt bez bik kredyt studencki bz wbk pożyczki prywatna ile kosztuje umowa notarialna pożyczki umowa pożyczki dla osób fizycznych kredyty gotówkowe na oświadczenie 2014 kredyt bank bielsko godziny otwarcia kredyty hipoteczne lodz pod zastaw domu kredyt konsolidacyjny co oznacza kredyt bank lipno udzielę pożyczki na procent kraków bocian pozyczki kwidzyn pcc od pożyczki dla udziałowca pozyczka dla zadłuzonych adres kredyt banku centrala pożyczki bez bik tomaszów mazowiecki pewny kredyt bez biku pożyczki preferencyjne dla przedsiębiorców kredyt bez bik ruda śląska pożyczki bez big kraków ubezpieczenie pożyczki po co pozyczki do domu walbrzych kredyty bez bik z zajeciem komorniczym bank pko kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczki dla firm z unii umowa pożyczki w rodzinie konwersja pożyczki na kapitał a pcc kredyt gotówkowy a umowa na czas określony

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad