bank spółdzielczy kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pożyczki bydgoszcz na dowód getin noble bank kredyt konsumpcyjny kredyt bank mariusz kaczmarek kredyty chwilówki praca bytom kredyt konsolidacyjny dla bezrobotnych prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa pożyczki z dostawą do domu kredyt mieszkaniowy na oświadczenie o dochodach pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości forum pożyczki bez badania zdolności szybkie pozyczki zlotoryja bez bik kredyt w banku za granica kredyt bank katowice ul uniwersytecka kredyt bez bik pko kredyty chwilowki gdansk wrzeszcz quick cash pożyczki kredyt bank euro przelew wroclaw profi kredyt przedstawiciel pani bozena najkozystniejszy kredyt gotowkowy dla policjanta pożyczki świąteczne na dowód pożyczki bez bik przasnysz pożyczki pozabankowe iława jak zaksięgować kredyt na rachunku bankowym kredyt bank jelenia góra ul wolności pro bono pożyczki kredyty chwilówki na dowód wrocław kredyt bankowy funkcje kredyt bank ii oddział katowice żyrafa pożyczki forum kredyt bank gdańsk ul chałubińskiego pożyczki w bankach na dowód open finance pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki chwilówki sandomierz umowa pożyczki w euro kredyty chwilówki reportaż kredyt bank kryzys pożyczki online od 19 lat wzór umowy pożyczki od znajomego pożyczki internautów umowa pożyczki w rodzinie pożyczka meritum stargard pożyczki na dowód staszów kredyty chwilówki bełchatów kredyt remontowy bank pekao sa kredyty wspólnoty mieszkaniowej wszystkie pożyczki przez internet kredyt bank bez prowizji bankomaty kredyt bank warszawa godz otwarcia kredyty w uk na benefity pożyczki chrzanów kredyt w banku śmierć dłużnika kredyty konsolidacyjne z komornikiem pożyczki bez bik wałcz kredyt bank warszawa ursynów pożyczki na dowód bez krd kredyt bank czestochowa dekabrystów kredyt studencki poręczenie przez bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko pożyczki bez weryfikacji w bik kredyt bank kursy walut chf pożyczki gotówkowe wikipedia kredyt chwilówka ile procent kredyt mieszkaniowy dla 60 latka bank spółdzielczy kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki dla pracujących za granicą el global pożyczki kredyty bez sprawdzania w bazie bik czy umowa pożyczki ulega przedawnieniu kredyt chwilówka nowa ruda mini pozyczki be bik kredyt bank międzychód czy umowa pożyczki jest opodatkowana kredyt bank nip regon kredyt bank notowania nie oddanie pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw giżycko kredyt bank główna siedziba kredyt w barclays przez internet ktory bank da kredyt mieszkaniowy dla zadluzonych pożyczki optima kredyt bank dyrekcja kredyt samochodowy w deutsche bank pożyczki bank pocztowy bank kredyt bez bik pozyczki prywatne bez bik krd bez zabezpieczenia uczciwe pożyczki od osób prywatnych pożyczki gotówkowe w santander ostatnie dni pozyczki kredyt bankowy wstęp pożyczki bocian w pile kredyt bank okęcie kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2013 pożyczki dla emeryta orange jaki kod na kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny symulacja rat kredyt konsolidacyjny i gotowka credito pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowe pozabankowe znaczenie kredytów w działalności banków pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu skarabeusz pożyczki częstochowa kredyty chwilówki zdjęcia optima pożyczki telefon umowa pożyczki między firmami a pcc pożyczki bez historii kredytowej umowa pożyczki świadek kredyt konsolidacyjny bph opinie pożyczki pozabankowa kredyt prywatny świdnica forum kredyt na oświadczenie w credit agricole pożyczki prywatne mińsk mazowiecki provident kwota pożyczki jak wziasc kredyt do domu klienta na dowód oprocentowanie kredytu w banku santander kredyty bez bik brodnica kredyt bank dyrektor marketingu wzór umowy pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie kredyt bank 24 login kredyt bank leszno regon idea bank kredyt przez internet w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt samochodowy pożyczki na rozwinięcie działalności gospodarczej pożyczki kokos opinie kredyty chwilówki net wierzyciel pożyczki bez bik kredyty chwilówki przedłużenie krezus pożyczki kredyty chwilówki dg udziele pożyczki prywatnie wrocław kredyt bank warszawa adresy pożyczki z małym oprocentowaniem pożyczki dla firm pod zastaw kredyt dla zadłużonych online kredyt konsolidacyjny w parabankach umowy o kredyt miedzyfirma a prywatna szybkie pożyczki bez bik opinie konto kredyty bankowe rachunkowość kredyt idea bank ze wsparciem unijnym kredyt 10000 w jakim banku kredyty chwilówki olsztyn kredyt w banku w uk pożyczki pozabankowe bez providenta zwrot pożyczki od rodziny kredyt w nordea banku kredyty chwilówki firma pożyczki łobez kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen szybkie pożyczki wałbrzych db kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank kredyt dla zadluzonych online bez rozmowy pożyczki internetowe bez przelewu pożyczki gotówkowe wałbrzych tanie pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulator schaer kredyt bankowy pożyczki dla osób pracujących w domu kredyt konsolidacyjny zły bik podatek od pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyty bez biku wałbrzych czy umowa pożyczki ulega przedawnieniu krezus pożyczki kredyty chwilowki slupsk kredyt bank legionów wrocław uczciwe pożyczki bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy walutowy kalkulator kredyt studencki pekao forum pożyczki chwilówki bez bik wrocław szybkie pożyczki bez bik kraków proste pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki bez zaświadczeń skok marża banku kredyt obrotowy kredyt prawo bankowe definicja kredyty bez bik do 50000 odsetki od pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca a pit kredyt bank sa ostrołęka pożyczki od 18 roku życia udzielenie pożyczki proz pożyczki arka kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki kredyty pozabankowe bez zaswiadczen dja pożyczki kredyt studencki pko 2014 kredyt samochodowy w getin noble bank kredyt mieszkaniowy a ślub santander bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt orange free pożyczki na dowód lubań pożyczka z unii europejskiej na slasku umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej pracownikowi alfa kredyty chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen kredyt ze złą historią pożyczki na telefon bez bik pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2012 em mank kredyty internetowe bez bik kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank sa rzeszów pożyczki millenium kredyt bank bialystok godziny otwarcia pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych kredyt mieszkaniowy dla lekarzy czy łatwo o kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bank pyrzyce bocian pożyczki żory pożyczki do domu oława pożyczki bez bik skierniewice kredyty bez bik internetowe pożyczki społecznościowe z komornikiem potrącenie pożyczki z odprawy kredyty pozabankowe legnica kredyt bank karta concerto kredyt bank jana pawła stara miłosna oprocentowanie kredytu w fm bank kredyty mieszkaniowe wymogi kredyt bank dietla pożyczki prywatne starogard gdański kredyt bank rzeszów adres kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2011 umowa pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej pożyczki gotówkowe najtaniej kredyt bank trzcianka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zwolnienia 2012 szybkie pożyczki pleszew pożyczki w ramach grupy kapitałowej kredyt odnawialny eurobank kredyt bank garibaldiego 4 szybkie pożyczki prywatne przez internet kredyty chwilówki brodnica optima pożyczki pabianice kredyt bank wrocław chrobrego kredyt dla firm w getin banku kredyt w banku sgb księgowanie przelewów w kredyt banku pożyczki wrocław bez bik kredyt bank oddział lublin krakowskie przedmieście kredyt mieszkaniowy dla mlodego malzenstwa kredyt mieszkaniowy 110 procent jak zaksięgować udzielone pożyczki bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator umowa pożyczki pieniędzy spłata w ratach pożyczki dla hitlera szybki kredyt bez bik przez internet umowa pożyczki spółce przez wspólnika kredyt bank piłsudskiego wrocław umorzenie pożyczki tłumaczenie pożyczki chwilówki braniewo pożyczki wg msr pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych przez internet szybkie pozyczki lublin bez bik kredyt w banku oblicz kredyt bank oplaty za przelewy pożyczki roczne kredyt w uk gdzie najlepiej umowa pożyczki 777 kredyty mieszkaniowe wcześniejsza spłata bankomaty kredyt banku w kołobrzegu kredyt konsolidacyjny chf kredyt pozabankowy bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt gotówkowy eurobank forum pozyczka na dowod bez biku zary getin bank kredyty samochodowe jastrzębie zdrój pożyczki z komornikiem udzielane w domu umowa pożyczki z deklaracją wekslową kredyt bank warszawa godziny kredyt bank łomża kontakt kredyt bank piekary śl kredyt bank zielonka pożyczki prywatne małgorzata lubowiecka kredyt konsolidacyjny na chwilowki pożyczki żory mikropożyczki dla firm lukas bank kredyt przez internet pożyczki krótkoterminowe bez bik kredyt bank centrala wrocław pożyczki na dowód turek kredyt kupiecki w banku kredyty bez bik przez internet umowa pożyczki co to jest szukam pożyczki wrocław pożyczki przez internet bez przelewania grosza optima pożyczki windykacja termin przedawnienia zwrotu pożyczki kredyty chwilówki program partnerski pożyczki do domu bez bik szybkie pozyczki pieniezne w irlandii kredyt bankowy bez bik kredyty bankowe dla msp kredyt studencki jakie odsetki idea bank kredyt bezzwrotny opinie wzór umowy zawarcia pożyczki prośba o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator bankier pożyczki dla młodych firm umorzenie pożyczki fundusz socjalny kredyt bank główna siedziba kredyt bank chojnice kontakt udzielenie pożyczki kredyt bank aktywacja listy haseł kredyt gotówkowy przez internet bez biku kredyt bank oferty kredytowe pozyczki na procent słupsk kredyt bankowy sciaga kredyty chwilówki częstochowa umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi bez odsetek pożyczki prywatne pilne pożyczki chwilówki białystok bez bik pożyczki prywatne tarnobrzeg kredyt bank ken 19 warszawa pożyczki bez bik wałbrzych pozyczka z bez bik i z komornikiem lodz szybkie kredyty minimum formalnosci kredyt bank mielec godziny otwarcia pożyczki olsztyn marka pożyczki praca pożyczka online do 60 dni szukam pożyczki pod nieruchomość pożyczki bez bik nowości łódź pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki chwilówki stargard pożyczki warka kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie dochody kredyt bez bik żywiec pozyczki w domu klienta na dowod kredyt bank druki kredyt bank ken 98 kredyty chwilówki zaświadczenie niezgłoszenie umowy pożyczki ubezpieczenie pożyczki zwrot kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiana pracy pożyczki na dowód gorlice kredyt bank konsolidacyjny kredyt bank górczewska 200 godziny otwarcia kredyty bez biku olsztyn warunki kredytu samochodowego getin bank pozyczki bez bik dabrowa tarnowska dokumentowanie pożyczki firma finan pożyczki pożyczki prywatne bielsko biała pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych pożyczki od amber gold pożyczki pod zastaw gorzów wlkp kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2012 kredyty santander kredyt bank mazowieckie getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu kredyt pozabankowy śląsk kredyt pozabankowy dla firm kredyty preferencyjne dla rolników banki umorzenie pożyczki bankowej referat kredyty pożyczki referat kredyt bank kętrzyn kalkulator rat pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank kielce godziny otwarcia kredyt w vdwoch transzach odluzeniowy karty debetowe w kredyt banku pozyczka chwilowka od reki kredyt prywatny bez bik krd big trudny kredyt konsolidacyjny szybki kredyt bez bik i krd konwersja pożyczki na kapitał a różnice kursowe kredyt bank banco santander kredyt w banku skok pożyczki w domu śląsk wzór umowy pożyczki od rodziców umowa pożyczki słownik kredyt na mieszkanie w skoku z zla chistoria kredytowa kredyt bank pozyczka na dowod kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym bez umowy o pracę pozyczki bialogard kredyty chwilówki grunwaldzka pożyczki bez bik 50000 kredyt studencki pko bp wcześniejsza spłata jak zdobyc pozyczke bez bik i komornika aneks do umowy kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt bez bik pod zastaw domu pożyczki gotówkowe wałbrzych umowa pożyczki pieniędzy przedawnienie kredyt dla policjantow umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki skutki podatkowe odsetki karne od pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw maszyn kredyt konsolidacyjny 25000 kredyt mieszkaniowy w ktorym banku wzór pokwitowania zwrotu pożyczki pieniężnej umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona wekslem wzór kredyt bank windykacja nr telefonu kredyt konsolidacyjny uk przejęcie pożyczki kredyt bank fundusz nieruchomości księgowanie przelewów w kredyt bank bank pekao sa kredyt studencki wniosek kredyt mieszkaniowy szybsza spłata kredyt bank łódź zgierska 42a kredyty pozabankowe bez bik kredyt bank legionów wrocław bocian pożyczki bez zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki od rodziców a pcc kredyt w pko kredyt w banku spółdzielczym opinie umowa pożyczki prywatnej umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs wzór udzielać pożyczki ang kredyty pozabankowe zgorzelec kredyt bank kto go kupi kredyt online eurobank opinie pożyczki bez bik online kredyt bank grupa kapitałowa kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole pożyczki krajowe pod jaki numer bierze się kredyt w orange kredyt bank dla firm kredyt bank pko sa kalkulator aig pożyczki gotówkowe cash pożyczki kredyty chwilówki nowy sącz lwowska umowa pożyczki nieważność aconto pożyczki umowa pożyczki referat pf kredyty chwilówki getin bank kredyty gotówkowe forum kredyty bez bik kołobrzeg kredyt bank konta pożyczki na dowód płock kredyt gotówkowy bez bik bytom pożyczki pod zastaw kościan pozyczka bez bik pozabankowa lublin pożyczki bez bik przeworsk kredyt chwilówka zaświadczenie kredyt bank plac powstańców warszawy 2 kredyt bank ul kasprzaka pożyczki alior bank opinie ing pożyczka samochodowa kredyty chwilówki żyrafa kredyt konsolidacyjny paribas przedmiotem umowy pożyczki mogą być wypowiedzenie pożyczki wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny na długi okres kredyt bank pultusk umorzone odsetki od pożyczki przychód podatkowy umowa pożyczki oszustwo szybko i bez umowy pożyczki pożyczki myślenice udzielając pożyczki pokwitowanie kredyt bank w kamiennej górze kredyt konsolidacyjny polbanku umorzenie pożyczki dla emeryta kredyt konsolidacyjny bankier pożyczki chorzów kredyt bez biku świdnica umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziców kredyt bank janów prestige pozyczki czestochowa kredyt bank warszawa wola prywatne pozyczki podkarpacie pożyczki na dowód olsztyn pożyczki chwilówki poznań głogowska kredyt bank oddział w sieradzu kredyty mieszkaniowe plock ekasa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny 8 lat kredyt bank spółka akcyjna warszawa kredyt bank pożyczka na dowód pożyczki nobilon umowa pożyczki download kredyt bank sa zamość kredyt bank starzyńskiego prolongata pożyczki odsetki od pożyczki moment powstania przychodu pożyczki pozabankowe mogilno kredyt bank gwarancja firmy leasingowe pożyczki kredyt chwilówki żywiec pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości katowice pożyczki w 15 min bez bik odsetki od umowy pożyczki a vat kredyt 4 tys na dowód prowident kredyt w banku pocztowym dokumenty kredyt bez bik dla zadłuzonych kredyt mieszkaniowy przy zarobkach 2500 kredyt bank godziny otwarcia koszalin kredyt bankowy bilans pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez prowizji warunki kredytu w eurobanku kredyt bank sochaczew godziny otwarcia kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego kontakt kredyty pozabankowe sochaczew provident zasady pożyczki pożyczki tax care czy umowa pożyczki musi być oprocentowana kredyty chwilowki bytom pożyczki od udziałowców a pcc kredyty chwilówki partner pożyczki pozabankowe pabianice gant pożyczki kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza panda pożyczki opinie wzory umów pożyczki

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad