praca w kredyt chwilówka forum kredyty bez bik 10000 alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie świdwin kredyty wictoria forum kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kredytowa forum kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 2000 pożyczki w 15 minut umowa pożyczki pieniężnej między firmami alior bank kredyt opinie forum pożyczki pozabankowe pod nieruchomość kredyt bank lublin oferty pracy kredyt bank wołomin umowa pożyczki konsekwencje kredyt bank reklamy pożyczki dla bardzo zadłużonych pożyczki pod nieruchomość warszawa kredyt bank wloclawek plac wolnosci kredyt bank leżajsk godziny otwarcia symulacja kredytu na kamienice pożyczki bez dochodów forum kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2012 bocian pożyczki bytom kredyt bank poznan morawskiego pożyczki na procent śląskie pożyczki prywatne bez dochodów kredyty chwilowki lodz kredyt samochodowy forum opinie kredyty pożyczki trudne prywatne pożyczka przez internet bez bik i krd od 18 lat pożyczki w różnych bankach pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw warszawa bocian pożyczki opole szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe online koszt pożyczki kredyty gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń o dochodach umowa pożyczki pieniędzy bez odsetek kredyt bank brzeg dolny roznoszenie ulotek kredyty chwilówki w słupsku kredyt bank w krotoszynie kredyty gotówkowe dla zadłużonych alior bank kredyt samochodowy opinie deutsche bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pożyczki z europejskiego banku inwestycyjnego kredyt bank lubuskie udzielę pożyczki pod weksel 2012 chwilówki i pożyczki pozabankowe w starachowicach pożyczka bez zdolności kredytowej pożyczki bez bik w puławach kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao bp kredyt zagraniczny opinie bielsko kredyty nie bankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy rynek pierwotny kredyt bank lokata z bonusem kredyt bank w słubicach kredyt bank rawicz sarnowska 2 pożyczki bez dochodu i bik oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego alior bank kredyt bank wroclaw strzegomska kredyty mieszkaniowe forum 2013 kredyt bez biku kalisz koszt pożyczki kredyt bank sa białystok kredyt bez bik i krd wrocław kredyty w banku santander kredyt w ror bank pocztowy kredyt pod zastaw bez bik kredyt chwilówka 15 minut skarabeusz pożyczki gotówkowe opinie alior bank kredyt oblicz rate umowa pożyczki zwolniona z pcc kredyt pozabankowy 5000 zl kredyt konsolidacyjny bph oprocentowanie podatek od pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank włocławek plac wolności kontakt kredyt bank lokata 2012 euroloan pożyczki opinie kredyty gotówkowe bank spółdzielczy skok kujawiak oferty pozyczki 2014 pożyczki prywatne pod weksel rzeszów umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a firmą kredyt konsolidacyjny przetarg credit agricole swiebodzin pozyczka 10tys zamortyzowany koszt pożyczki forum pożyczki prywatne pożyczki chwilówki warszawa kondratowicza pożyczki dla firm bez bik zaświadczeń kredyt orange pop 2 zł kredyt samochodowy ranking 2011 kredyty na pit 40a bez bik agito pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw dębica opodatkowanie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca kredyt konsolidacyjny w wbk sprzedaż kredyt banku santander umowa pożyczki a umowa kredytu bankowego kredyt bank makler symulacja kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik szczecin kredyt bank chojnice udzielam pożyczki prywatnej pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat pożyczki na dowód bez umowy o prace kredyty w lukas banku umowa pożyczki gotówkowej druk kredyt na alimety bez bik kozienice pożyczki bez bik big erif pożyczki na sam dowód pożyczki gotówkowe chorzów kredyt w banku z bikiem kredyt chwilówka zarobki umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs księgowanie pekao sa kredyt studencki 2012 kredyt prostoliczony credit agricole kalkulator kredyt bank kondycja pożyczki wśród najbliższych kredyt bez bik 20000 zł w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń i bik pożyczki ostrowiec konfuzja pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów wrocław db kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank kredyt bank sa lublin pożyczki prywatne w krakowie szybka pozyczka z obsluga w domu oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank pożyczki chwilówki kwidzyn kredyt bank lubaczów pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel toruń kredyt w banku pko kredyt getin bank kalkulator kredyt studencki warunki kredyty chwilówki dzierżoniów umowa pożyczki w prawie niemieckim pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości legnica pożyczki social lending pożyczki wieloratalne ostatnia deska ratunku pożyczki opinie kredyt bank lokaty online pożyczki chwilówki dzierżoniów bocian pożyczki prudnik oświadczenie pożyczki pieniędzy wzór witam kredyt bez bik i krd szybki kredyt bez bik pożyczki online od 18 lat kredyt bank czeki kredyty chwilowki wroclaw pożyczki vivus forum kredyt bank raporty bieżące kredyty bez bik us zus w jakim banku wziąć kredyt obrotowy prywatne firmy pozyczkowe gliwice awaria systemu w kredyt banku pożyczki chwilówki bez bik krd umowa pożyczki wzór weksla kredyt bank pomoc techniczna kredyt bank grudziądzka 93 szybkie pożyczki bydgoszcz pożyczki gwarant opinie pożyczki poznań bez bik kredyt bez bik w banku kredyt konsolidacyjny dla każdego kredyt bez bik grojec kredyt bez bik w jakim banku pożyczki jeremie mazowieckie kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kalkulator kredyty pozyczki chwilowki kredyt studencki w jakim banku 2011 pożyczki gotówkowe łódź ak group pożyczki pożyczki bez bik sieradz pożyczki olsztyn na dowód kredyty chwilowki godz otwarcia kredyt bez bik swidnica umowa pożyczki pieniędzy na procent pożyczki pozabankowe wniosek online pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik forum profi credit umowa pożyczki kredyty bez bik do 20000 wyłudzenie pożyczki kodeks karny pożyczki kredito kredyt bank pilsudskiego koszalin pożyczki chwilówki dębica prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław reklamy pozyczek pozabankowych w ostrowie i kaliszu kredyt studencki pko bp potrzebne dokumenty kredyty chwilówki wrocław umowy kredytowe w spółce komandytowej kredyt chwilówka oleśnica kredyt bankowy historia kredyt od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń online kredyty bankowe samochodowe zamortyzowany koszt pożyczki kredyt w toyota bank opinie kredyt bank ken godziny otwarcia pożyczki provident kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowe dla bezrobotnych kredyt gotowkowy bez bik i zaswiadczen pozyczki na dowod bez zaswiadzczen i limitów wiekowych pożyczki umk przedłużenie pożyczki w ekspres kasa pożyczki gotówkowe londyn kredyt w mbanku opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny na co zwrócić uwagę oświadczenie o umorzeniu pożyczki wzory dokumentów pożyczki kod do kredytu orange kredyt bank kierownik filii pożyczki pozabankowe w pabianicach pożyczki bocian bytów pozyczki dla rencistow bez bik torun kredyt konsolidacyjny w wbk pożyczki na dowód bez bik poznań kredyt bez bik i dla zadłużonych pożyczki prywatne od osób prywatnych kredyt bank warszawa bielany kredyty chwilówki zabrze 3 maja pożyczki bez bik i krd leszno kredyt samochodowy dla firm ing ang pożyczki getin noble bank kredyty samochodowe getin bank kredyt gotówkowy online pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą abis pozyczki abis kredyt bank mielec mickiewicza pożyczki wolska wzór umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu opłaty za przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank pcf pożyczki pożyczki nakło nad notecią kredyty bez bik big krd kredyt bank sa inwestycyjny dom maklerski oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego w deutsche bank umowa pożyczki a pcc allianz bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt w banku bez bik pożyczki sezam wieluń umowa pożyczki od osoby prywatnej pożyczki preferencyjne małopolska kredyt konsolidacyjny jaki procent optima pożyczki radom kredyty bez bik września kredyty mieszkaniowe z dofinansowaniem kredyt bank piekary śląskie kredyt bank włocławek telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator online kredyt na prawo jazdy pożyczki z komornikiem kraków przedawnienie pożyczki odnawialnej kredyt prywatny zagraniczny kredyt chwilówka od 18 lat kredyt bank sosnowiec kontakt oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego alior bank gdzie znajduje siedziba bocian pożyczki kredyty chwilówki uokik przedawnienie pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki łobez przedawnienie umowy pożyczki bankowej kredyt chwilówka warunki alior bank kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania numery tel pozyczki gliwice kronos pozyczka i umowa pożyczka bez big kraków umowa pożyczki osobie prywatnej warunkowa umowa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny agricole kredyt bez sprawdzania bik i krd pożyczki bez biku wieluń cel umowy pożyczki umowa kredytu bankowego kodeks cywilny kredyt bank zielona góra wojska polskiego pożyczki takie jak w provident pożyczki bez bik i krd pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik od 19 lat pożyczki chwilówki bartoszyce kredyt bank placówki pożyczki pozabankowe wyszków kredyt bank w siedlcach w jakim banku kredyt online kredyt dla firm bez bik krd kredyt udzielany według prawa bankowego pożyczki gumtree global pożyczki bydgoszcz darmowe bankomaty w kredyt banku eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny regulamin kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum bank opinie kredyty pozabankowe słupsk umowa pożyczki pod zastaw prawo kredyt na mieszkanie bank zachodni pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami a pcc pożyczki pozabankowe nysa kredyt bank w gdyni kredyty bez biku mysłowice kredyt bank wypłata z bankomatu bez prowizji kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małżeństwa pożyczki typu wonga pożyczki ekspresowe bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny z dodatkowa gotowka odsetki od pożyczki udziałowiec odsetki od pożyczki koszty uzyskania przychodu pożyczki dla bezrobotnych i zadłużonych szybkie kredyty gotówkowe bez bik kredyt bez bik pko pożyczka pod hipoteke w białogardzie w banku kredyty chwilówki poznań opinie pożyczki dla zadłuzonych kontakt udzielenie pożyczki udziałowcowi a pcc pozyczki chwilowki bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach grojec co to znaczy kredyt bez bik kredyt bank wirtualny doradca kredyt dla firmy bez bik pozyczki w domu klijenta numer tel lubuskie credit agricole swiebodzin pozyczka 10tys kredyt studencki pko bp forum kredyt w banku bph kalkulator dobre pożyczki opinie kredyt bank klodzko kredyt gotówkowy w raiffeisen bank pożyczki dla każdego na dowód kredyt bank świdnica kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny z gotówką pożyczki podobne do takto pożyczki bocian telefon pożyczka bez zaświadczeń o dochodach przez internet optima pożyczki grudziądz kredyt bank pełna nazwa umorzenie pożyczki z wfośigw kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku kredyt bank leasing aukcje pożyczka w domu klijęta elbląg kredyt bank kupon 5 jaki jest kod na kredyt do orange kredyt bank oprocentowanie rachunku oszczędnościowego pożyczka bez baz 2014 kredyt bank lokaty negocjowane umowa pożyczki do druku kredyt bank środa wlkp kredyt bank łódź ketlinga kredyty pozabankowe czestochowa jaka kwota pożyczki jest zwolniona od podatku dlugoterminowe pozyczki z komornikiem na slasku pożyczki do 5000 zł kredyty bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyty pozabankowe poznan udziele pożyczki prywatnie łódź kredyt bank frank pożyczki bez bik i krd sosnowiec pożyczki inowrocław umowa pożyczki wzór pdf kokos pożyczki prywatne odsetki karne umowa pożyczki kredyt w orange warunki umorzenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyty bez bik i krd online kredyty w pko bp sa kredyty mieszkaniowe w jakim banku szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód kredyt bank 1 oddział gdańsk kredyt bez bik i krd chorzow kredyty pozabankowe chwilówki pożyczki pod zastaw gniezno kredyty konsolidacyjne leszno kwota pożyczki proz pcc od pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu kredyt bank zagiel lodz kredyt bank ostrów maz kredyt orange 5 zł kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko sa pożyczki bez bik kielce kredyt mieszkaniowy w którym banku kredyt bank groupon szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd betgang pożyczka kredyt bank raport roczny 2010 pożyczki internetowe bez prowizji umowa pożyczki odnawialnej kredyt bank otwock karczewska godziny otwarcia optima kredyty lubin kredyt bank lipno godziny otwarcia kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej wbk pożyczki dla firm oprocentowanie kredyt bank godziny przelewów przeniesienie pożyczki pożyczki dla osób z zajęciem komorniczym istota umowy pożyczki pożyczki na pit 37 kredyt bank długa godziny otwarcia pożyczki w walucie obcej kredyt dla firm bez bik us zus pożyczki pod zastaw polisy bocian pożyczki stargard szczeciński pożyczki łobez pro collect pożyczki wzory umów pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki bez granic siemianowice śląskie kredyty pozabankowe siedlce czy pożyczki są opodatkowane pożyczki do 1200 kredyt bank nieruchomości na sprzedaż kredyt bank główna siedziba kredyt gotówkowy w alior banku forum odsetki od pożyczki partycypacyjnej pożyczki bez bik na święta kod na orange kredyt bank w rzeszowie ktury udziela pozyczek bez biku szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd przez internet umowa pożyczki między podmiotami powiązanymi kredyt konsolidacyjny wielka brytania kredyt konsolidacyjny na poczcie podatek od umowy pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki euro providus kredyty chwilowki lowicz pożyczki pozabankowe chełm szybkie i tanie pożyczki przez internet pożyczki pozabankowe 2000 podatek od pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą pożyczki pod dotacje pożyczki udzielone kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy kalkulator pozyczka na 60tys z zla historia bankoma pożyczki pod zastaw rtv nowy sącz kredyt w banku pko kalkulator czy łatwo o kredyt w banku pocztowym pozyczki prywatne online w debicy pożyczki i kredyty pozabankowe pozyczki pozabankowe w euro w holandii kredyt na mieszkanie bank zachodni kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pekao sa pozyczka od 18 lat częstochowa kredyt bank łódz piotrkowska pożyczki prywatne w poznaniu pożyczki płock na dowód pożyczki w firmie bocian kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach wycena bilansowa odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego kontakt pożyczki chwilówki ełk kredyt bank lokaty inwestycyjne skok wybrzeże pożyczki pozyczki dla osob w biku we wroclawiu pożyczki chwilówki od 18 lat przez internet wzór umowy spłaty pożyczki kredyt bank banco santander kredyt bez biku 10 tys boleslawiec kredyt chwilówka ostrów mazowiecka kredyt bank lodz zgierska kredyt mieszkaniowy przy wkładzie własnym pożyczki i chwilówki kredyt bank katowice udzielę pożyczki bez przedpłat umowa pożyczki w euro kredyt bank csv kredyt bank zamość lokaty kredyt bank gdynia witomino szybka pozyczka z obsluga w domu kredyt bank biznes w jakim banku brac kredyt wniosek o kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bank poznań adres kredyt w banku pko kalkulator kredyt bank mielec kontakt getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy o banknot pozyczki pożyczki prywatne dolny śląsk pożyczki z budżetu jst getin bank kredyt konsolidacja pożyczki żyrafa kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108a umowa pożyczki druk pcc kredyt bank wypłaty za granicą kredyt bank rumia kontakt kredyty bez bik krd z komornikiem usługi pożyczki poznań kredyt bank call center forum kredyt bank lubicz duzy kredyt bez biku kredyty chwilówki starogard gd kredyty chwilówki soho kredyt bank gdańsk wrzeszcz kredyt bankowy pasywa czy aktywa kredyt bank koszalin bankomaty umorzenie pożyczki w wpf pożyczki na nową działalność gospodarczą termin przedawnienia zwrotu pożyczki kredyt bank reklamy kredyt bank zytnia warszawa kredyt bank gostyń wlkp kredyt bank pin do karty kredyt konsolidacyjny co to jest odsetki od udzielonej pożyczki a przychód pożyczki internetowe gotówkowa irr pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy pekao sa opinie pożyczka całkowicie przez internet kredyt bank gocław alior bank kredyt kalkulator flisak pożyczki kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe w skok pożyczki gotówkowe głogów kredyty bez bik i krd katowice

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad