kredyt bank łomża piłsudskiego pod jaki numer wysyła się kredyt w orange kredyt bez bik do 12miesięcy umowa pożyczki od znajomych umowa pożyczki dla spółki od wspólnika kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlatwiej dostac kredyt bank 24 login mąż bierze pożyczki bez mojej wiedzy pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu kredyty chwilówki stalowa wola umowa pożyczki wzór doc nowe szybkie pożyczki chwilówki szybki kredyt sms bez bik kredyt bez bik współpraca odsetki karne w pożyczkach kiedy nota pożyczki bez biku w starachowicach kredyt bez bik wloclawek kredyty bez bik kołobrzeg kredyt bank oliwa czy umowa pożyczki jest ważna najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy pożyczki prywatne bielsko biała czy warto brać kredyt w getin banku kredyt bank krakow kapelanka kredyty bez bik zgierz skarabeusz pozyczki ranking banków udzielających kredyt rodzina na swoim pożyczki bocian w kaliszu kredyt bank piotrków armii krajowej kredyt konsolidacyjny bydgoszcz banki dające kredyt studencki czy pożyczki są opodatkowane kredyt marza banku gdzie dają pożyczki na dowód pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych kredyt bank warszawa kabaty kredyt bank sa lublin zana 39a pożyczki na dowód grodzisk wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciami komorniczymi pożyczki do 5000 zł umowa pożyczki pieniężnej urząd skarbowy pożyczki wikipedia kredyt bank wielicka kraków pożyczki osób fizycznych kredyt bank czeladź pożyczki bez bik w suwałkach kredyt bank w borku wlkp kredyty chwilówki zarabiaj z nami opinie kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki w euro kredyt bank x oddział warszawa kredyty chwilówki toruń opinie kredyt bank dla firm czy można zawiesić kredyt w banku pożyczki z funduszy unijnych umowa pożyczki od akcjonariusza kredyty bez bik zabrze pożyczki pozabankowe w 15 min kredyt bank w białymstoku godziny otwarcia pożyczki dębica pożyczki gotówkowe współpraca kredyty bez bik chełm kredyt studencki w którym banku kredyt bez bik do 5000 pożyczki na dowód ekspres kasa pożyczki pozabankowe od osób prywatnych kredyt bank pelna nazwa kredyt bank obsługa klienta kredyt konsolidacyjny pbs kredyt bank poland pozyczki udzielane w domu kredyt bez bik pszczyna jak obliczyć oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku pożyczki rybnik bez bik pożyczki brzesko pożyczki ing umowa udzielenia pożyczki przez gminę kredyt gotówkowy alior bank pożyczki 2014 umowa pożyczki prawo cywilne kredyt mieszkaniowy zasady przyznawania kredyt w orange kod szybkie pożyczki tarnobrzeg kredyt bank viii oddział warszawa ostrobramska kredyt studencki banki pożyczki świąteczne bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny gliwice pożyczki ala provident kredyty konsolidacyjne gdzie pożyczki na dłuższy okres kredyt samochodowy mbanku kredyty chwilówki łodź firmy kredytowe w szamotulach pożyczki bez bik do 25000 kredyt bank gniezno kontakt pożyczki komornikiem kredyty chwilówki turek kredyt bank sieradz godziny otwarcia w jakim banku kredyt na otwarcie firmy bank pko kredyt kalkulator umowa kredytu bankowego kodeks cywilny przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał zakładowy kredyt konsolidacyjny na zakup mieszkania kredyt bez bik oława na jaki numer kredyt w orange pozyczki prywatne wloclawek kredyt konsolidacyjny wysokość raty pożyczki mieszkaniowe pko kredyt w pko bp kalkulator kredyty chwilówki katowice francuska kredyty bez bik siedlce pożyczki aviva pożyczki banki duomax pożyczki kredyty chwilówki jasło kredyt bank radlin tel kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 3000 netto kredyt bank otwock karczewska godziny otwarcia pożyczki krótkoterminowe w uk pożyczki chwilówki na dowód bez zdolności kredytowe kredyt studencki pko warunki kredyty bankowe gdzie w bilansie umowa pożyczki na raty wzór pożyczki lider kredyt bank call center prodomo co to za pozyczki pożyczki od osób prywatnych online pożyczki novum opinie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń na dowód bank pbh kredyt kolobrzeg pożyczki chwilówki żagań kredyty chwilówki strona główna kredyty chwilówki inwestowanie odmowa przyjęcia pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw wolsztyn pożyczki na dowód kredyty kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 45 kredyt bank nisko kredyt mieszkaniowy dochód kredyty chwilowki pila pożyczki profi credit kalkulator pożyczki peer to peer pożyczki chwilówki grójecka kredyt bank skawina godz otwarcia pożyczki do domu oława pożyczki na dowód eurobank kredyt w banku bps umowa pożyczki od udziałowca dla spółki wzór ing bank pozyczki na zalozenie firmy w jakim banku wziac kredyt studencki kredyt konsolidacyjny zarobki za granica open finance pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki panda opole kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób z komornikiem kredyty bez bik krd katowice pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki forum pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej wrocław kredyty chwilówki uwaga tvn kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior opinie kredyt bank sa główna siedziba gdzie szukac kredytu bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe bydgoszcz kredyt bank rawicz pozyczka 2000 online szybki kredyt bez bik na dowod kredyt bank natolin kredyt bank łódź bednarska godziny otwarcia pożyczki unijne dla małych firm podkarpacie pożyczka bez biku kielce kredyt bank certyfikaty inwestycyjne pożyczki pozabankowe międzyrzecz kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik piła pozyczki bez bik i krd w domu klienta ruda slaska kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki godziny otwarcia kredyt w deutsche banku forum pożyczki konsolidacyjne w skok stefczyka pożyczki pozabankowe na spłatę zadłużenia pożyczki dla msp kredyt bank szuwarowa godz otwarcia pożyczki prywatne nowa sól agnieszka panek pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy zasady przyznawania pozyczka bez bik z obsluga w domu warszawa ulotki kredyty chwilówki w słupsku umowa pożyczki pod zastaw druk pożyczki pozabankowe łódź kościuszki kredyt na dowód bydgoszcz kątakt kredyt samochodowy bez bik i krd kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób w biku pozyczki i kredyty bez bik i krd kredyt bank telefon całodobowy kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen przez internet alex pożyczki szybka pozyczka bez zaswiadczen tylko na dowod grojec kredyt 4000 bez bik online kredyty sms bez bik kredyty bez bik w domu pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i big bocian pożyczki gdynia kredyt konsolidacyjny powtórny podatek od pożyczki w banku mikropożyczki online pożyczki wyszków kredyty chwilówki świdnica kredyty mieszkaniowe w bph przyznawalność kredytów w credit agricole kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli dofinansowanie kredyt dla zadłużonych online wartość bilansowa pożyczki potwierdzenie pożyczki skok kujawiak oferty pozyczki 2014 kredyt bank euribor niezgłoszenie umowy pożyczki drobne pożyczki kredyt bank maestro pożyczki chwilówki kredyty pozabankowe z bik kredyt bank lublin ul narutowicza 55b kontakt kredyt bez bik 2013 kredyty chwilówki internetowe kredyt studencki w wbk potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki wzór pożyczki w języku polskim bank pko sa kredyty studenckie pożyczki pozabankowe gdynia pożyczka na oświadczenie przez internet kredyt bank lubartów kredyt bank olkusz godziny otwarcia www kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez członka zarządu sprawdzone pożyczki prywatne warszawa kredyty pozabankowe naklo nad notecia pożyczki dla nowych przedsiębiorców jak dostac kredyt bez biku prosta umowa pożyczki wzór pozyczkibez weryfikacji bz dotacje czy pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców po 2013 kredyt bank godzina otwarcia kredyt bankowy wbk lider pozyczki kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bank zachodni pożyczki optima kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy firma vivus odmowa pożyczki kredyty bez bik w domu klienta kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższa rata idea bank kredyt online dla firm getin noble bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank przelewy z zagranicy pożyczki akcent kredyt bank sa chorzów biuro dobrej pożyczki kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń na dowód kredyt bank bankomaty wbk pożyczki językowe księgowanie wpłat w kredyt banku kredyt bez bik online 10 lat pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości mińsk mazowiecki dobry kredyt kalisz jak zaksięgować kredyt na rachunku bankowym kredyt w banku gbs pożyczki eurocash pożyczki od osób prywatnych kielce umowa pożyczki wysokość odsetek pozyczki chwilowki pozabankowa pszczyna kredyty bez bik sochaczew pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów wrocław wzór umowy pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia kredyty chwilówki rozdawanie ulotek bip pożyczki zielona góra w którym banku najtańszy kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bez bik i krd bedzin pożyczki kościan pożyczki bez bik ciechanów nowe pożyczki online pozyczki na oswiadczenie ichwilowki kredyty bez bik świdnica kredyt w aib bank kto udzieli kredytu bez bik kredyty chwilówki włoszczowa kredyt bank sa ii oddział w olsztynie kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bgż szybki kredyt 10000 mińsk mazowiecki kredyt bank żagiel łódź kredyt online idea bank opinie pożyczki społecznościowe opodatkowanie santander consumer bank kredyt ze zla historia kredyt bank concerto kredyty pozabankowe bez bik i krd nefis pożyczki kredyty chwilówki ostrów wlkp tanie pożyczki pozabankowe gdzie wziac kredyt bez biku kredyt bank darmowe bankomaty kredyty chwilówki reklama pożyczki przez internet 30000 gdzie otrzymać kredyt bez bik umowa pożyczki o czym pamiętać udzielenie pożyczki osobie fizycznej przez spółkę bank bph da kredyt jak mam komornika kredyt bank mmz kredyt konsolidacyjny w nordea bank istota kredytu bankowego optima pożyczki przez internet pozyczka banknot global pożyczki bydgoszcz czy alior bank udziela pozyczek z zajeciem komorniczym kredyt konsolidacyjny inteligo pożyczki bez bik w głogowie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pko sa w jakim banku najlepiej brac kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt pozabankowy 15000 kredyt konsolidacyjny dla ludzi z komornikiem pożyczki pod zastaw chorzów kredyty chwilówki radomsko kredyt bank powstanie kredyt chwilowki gdansk kredyt bank lublin narutowicza kontakt kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza pożyczki bolesławiec znaczenie kredytu bankowego orange kod kredyt w jakim banku nie brac kredytu kredyt w orange na karte 2 zł kredyt bank ciechocinek pożyczki pleszew pozyczki chwilowki lublin kredyt bank wilanowska kredyt gotówkowy eurobank online kredyt bank radość kredyt bez bik na firme umowa pożyczki wymagania kredyty chwilówki pomysł na biznes kredyty bez bik na oswiadczenie umowa pożyczki konsumenckiej kredyt bank ogólne warunki kredytowania kredyt na dowod w niemczech kalkulator oprocentowania pożyczki pożyczka chorzów kielce pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank filia poraj pożyczki bez bik tarnobrzeg kredyt bank 1 oddział gdańsk w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank leżajsk godziny otwarcia pozyczka długoterminowa bez bik i krd dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank krs kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator eurobank kredyt bank płock ul kolegialna godziny otwarcia jak udzielać pożyczki pożyczka 6000 bez infomonitora umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi podatek firma bocian pożyczki kontakt kredyt chwilówka co to jest lista pozyczek bez bik kredyt bank ostroda kredyt przez internet bez biku kredyt bank morąg kredyt bank białystok dubois godziny otwarcia wzór umowy pożyczki zabezpieczonej wekslem kredyt bank 1500 pożyczki z bikiem kredyty bez bik krosno kredyt samochodowy ranking 2011 pożyczki prywatne chorzów kredyt bank mt940 w jakim banku najlepiej brac kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki na dowód chorzów pożyczki przez internet bez bik i krd oddziały kredyt banku w krakowie odsetki od pożyczki pkwiu kredyt konsolidacyjny w polbanku opinie pożyczki pod zastaw kielce kredyt bank w piotrkowie trybunalskim pożyczki bocian pruszcz gdański pożyczki bez bik wejherowo kredyty chwilówki regulamin kredyt bank twardzickiego meritum bank kredyt online opinie pożyczki bez bik krd kraków kredyt eurobank online kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank opinie duzy kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki bez bik 50000 pożyczki pszczyna kredyt samochodowy w santanderze kredyt bank rezygnacja z karty kredytowej kredyt bez biku sosnowiec kredyt bank sieradz godz otwarcia sigma bank kredyty bez poręczycieli bydgoszcz pożyczki na sam dowód bez zaswiadczeń łomża oprocentowanie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs pożyczki pozabankowe we wrześni kontrakt pożyczki w prawie rzymskim kredyt bank olsztyn kontakt prywatne pożyczki we wrocławiu kredyt bank w elblągu kredyty pozabankowe katowice kredyt bank żeromskiego 77 godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy bez bik kraków opinie o pszczułce kredyty kredyt konsolidacyjny w euro kredyt w banku na dowód pożyczki pozabankowa kredyty chwilówki strzegom chwilowka tczew czy dostane pozyczke na dowod czy w geting bank można wziasc na sam dowód kredyt niespłacone pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank ostróda godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej legnica pożyczki dla firm toruń bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową kredyt gotówkowy w eurobank kredyt bank w leborku umowa pożyczki cywilno prawna wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobank kredyt bankowy po śmierci kredyt bank jana pawła warszawa pożyczki wierzyciel kredyt bank wypłata bez prowizji kredyt bank popularna telefon kredyt w banku pocztowym dla policjantów kredyt bank wcześniejsza spłata kredytu pożyczki prywatne busko zdrój kredyt wg prawa bankowego pożyczki everest paulina gąska pożyczki kredyt bank mazowieckie bocian pozyczki swinoujscie bocian pożyczki bolesławiec pożyczki bez bik w brodnicy pożyczki chwilówki jak otworzyć kredyt na oswiadczenie w getin banku w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank niepodległości 54 kredyty chwilowki konskie kredyt bank krdbplpw provident nr pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń inowrocław kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108a kredyt lombardowy prawo bankowe kredyt bank pbi sa kredyt bank sa w białymstoku kredyt w raiffeisen bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny raty kredyt bank lokata ubezpieczeniowa warta gwarancja kredyt bank transfery nowa pożyczka bez bik konwersja pożyczki na kapitał odsetki kredyty pożyczki gwarancje bankowe kredyty siódemka czechowice kalkulator umowa pożyczki poręczyciel kredyt bank łomianki godziny otwarcia kredyt pozabankowy bez bik krd kredyt bez bik zabrze do 30 tys wyludzenie pozyczki ekspresowej pożyczki gotówkowe bgż pożyczki skarbu państwa kredyt dla rolników bez biku kredyt bank oleśnica godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe jelenia góra pożyczki chwilówki bochnia pożyczki bez bik do 5000 duzy kredyt bez biku pożyczki chwilówki promocje kredyt gotówkowy lukas bank kalkulator umowa pożyczki od udziałowca druk pożyczki od osób prywatnych płock kredyt pozabankowy dla nowych firm kredyt bank franciszkańska godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik grojec pożyczki bez bik włocławek kredyt konsolidacyjny w getin banku forum kredyt bank myślenice kontakt warunki spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko bp umowa pożyczki osoba fizyczna firma umowa pożyczki w spółce akcyjnej pożyczki bez bik do 5 tys kredyt bank szczecin rydla godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez biku świdnica umowa pożyczki pieniędzy koledze kredyt bank sanok chopina kredyt bankowy praca licencjacka pożyczki na dowód działdowo kredyt konsolidacyjny długi okres kredytowania kredyt bank wpłaty pożyczki prywatne urząd skarbowy pożyczki udzielane przez jst podatek od umowy pożyczki 2012 kredyty chwilowki w knf pożyczki partnerskie pożyczki poczta polska kredyty gotówkowe bez sprawdzania w bik jakie odsetki od pożyczki udziałowca kredyt bank grudziądz godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyt gotówkowy forum kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki money w jakim banku wziąć najlepiej kredyt

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad