kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka 22 kredyty chwilówki siemianowice slaskie kredyt konsolidacyjny millenium oprocentowanie kredyty chwilówka stalowa wola kredyt bank żagiel lubin pożyczki kyzoo pożyczki pozabankowe cała polska kredyt studencki pko bp spłata regulamin pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki zachodniopomorskie pożyczki domowe grudziądz pożyczki mieszkaniowe pko kredyt bez bik nowy tomyśl pożyczki prywatne kraków kredyt bank tarnobrzeg telefon kredyt studencki na jakich warunkach pożyczki meritum wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w ratach wzór umowy pożyczki od wspólnika kredyty chwilówki chojnice odsetki od pożyczki a koszty uzyskania przychodu kredyt mieszkaniowy program kredyt bez pracy kredyt bez bik dla firmy kredyty bez bik oława pożyczki pozabankowe profi credit kredyty chwilówki słupsk deotymy kredyt pleszew bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku millennium getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy kredyty chwilówki chrzanów praca kredyty w uk po polsku kredyt ratalny santander consumer banku kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen dla firm kredyty bez bik krosno pożyczki katowice pożyczki prywatne pozabankowe konsolidacja kredytu w bz wbk kredyt konsolidacyjny czy warto forum pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kredyty chwilówki słupsk pożyczki chwilówki w lublinie kredyt konsolidacyjny krok po kroku kredyt bank otwock godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik tczew kredyt bank krasnystaw godziny otwarcia konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy księgowanie prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe gdańsk pożyczki przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt online kredyty bez bik krd katowice kredyt od ręki bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki provident kontakt deutsche bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyty mieszkaniowe sierpień 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator multibank kredyt bank depozytariusz w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie kredyty bez biku ikrd pożyczki bez biku legnica pożyczki bez opłat rejestracyjnych tani kredyt pozabankowy kredyty bez bik w poznaniu pożyczki chwilówki online od 18 lat pożyczki bez bik w słupsku pożyczka na dowód od 18 lat anglia profit pożyczki łódź kto udziela pozyczki w domu klienta walbrzych kredyt studencki pko kontakt kredyt dla nestora w banku pocztowym pożyczki na dowód w skoku kredyty bez bik prywatne kredyt konsolidacyjny do jakiej kwoty kredyt bank lokaty z bonusem kredyt mieszkaniowy prowizja banku kredyt bank zielona góra jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki wzór pożyczki bez bik gryfice kredyty chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyty chwilówki pierwsza za darmo kody orange na kredyt kredyt bank olsztyn kredyt mieszkaniowy na 30 lat godziny graniczne w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki dla rodziny wzór kredyt w koncie credit agricole kredyt na dowód w jakim banku kredyt bez bik torun kredyt bank wita stwosza wrocław pożyczki chwilówki ostróda kredyt konsolidacyjny pko warunki kredyty chwilówki strzegom kredyt bank plock tel ewidencja księgowa pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt samochodowy w toyota bank opinie kredyt bank bankomaty inowrocław oprocentowanie kredytów mieszkaniowych pko bp kredyt pożyczka bez bik kredyty chwilowki znin kredyt gotówkowy bank pko sa pożyczki bez przelewu na konto kredyty bankowe to konto bilansowe kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowy pozyczki bez krd pożyczki bez bik łódzkie pożyczki 24h opinie pożyczki na dowód oprocentowanie banki które daja kredyt bez bik kredyt bank polbank alex pożyczki umowa pożyczki prywatnej wzór kredyt on line pozabankowy kredyt studencki pko aneks żyrafa pożyczki rejestracja internetowe pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank lokata z premią kredyt bank w jaworznie kredyt konsolidacyjny chf ubezpieczenie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior banku kredyt bank adres e mail pcc od pożyczki udzielonej spółce przez udziałowca kredyt bez bik i komornika cesja umowy pożyczki pcc kredyty chwilówki leszno pożyczki chwilówki ranking bocian pożyczki płońsk kredyt konsolidacyjny bank polski kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najlepiej forum auto kredyt bez bik ciechanów kredyt gotowkowy w deutsche bank kredyty bez bik łomża toruń pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank kartuzy kredyt bank w lublinie ul narutowicza pożyczki w skoku opinie kredyty konsolidacyjne trudne kredyty mieszkaniowe poznań kredyt bez bik suwałki kredyt bank filia radlin pożyczki prywatne zasady pożyczki społeczne w polsce bankomaty kredyt bank stargard kredyty chwilowki tarnowskie gory pożyczki na telefon bez bik lublin provident odmowa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla dłużników zaciągnięcie kredytu bankowego jest operacją pożyczki na start firmy bez bik kredyt bez bik kalkulator oddział kredyt banku w łodzi alior bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum pożyczki bez wykazywania dochodu umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs emerytowi kredyty bez bik i krd wrocław szybki kredyt 2014r :l kredyt w banku ing forum bezpieczne pożyczki przez internet wzór umowy pożyczki weksel optima pożyczki numer telefonu pożyczki lfr kredyt bank kolbuszowa podatek od pożyczki dla najbliższej rodziny bocian pożyczki szczecin opinie kredyt samochodowy otomoto forum tani kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik pożyczki dla osób z niskimi dochodami kredyt bank łódź zgierska 42a kredyt bank zytnia 15 godziny otwarcia pozyczka bez sprawdzania baz szczecin oferta umowa pożyczki po angielsku wzór kredyt bank warszawa bonifacego lukas bank kredyt bez biku szybkie pożyczki bartoszyce kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108a pożyczki pod zastaw limanowa kredyt bank przelicznik rat kredyt mieszkaniowy w kredyt banku opinie symulacja kredytu konsolidacyjnego bank pocztowy pożyczki bez bik i krd opole kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku forum kredyt bank szczecinek godziny otwarcia kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki podatek 2013 pożyczki unijne na rozwój firmy kredyt obrotowy idea bank opinie kredyt na rok pożyczki gotówkowe na telefon fakturowanie pożyczki przykładowa umowa pożyczki wycena pożyczki wg zamortyzowanego kosztu pożyczki gotówkowe z bikiem pożyczki pozabankowe września kredyt chwilówka spłata kredyt bank i oddział w warszawie kredyt mieszkaniowy stary portfel kredyt konsolidacyjny expander kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik kraków udzielać pożyczki english część pożyczki państwowej puszczona w obieg umorzone pożyczki kredyty chwilówki wałcz umorzenie pożyczki w spółce komandytowej kredyt bank warszawa ul popularna pożyczki finanse kredyt bank wykaz bankomatów kredyty chwilówki opole reymonta gdzie daja kredyt bez bik kredyt bank blokada karty kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej forum pożyczki deutsche bank opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt pko bp opinie kredyty i pożyczki dla bezrobotnych pożyczki pozabankowe elbląg pożyczki chwilówki przemyśl pożyczki na projekty unijne kredyt bank spółdzielczy pożyczki prywatne kutno pożyczki dla jst pko bp poznań kredyt studencki kredyty chwilówka rzeszów kredyty chwilówki windykacja opinie umowa pożyczki z zfśs szybkie pożyczki racibórz pożyczki oprocentowanie eurobank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt chwilówka 15 minut oddziały kredyt banku w katowicach kredyt bank oblicz ratę kredyt bank w bialej podlaskiej pożyczki unijne dla nowych firm kredyty bez biku olsztyn pozyczka na dowod bex biku zary telefon bocian pożyczki ełk pozyczki bez konta kredyt bank gdansk targ drzewny renoma pożyczki kredyt studencki w banku polskiej spółdzielczości gdzie kredyt bez bik pozyczki optima wloclawek numer telefonu kredyt gotówkowy bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 000 pożyczki prywatne ciechanów podanie o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt konsolidacyjny katowice pożyczki bez podatku podatek kredyt na zakup samochodu bez bik kredyt bank centrala tel kredyt konsolidacyjny dla kogo kredyt bez biku 25000 bank pocztowy kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum pożyczki chwilówki warszawa grochowska kredyt bank laczy sie wzór umowy pożyczki pienięznej kredyt bank oświęcim telefon pożyczki gotówkowe łomża pożyczki z funduszu rozwoju przedsiębiorczości optima pożyczki kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny rodzaje getin noble bank kredyt gotówkowy wzór umowy pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt bank włodawa kontakt bocian chwilowka kredytową nr tel międzyrzecz kredyt bank 10 pożyczki jelenia góra alina waclawek kredyty prywatne opinie bank pko sa kredyty opinie kredyt bez bik oferty referat kredyty szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyt prywatny z komornikiem commodus pożyczki kredyty bez bik w uk profi kredit czy otrzymam kredyt bez bik elblag pozyczki w domu bez zaswiadczen kredyt studencki w getin banku jak zaksięgować kredyt bankowy bank pocztowy kredyt na mieszkanie optima pożyczki poznań citibank regulamin pożyczki kredyt bank zgierz kontakt idea bank kredyt na start ze wsparciem unijnym opinie ei global kredyty opinie umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs pożyczki przez internet na dłuższy okres kredyt bez biku rzeszow kredyt bank kiedy wychodzą przelewy kredyty prawo bankowe najbardziej opłacalne pożyczki kredyt banku pko kredyt bank bankomaty płock kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank forum kredyt bez biku banki kredyt chwilówka współpraca pożyczki jst udzielenie pożyczki księgowanie przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki ekspres kasa kredyt samochodowy getin bank kontakt kredyt bez bik bolesławiec kredyt w banku wbk opinie kredyt bank placówki lublin pożyczki dla zadłużonych pozabankowe druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z pkzp oprocentowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej pożyczki na procent jelenia góra kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp oprocentowanie kredyt bank konto firmowe pożyczki bez bik na firmę najkorzystniejsza pozyczka bez krd kasa polska pożyczki kredyt bankowy to umorzenie pożyczki z zfss pożyczki chwilówki ostróda pożyczki prywatne zamość jak dostac kredyt w polsce pracujac w uk pożyczki bez dochodów przez internet odmowa udzielenia pożyczki pożyczki bankowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez sprawdzania rejestrów kredyt konsolidacyjny z gotówką komornik pożyczki społecznościowe kredyt bank warszawa ul kasprzaka 2 8 pożyczki kredyty dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw 2014 odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór doc kredyt konsolidacyjny santander kalkulator bocian pożyczki szczecinek kredyty bez bik grudziadz kredyty chwilówki on line kredyt na budowe domu w banku spółdzielczym umowa pożyczki art 777 pożyczki gotówkowe credit agricole dukat wawa pożyczki pożyczka prywatna białystok ogłoszenia pożyczki bez bik do 5 tys pożyczki gotówkowe zielona góra forma prawna pożyczki alior bank kredyty konsolidacyjne podatek od pożyczki od osób fizycznych kredyt bank łuków praca kredyt bank nr kontaktowy pożyczki niskooprocentowane dla firm kredyt w polskim banku praca za granica opodatkowanie niezgłoszonej pożyczki kredyt bank płock godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki kodeks udzielam pożyczki afera w kredyt banku kredyty bez bik ostrowiec sw najtańszy kredyt na 30 tyś bez bik kredyt samochodowy bez bik idea bank kredyt dla firm forum pożyczki jeremie łódź drugi kredyt w innym banku pożyczki chwilówki bez bik kraków kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kalkulator umowa pożyczki pracownik mbank pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty mieszkaniowe luty 2013 pożyczki ii rp praca w kredyty chwilówki opinie pożyczki lidzbark warmiński umowa pożyczki i przewłaszczenia na zabezpieczenie kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pekao sa kredyt bank rrso pko kredyt mieszkaniowy forum ratalne szybkie pozyczki przez internet agar udzielę pożyczki prywatnej bez przedpłat status pożyczki kredito24 kredyt bez bik dla każdego kredyt marża banku pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic umowa pożyczki pracownikowi pozyczki w domu klijenta jarocin kredyt w euro które banki kredyt bank aplikacja kredyt bank vii oddział w warszawie kredyt samochodowy credit agricole kredyt bank oferty pracy bocian pożyczki świdnica pożyczki online panda kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową dla singli pożyczki na dowód częstochowa kredyt konsolidacyjny encyklopedia kredyt bez bik w płocku udzielenie nieoprocentowanej pożyczki kredyty chwilówki do domu pożyczki prywatne pod weksel rzeszów pożyczki bez biku pożyczki pod zastaw auta śląsk kredyt w aib bank kredyt bank osiedle kazimierzowskie kredyt bank oleśnica pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń i bik kredyt bank bankomat stargard kredyt bank łódź niemcewicza godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w zgorzelcu szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń online eurobank kredyt kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolności kredytowej księgowanie pożyczki dla pracownika wzór pokwitowania pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe łódź pożyczki mieszkaniowe agh kredyt w banku bz wbk pożyczki na założenie firmy kredyty bez biku w rzeszowie umowa pożyczki z bankiem kredyt bank marza kredyt a umowa na czas określony odsetki od pożyczki kup czy nkup nowe miasto lubawskie pożyczka na dowód udziele pożyczki prywatnie łódź pozyczki bez zaswiadczen chrzanow pożyczki bez bik kontakt jak otrzymac pozyczke w prodomo kredyt bankowy funkcje kredyt bank hasła sms konwersja pożyczki na kapitał 2013 hestia ubezpieczenie pożyczki auti na kredyt bez bik pomorskie pożyczki chrzanów kredyt alior bank forum bocian pożyczki dokumenty prodomo pożyczki forum firma bocian pożyczki kontakt jaki bank udziela kredytu bez biku pozyczku raty tygodniowe kredyty pozabankowe malbork kredyty chwilówka żywiec kredyt według prawa bankowego pożyczki dla firm z sektora pozabankowego pożyczki dla adwokatów pożyczki od osob prywatnych tychy pozyczki na dowód kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny jaka rata pożyczki pozabankowe bielsk podlaski kredyt konsolidacyjny bez pracy kredyt bank lokata junior kalkulator pożyczki kredytowej pożyczki pozabankowe 2000 pożyczki bez big kraków księgowanie środków w kredyt banku pozyczki z funduszu dla zadluzonych jakie banki daja kredyt bez bik pożyczki prywatne podatek kredyt bank nowa lista haseł kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz bocian pożyczki chełmża pożyczki olsztyn udzielenie pożyczki nierezydentowi kredyty bez bik elblag umowa pożyczki z klauzulą wykonalności pcc od umowy pożyczki między firmami tanie pożyczki bez bik kredyty chwilówki w 15 minut pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw koszalin kredyt bank nieruchomości na sprzedaż kredyty bez biku wloclawek podatek od pożyczki prywatnej 2012 kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat pko pożyczki na dowód w lesznie pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód osobisty kredyt bank w lomzy pożyczki 15 minut kredyt bank zwolnienia grupowe kredyt bank nidzica kontakt pożyczki pod zastaw rtv częstochowa kredyty chwilówki w bełchatowie prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw działki bocian pożyczki olsztyn telefon pożyczki chwilówki inowrocław ul dworcowa kredyt chwilówka wrocław ul strzegomska pożyczki bez bik ostrów wielkopolski bocian pożyczki ilawa pożyczki gotówkowe suwałki kredyt konsolidacyjny jak to działa kredyt bank nowa nazwa pożyczki łódź plac wolności optima pożyczki słupsk kredyt bank jarosław godziny otwarcia kredyt bank opole krakowska godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilowki glogow pożyczki żyrafa pożyczki bez bik oprocentowanie kredyt bank chorwacja pożyczki od osób prywatnych kredyt bank lokata warta pożyczki bocian w słupsku pożyczki gotówkowe na umowe zlecenie kredyt bank żagiel wrocław szybkie pożyczki bez bik gdańsk przectawiciel bocian pozyczki goleniow pozyczka na firme bez baz poznan mikropożyczki z efs getin bank kredyt samochodowy opinie 2013

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad