kredyty bez bik swietochlowice kredyt bank wcześniejsza spłata kredytu gotówkowego kredyt współpraca godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w markach pożyczki prywatne zasady pożyczki optima praca cele pożyczki kredyt w mbanku opinie szybkie pożyczki bez bik kraków umowa pożyczki podatki umowa pożyczki jest obligacje 4 pożyczki konsolidacyjnej pożyczki ustawa pożyczki pod zastaw bełchatów kredyt bank kursy walut archiwum pożyczki pozabankowe jastrzębie zdrój 24h prywatne pozyczki chodziez pożyczki bez bik provident profi credit czy udziela pozyczki bez u mowy o prace kredyt konsolidacyjny na umowe zlecenie kredyt na orange kod pożyczki bez zaświadczeń włocławek kredyt bez weryfikacji w biku kredyt mieszkaniowy emeryt kredyt bez bik oswiecim pożyczki bocian szczytno legnica pożyczki bez bik kredyty chwilowki wroclaw pozyczki online przez poczte kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową 2013 optima kredyty warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt biznes kredyt bank profil spokojny kredyt chwilówka online kredyt bank vi oddział warszawa kredyt bank godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód ekspres kasa kredyt bank grochowska kredyt bank wiatraczna nowa pożyczka bez bik jaki nr na kredyt orange szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd poznań pożyczki gotówkowe bez prowizji kredyty bez bik oddłużeniowe umowa pożyczki obowiązek podatkowy kredyty bez bik krd z komornikiem pożyczki w amber gold kredyt bank polski kredyt w banku bez umowy o prace getin noble bank kredyt na start pożyczki novum kruk opinie umowa pożyczki z rodzicem pożyczka w raciborzu spłata pożyczki po niemiecku kredyt bank forum 2012 jak zawiesić kredyt w getin banku kredyt bank adresy warszawa kredyt chwilowka starogard gdanski umowa pożyczki z przewłaszczeniem na zabezpieczenie szybka pozyczka z zajeciem komorniczym 2014 vivus pożyczki pozyczka pieniezna w dublinie nr telefonu kredyt bank dział kadr kredyt bank gliniana mcredit pożyczki kredyt samochodowy dla bezrobotnych pożyczki dla zadłużonych poznań pożyczki nowy dwór mazowiecki chwilowki bez zdolnosci kredytoeej na dowod kredyt mieszkaniowy najkorzystniejszy umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a składki zus szybka kasa pożyczki kredyt ratalny alior bank opinie kredyt bank jawor kredyt bank sanok godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla firm na oświadczenie pożyczki pod zastaw tczew kredyt bank rakowicka telefon pilnie poszukuje pożyczki pozyczka bez big i krs kredyty bez bik i krd olsztyn kredyt samochodowy dla przedsiębiorców pożyczki na dowód od ręki kredyty bez bik gorzow zwrot pożyczki angielski kredyt bank infolinia lublin kredyt chwilówka 5000 pozyczka sms dla zadluzonych jestem w bik kredyt bank kolejowa białystok kredyt w banku bgż forum cesja praw z umowy pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny forum opinie pożyczki online od 18 lat kredyt gotówkowy bez bik zaświadczeń kredyt bank warszawa vii oddział kredyt bank w wołominie umowa pożyczki gotówki pdf linia kredytowa santander bank dla firm pozyczki dla osob w biku we wroclawiu pożyczki bez bik września wniosek o kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt bank pilsudskiego koszalin kredyt konsolidacyjny bank zachodni wbk kredyty pozabankowe współpraca getin bank kredyt samochodowy opinie 2013 pko kwidzyn kredyty studenckie pożyczki pod zastaw piła pożyczki dla zadłużonych pozabankowe pożyczki od osób prywatnych toruń pożyczka bez bik i krd rejestrowanie pożyczki kredyt bank w międzyzdrojach pożyczki chwilówki konin pożyczki 3000 pożyczka dla zadłużonych z komornikiem w koszalinie pozyczki ratalne online pozabankowe pożyczki podobne do providenta płock pożyczki bielsko umowa pożyczki wspólnik sp z o o pożyczki do domu dolnośląskie szybkie pożyczki bytom zarabianie na pożyczkach opodatkowanie pożyczki od wspólnika pożyczka od 18 lat na dowód szukam pożyczki dla zadłużonych bank pko sa kredyt konsumpcyjny kredyt bank lódź kredyty bez bik gumtree kredyt bez bik krotoszyn kredyt konsolidacyjny dla gmin roszczenia z umowy pożyczki przedawniają się kredyty i gwarancje bankowe zbigniew dobosiewicz pdf kalkulator kredytowy kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp kredyt pozabankowy na mieszkanie kredyt dla młodych małżeństw forum kredyt w banku bph bankomaty kredyt banku w kielcach kredyt chwilówki tarnobrzeg optima pożyczki do domu gdańsk kredyt bank sa poznań słupia pożyczki dla firm pożyczki ostrołęka kredyt bank kolegialna kredyt konsolidacyjny 50000 pożyczki wśród najbliższych kredyty i pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyty pozabankowe bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank toruń ul grudziądzka kredyt konsolidacyjny rodzina na swoim kredyt studencki pko bp terminy kredyt a bankowy rejestr kredyt bank sa w warszawie pozyczki prywatne na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd tczew pozyczka od 18 lat częstochowa kredyt bank payu pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez bik podatek od odsetek od pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej kredyty bez bik chojnice pożyczki ratunkowe świdnica kredyt bank sa lublin ul zana 39a kredyt bank piła adres oprocentowanie pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi kredyty bez bik w czestochowie kredyty chwilówki zarabiaj z nami opinie getin bank kredyt samochodowy dla firm pożyczki kępno odznaka pożyczki narodowej 1933 opodatkowanie pożyczki udzielonej spółce w jakim banku brać kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank polecenie zapłaty kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złym bikiem kredyt bank malopolska pożyczki prywatne lębork pożyczki toruń pożyczki gotówkowe oprocentowanie pożyczki w profi credit opinie raport pożyczki kredyty gotówkowe bez bik gorzów wlkp kapitalizacja odsetek od pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny promocja gryfice prywatne pozyczki pożyczki mielec pożyczki dla pracowników ze środków obrotowych pko bp wniosek o umorzenie kredytu studenckiego najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny pozyczka w advice kto bral kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum bocian pożyczki jaworzno kredyt na już bez bik kredyt studencki pko ostatnia transza kredyt bank euribor umowa przedwstępna pożyczki wzór kredyt bank kielce bankomaty pożyczki prywatne na działalność gospodarczą pożyczki udzielone przez udziałowca kredyt rolniczy w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki w profi credit forum warunki pożyczki w alior banku lukas bank kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki chwilówki w niedziele asper pożyczki opinie umowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą szybki kredyt bez bik kredyty konsolidacyjny z komornikiem pcc od umowy pożyczki dla pracownika all money pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki gotówkowe krd kredyty chwilówki 24 pożyczki chwilówki poznań kredyt bank lokata swobodna oprocentowanie kredyt bez bik wolny rynek forum biedronka pożyczki kredyty bankowe bilans pożyczki ściąga pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej szczecin pożyczki dębica bartek pożyczki bezpieczne pożyczki prywatne kredyt w skok stefczyka bez bik kredyt na umowe na czas określony małgorzata iwańska pożyczki kredyt bank 10000 szybką pożyczka do domu klienta pozyczka z bociana dla kogo kredyt bank przetargi pożyczki na dowód złotów kredyty pozabankowe grudziadz kredyty chwilówki uwaga tvn certus pożyczki kredyt bank polen szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior bank kredyt bank ror ekstrakonto korzyści pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt chwilowki poznań wzór umowy pożyczki zfśs jaki kod na kredyt orange kredyt bank w tomaszowie maz umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a pcc umowa pożyczki w lombardzie pożyczki pozabankowe koszalin kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego w banku pocztowym kredyt bank rodzina na swoim forum kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki pozabankowe oława kredyt w eurobanku opinie 2013 umowa pożyczki między spółką a udziałowcem kredyt bank w łukowie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank jaslo promocja pożyczki gotówkowej gros pożyczki kwidzyn blyskawiczne pozyczki kredyt 20000 urząd skarbowy podatek od pożyczki kredyt bankowy a faktoring kredyt studencki pko do kiedy zaświadczenia kredyt bank bankomaty zakopane pożyczki bez bik śrem osoba udzielająca pożyczki kredyt rns getin bank opinie pożyczki wierzyciel kredyty bankowe plan kont pożyczki z obsługą w domu klienta kredyt bank środa śląska telefon kredyt eurobank na dowód łatwe pożyczki online szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach pożyczki pod zastaw sosnowiec pożyczki na rok przez internet kredyt bank oleśnica godziny otwarcia szybka pożyczka 20tysięcy obsługa w domu polski kredyt bank sa kredyt studencki w banku zachodnim kraków pożyczki prywatne umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu wzór pożyczki gotówkowe dla nauczycieli kredyt studencki pko sa 2013 alior bank forum kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator rodzina na swoim nobel za mikropożyczki kredyt bank sa chojnice pożyczki pod zastaw jarosław duo pożyczki chwilówki idea bank kredyt na firme opinie twój kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp pożyczki pfron kredyt bank w raciborzu kredyt na mieszkanie kalkulator zdolności kredytowej kredyt pozabankowy toruń pewny kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki w ratach tygodniowych prodomo pożyczki opinie bocian pożyczki toruń kontakt wzór umowy pożyczki z zfron umowa pożyczki między firmą a osobą fizyczną kredyt bank w gorzowie wlkp pożyczki bez bik łuków pożyczki od 18 lat pozyczki victoria pożyczki chojnice prywatne pożyczki pod weksel kraków kredyt bez bik i krd kredyt bank jana pawła gdańsk godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu lubuskie pożyczki parabank żagiel pożyczki gotówkowe oddziały kredyt banku w kielcach kredyt bank w radomsku kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń pomorskie kredyt bank w uk umowa pożyczki między wspólnikami kredyt w banku spółdzielczym opinie kwota pożyczki angielski kredyt na mieszkanie a umowa na czas określony pożyczki do 40000 prywatne pożyczki pod weksel 2013 pożyczki na mieszkania prowizja od umowy pożyczki a vat umorzenie pożyczki w nds umorzenie pożyczki pkzp przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał zapasowy pożyczki lichwiarskie wrocław bartosz ratajczak pożyczki pożyczki grochowska pozyczki do domu inowroclaw pozyczka pozabankowa gniezno telefon kredyt bez biku świdnica optima pożyczki poznań kredyt bank wiceprezes kredyt bank sa lubin pożyczki na zakup towaru kredyt bank wrzutnia kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku millennium kredyt bank warszawa bartycka kredyt pozabankowy słupsk pozyczka podobna do pozyczka zyrafa kredyty bez biku na oswiadczenie santander kredyt samochodowy prowizja odsetki od pożyczki przychodem osoby fizycznej oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior bank lendon pożyczki opinie umowa pożyczki banku kredyt bankowy księgowanie wzór umowy pożyczki dla spółki obliczenie raty pożyczki kredyty chwilówki skarżysko kamienna kredyt bank bankomaty lublin prywatne pożyczki we wrocławiu kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw warunki vivus pożyczki rejestracja pozyczka do domu gdynia umowa pożyczki podstawa prawna aig pożyczki gotówkowe dobre pożyczki opinie kredyt bank pożyczki pod weksel trójmiasto pod jaki numer wysyła się kredyt w orange kredyt dla nowej firmy bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe starego portfela kredyt studencki warunki przyznania kredyt bank przelewy zagraniczne pożyczki prywatne mielec kredyt bez bik 200 tys kredyt w przeźmierowie kredyt mieszkaniowy odliczenie od podatku 2013 tytuł przelewu pożyczki kredyt bank lomza dworna pożyczki dla młodzieży kredyty bez bik szybko kredyty bez bik lomza umowa pożyczki lombardowej wzór pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i big pożyczki na dowód bez prowizji umorzenie pożyczki w rodzinie pożyczki na dowód krosno kredyt konsolidacyjny który bank kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank kalkulator pozyczka na dowod bez biku rzeszów dobranie kredytu w credit agricole pożyczki profi credit kredyt niski procent w santander consumer bank kredyt bez bik warszawa kredyt jako podstawowy produkt banku komercyjnego wzór na obliczenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki pod zastaw lubuskie kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku bgż umowa pożyczki między znajomymi kredyt bank w zielonce godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyt gotówkowy dokumenty kredyt bank w żarach pożyczki pozabankowe prywatne wrocław pożyczki lombardowe lodz umowa pożyczki za granicą pcc kredyt bank iii oddział w warszawie kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku ing kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw nieruchomości pozyczka podobna do bocianakielce kredyt bank sa oddział łódź bank millenium kredyt na mieszkanie getin bank pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki bez wizyty w banku pro domo pożyczki praca kredyt bank warszawa czynny w sobotę pożyczki w domu u klienta pożyczki bez bik wałcz pożyczki będzin kredyt bank w markach kredyt bank nowy sącz adres pożyczki z dostawą do domu akt notarialny umorzenie pożyczki dla syna umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki cywilnej umowa pożyczki wzór weksel kredyt mieszkaniowy na zarobki z zagranicy kredyt banku zarobki forum wypowiedzenie kredytu w eurobanku kredyt bank raszyn godziny otwarcia pożyczki program kredyty bankowe literatura obliczanie pożyczki kredyt bank wyciągi kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank dokumenty kredyt bank łodź bednarska pożyczka dla zadłużonych w big puławy kredyty bez biku sosnowiec ewidencja księgowa pożyczki z bgk jak zdobyc pozyczke bez bik i komornika kredyt w getin banku na pit pożyczki ze środków unijnych kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wymagania kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2014 pożyczka bez sprawdzania w krd i bik kapitał obcy pożyczki kredyt bank bankomaty białystok kredyty pozabankowe chwilówki kredyt bank departament administracji oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank pożyczki ekspresowe warszawa gdzie otrzymam kredyt bez bik pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik kredyt bank 9 oddział warszawa kredyty bez biku jelenia góra kredyt samochodowy bez bik zus us kredyty chwilówki rzeszów rejtana pokwitowanie pożyczki wzór placówki kredyt banku w polsce pożyczki dla bezrobotnych i zadłużonych pfp pożyczki pożyczki bez bik krd wrocław pożyczki bez bik w starachowicach kredyt bank kupon 2 kredyt bank warszawa puławska 303 kredyt bank krucza godziny otwarcia kredyt bank powstańców warszawy 2 bocian pożyczki pasłęk jak wziasc kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt na start bez biku pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń o dochodach bocian pożyczki gdynia czy dostane kredyt w getin banku pożyczki activa tarr pożyczki kredyt bank banki partnerskie przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank druk kredyty mieszkaniowe bez biku pożyczki kredyt plus pożyczki gotówkowe od ręki pożyczki arsen pożyczki chwilówki kołobrzeg pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych wałbrzych ekspresowe pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa kredyt gotowkowy bez bik i zaswiadczen kto udziela pozyczki w domu klienta walbrzych przelew w kredyt banku dyrektor kredytbank zamość optima pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank leasing aukcje pożyczki bez bik do 10 000 bocian pożyczki śrem praca premie w kredyt banku kredyt bank jutrzenki pożyczki pozabankowe w koninie kredyt bank konto finan pożyczki wrocław profil aktywny 50 kredyt bank pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych na dowód przeterminowanie umowy pożyczki kredyty chwilówki boguszowice kredyty chwilówki stargard szczeciński kredyt konsolidacyjny przez internet kredyt bank wejherowo godziny otwarcia kredyt banku kursy walut umowa pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym kredyt bank departament windykacji warszawa kredyty bez bik bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bocian reklama wzór umowy pożyczki cywilno prawnej agito pożyczki mbank pożyczki dla firm kredyt bank sprzedaż wierzytelności kredyt bank radom żeromskiego godziny otwarcia

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad