alior bank kredyt bez zaswiadczen pożyczki nowa ruda bocian numer szybkie pożyczki krotoszyn pożyczki od prywatnych osób z londynu pożyczki tygodniowe elbląg lista placowek podatek od umowy pożyczki w 2012 prodomo pożyczki opinie pożyczki na weksel szczecin kredyt bank sa świnoujście pożyczki bez weryfikacji w bik kredyty mieszkaniowe od 2014 roku kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa zlecenie pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód bez bik wzór umorzenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank plac solny kredyt konsolidacyjny niezabezpieczony kredyt prowizja banku czy warto wziąć kredyt w getin banku kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na czas określony umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs umowa o kredyt wypełniony wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłuzonych provident pożyczki przelew kredyt bank hajnówka kredyt samochodowy bez bik zus us opinie o kokos pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt w lukas banku na dowód pożyczki gliwice kredyty pan stanislaw wzial kredyt w banku kredyty konsolidacyjne wady i zalety promotor pożyczki pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorstw opole pożyczki na dowód giżycko pożyczki bez bik kasiora kredyty bez bik stargard szczeciński pożyczki z funduszu kredyt chwilówka jaworzno pożyczki chwilówki tarnobrzeg bocian pożyczki regulamin pożyczki chwilówki promocje kredyt konsolidacyjny w getin bank opinie kredyt bank opis pożyczki komercyjne optima pożyczki tel kredyt na komornika na oświadczenie pozyczka w domu klienta bialystok pozyczka na dowod bez biku w wieku 18 lat umowa pożyczki prawo właściwe kredyt mieszkaniowy wkład własny kalkulator kredyt bank tychy kontakt adler pożyczki pożyczki przez internet kredyt bank lublin t zana pożyczki gotówkowe elbląg bankomaty kredyt banku szczecin kredyt bank lodz zgierska pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla sędziów pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank w bielsku podlaskim kredyt w godzine uk pożyczki prywatne opodatkowanie abis szybkie pozyczki gotowkowe numer kontaktowy pożyczki dla zadłużonych gdańsk pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt na start w fm banku kredyt bank żytnia pozyczki prywatne kielce umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej pożyczki na dowód nowy sacz aureus pozyczki umowa ramowa pożyczki kredito24 pożyczki bez krd online pożyczki bez komornika i biku na dowód w szczecinie kredyt bank w bochni kredyt bank filia jastrowie kto udzieli pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt bank kościerzyna pożyczka od ręki katowice bocian pożyczki wniosek online pożyczki lubartów firma 7 pożyczki praca opinie pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń bydgoszcz kredyt z banku zagranicznego kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator rat zwolnienie z pcc pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki bez biku wałbrzych szybkie pożyczki ostróda kredyt bank sa tel kredyt pozabankowy dla nowych firm pewne pożyczki dla każdego eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro czy złotówkach kredyt bank bankomaty przemyśl kredyt bez bik brodnica oświadczenie o zwrot pożyczki kredyt bank bankomaty tarnów kredyt bez zus us szybkie pożyczki gdynia szybkie pożyczki dla firm opinie o kokos pożyczki chwilowka do ilu moge dostac kredyt wloclawek kredyt bank legnica godziny otwarcia kredyt getin bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny działalność gospodarcza pożyczki w skoku chmielewskiego bocian pożyczki nowogard pozyczka bez big i krs pożyczki bez bik jawor kredyty chwilówki radom kredyt częstochowa forum 2014 umowa pożyczki opracowanie pożyczki dla pracowników tesco pożyczki bez bik bydgoszcz kosztorys do pożyczki remontowej pożyczki na święta kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie porównanie ing czy dają pożyczki młodym ludziom kredyty chwilówki system partner opinie najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe ranking pożyczki płock bez bik kredyty chwilowki lukow kredyty chwilówki praca kalisz pożyczki mieszkaniowe w oświacie kredyty pozyczki bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy pko wymagania umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs wzór umowy pożyczki zfron pożyczki pruszków kredyt bank wbk kalkulator pożyczki bez bik do 2000 pożyczki 24h warszawa kredyt bankowy kodeks cywilny kredyt dla zor w banku pocztowym kredyt gotówkowy skok chmielewskiego pożyczki pod zastaw bielsko kredyt bank zabezpieczenie lokat kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator alior kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlatwiej pożyczki chwilówki żagań pożyczki chwilówki umowa zwrot pożyczki a urząd skarbowy bank pekao sa pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank koszalin piłsudskiego warunki pracy w kredyt banku pozyczki prywatne cywilno prawne na 30000 olesnica kredyty dla zadluzonych białogard ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych styczeń 2014 bocian pożyczki jelenia góra kredyt bank kasprzaka kredyt bank bez prowizji pożyczki ratunkowe wrocław kredyt chwilówki końskie pozyczki w domu klienta na dowod ewidencja pożyczki udzielonej pożyczki chwilówki warszawa kredyt bank w nidzicy santander consumer bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt bank leżajsk kredyt bank w lubuskim certus pożyczki warszawa bocian pożyczki goleniów obliczenie oprocentowania pożyczki pracownik pożyczki z zfśs pozyczki od osob rywatnych w zorach ranking banków w polsce kredyt kredyt bank lubawa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości mińsk mazowiecki kredyt bank zmiana danych w jakim banku warto brać kredyt ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny w credit agricole teorie pożyczki publicznej kredyt bank deutschland kredyt bank online 24 bezpieczne pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów opole pożyczki 24h warszawa kredyt w banku pko bp opinie czy dostanę kredyt w profi z komornikiem przetarg na kredyt bankowy 2013 kredyt bank lublin narutowicza tel kredyt bank w poznaniu godziny otwarcia kredyt dla studentów bzwbk pożyczki bez biku tarnów pożyczki pod zastaw gorlice pozyczki do domu walbrzych kredyt bez bik i krs kredyt w anglii forum kredyt bank złotów kredyt bez bik swidnica umowa pożyczki z żyrantem związki zawodowe w kredyt banku kasomat pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilówki skok pożyczki bez żadnych formalności kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander consumer bank oprocentowanie kredytów w banku pko bp pożyczki na dowód od zaraz kredyt bez bik 30000 umowa pożyczki pieniędzy raty kredyty chwilówki czy warto definicja pożyczki bankowej kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pocztowym kredyt bank zakopane godziny otwarcia szybkie pozyczki w domu kredyt bank przewalutowanie kredyty chwilówki płock sienkiewicza pożyczki gotówkowe chorzów pożyczki kokos kredyt bank radom kontakt kredyt samochodowy dla mundurowych kredyty bez bik piotrkow tryb kredyty chwilówki w tvn pożyczki pozabankowe w koninie bocian pożyczki gowork pożyczki dla jednostek samorządu terytorialnego kredyt gotówkowy bez bik dla zadłużonych szybkie pożyczki częstochowa kredyt w banku polskim praca dodatkowa pożyczki robert kotowski pożyczki kredyt bez banku jak uzasadnic pozyczke na remont pokoju pozyczki pozabankowe infolinia kredyt bank warszawa aleja krakowska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wysokie mazowieckie kredyt samochodowy bre bank pożyczki chwilówki współpraca kredyt bank w mlawie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik nowy sącz kredyt mieszkaniowy brak spłaty w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy praca w bocianie pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki kępno pożyczki pozabankowe opole oprocentowania w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny bph oprocentowanie elk pozyczki bez bik w domu umowa pożyczki w transzach kredyt bank grybów najtańszy kredyt na 30 tyś bez bik pożyczki polaków kredyt bank mielec mickiewicza kredyty mieszkaniowe co trzeba wiedzieć kredyt dla studenta mbank kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki za granica kredyt bank gold profit kredyt bank lezajsk druki wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp ubezpieczenie pożyczki skok stefczyka kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pko pożyczki pozabankowe w śremie kredyt bank call center kredyty gotówkowe bez bik łódź kredyt studencki bzwbk 2014 umowa pożyczki co to jest pożyczki chwilówki na dowód katowice pozyczki chwilówki z komornikiem gdansk kredyt bankowy kodeks cywilny tablica pl pożyczka na sam dowód mińsk maz warrus pożyczki kontakt kredyt bez bik koszalin kredyt bankowy plan pracy kredyt bank kolobrzeska bank pko kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt samochodowy czy gotówkowy forum kredyt bank pożyczka szybkie kredyty gotówkowe pozabankowe pożyczki prywatni inwestorzy ekasa pożyczki szybkie pożyczki w olsztynie pożyczka na dowód na oświadczenie wałbrzych pozyczki kredyt 24 kredyt gotówkowy w santander opinie kredyty chwilówki kraków nowa huta kredyt bank twardzickiego kredyty bez bik sandomierz gros pożyczki włocławek pożyczki bez biku poznań kredyt bank oddział marki godziny otwarcia pozyczki na dowod konin kredyt samochodowy na oświadczenie bez bik kredyt samochodowy bank pekao sa potwierdzenie umowy pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki kontakt duze pozyczki pod weksel prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa kwota pożyczki angielski kredyt mdm banki umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs gofin kredyt bank lubin jana pawła pultusk prywatne pozyczku 2014 kredyt porównanie banków pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki windykacja kredyt w gospodarce banku kredyt na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd katowice kredyt chwilówki płock pożyczki na dowód kraków komornik pożyczki społecznościowe pożyczki udzielane przez gminy pożyczki kredyty bez dochodów pożyczki pod nieruchomość kredyt orange pod jaki numer kredyty chwilówki pomysł na biznes kredyt bank w rumi kredyt bank oddział w nowym sączu kredyt bank retkinia kod do kredytu w orange pozbankowa pożyczka 10000 długoterminową kredyt bank nowy świat kredyt bank sa nip regon kredyt bank w borku wlkp kredyty bez bik płock kredyt bank filia marki kredyt bank legionowo godziny otwarcia kredyt bank powstańców warszawy pożyczki z opóźnieniami pozyczki na procent słupsk pożyczki pod weksel łódź kredyt bank lokaty 3 miesieczne kredyty gotówkowe bez bik rzeszów kredyt bank grojecka kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego w banku pocztowym pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla pracowników kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rolnika kredyt gotowkowy kalkulator prywatne pozyczki na dowod szczecinek kredyty bez bik głogów kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego umowa pożyczki osoba prywatna kredyt bank wroclaw chrobrego kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty umowa pożyczki co powinna zawierać pożyczki bez umowy o prace łodz pożyczki prywatne dla osób z komornikiem pożyczki odnawialne udzielane przedsiębiorcom kapitalizacja odsetek pożyczki umowa pożyczki odsetki ustawowe pożyczki prywatne tarnów pożyczki na agroturystykę pożyczki gotówkowe lublin kredyt bank w oświęcimiu kredyt na mieszkanie bank zachodni pożyczki gotówkowe dla pracujących za granicą umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a osobą fizyczną mikropożyczki dla przedsiębiorców dłużnik nie oddaje pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank opinie kredyty chwilowka sosnowiec udziele pozyczki na umowe katowice pożyczki w domu nowe miasto lubawskie odroczenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego w pko wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez pożyczkobiorcę banki dające wszystkim kredyt samochodowy pozyczki bez sprawdzania w bik ostrów wielkopolski pożyczki społeczne w polsce kredyt chwilówka 5000 kredyty pozyczki bez biku kredyt bankowy bez bik kredyt bez biku lodz pozyczki dla osob krd i pracujacych na czarno szczecin kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2013 kredyt bank centrum obsługi biznesu odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej wzór pożyczki bez bik do 2000 zł kredyt pozabankowy na weksel pożyczki społecznościowe ranking pożyczki na dowód wałbrzych oblicz ratę pożyczki pekao pożyczki dla dużych firm kredyt konsolidacyjny definicja pożyczki dla firm pko kredyty chwilówki rawicz kredyt mieszkaniowy pko kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny rodzina na swoim kredyt bank żary telefon kredyt bank w bialymstoku kredyt bank fundusze notowania bank pko sa kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bez bik tarnowskie góry pozyczka za zastaw auta zagranicznego klodzko kredyt konsolidacyjny w boś banku umowa pożyczki pcc zwolnienia kredyt bank legionowo kontakt kredyt bank mafia kredyty chwilówki bez krd kredyt bank środa wlkp kredyt bank karta concerto umowa pożyczki od udziałowców pożyczki dla uczących się bank pko kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank kościuszki katowice kredyt bank biała podlaska wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs wzór pozyczka chwilowka w 15 min wroclaw kredyt bankowy a śmierć kredytobiorcy szybkie pożyczki bez bik poznań czy komornik sprawdza umowe kredytowa bocian pożyczki słupsk kredyt pozabankowy na oświadczenie kredyt bank praktyki kredyt mieszkaniowy emeryt kredyty sms bez bik pożyczki prywatni inwestorzy banki udzielające kredytów bez bik umowa pożyczki z członkiem zarządu umowa pożyczki wzór bez odsetek kredyt pozabankowy plock pożyczki w domu klienta lubin 24 h pożyczki kontakt kredyt bank żeromskiego tel kredyty bank wbk ekasa pożyczki bezpieczne kredyty dla firm na oświadczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny z zadłużeniem kredyt bank godziny otwarcia tczew kredyt bez bik lublin kredyt bez bik polkowice kredyt mieszkaniowy 2014 kalkulator pożyczki typu bocian kredyty chwilówki centrala tychy ducato pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy bank bph pożyczki prywatne koszalin pożyczki pod weksel bez przedpłat kredyt bankowy ranking kredyt bank warszawa wawozowa alior bank kredyt kredyt studencki na mieszkanie opinie pozyczki poza bankowe bez sprawdzania zdolności pożyczki bez bik lubin przez telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny podstawa prawna kredyt bank warszawa dział windykacji pożyczki pozabankowe wieluń duże pożyczki wycena bilansowa pożyczki w walucie obcej pożyczki chwilówki w lesznie pożyczki oddłużeniowe dla rolników bocian pożyczki adres bocian pożyczki białogard kredyt bez bik debica kredyt bank swift pożyczki chwilówki poznań głogowska pożyczki prywatne bez wpłaty kredyt w banku zagiel kredyt bank wypłata z bankomatu bez prowizji kredyt bank świecie kredyty chwilówki gdynia kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kopernik kredyt bank nowe ogrody gdańsk umowa pożyczki ustawa kredyt na samochod bez bik prywatny warszawa kredyty chwilówki ostrów mazowiecka pożyczki pozabankowe żywiec kredyt studencki bzwbk 2011 oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank bph kredyt bank łączy się z alior bank kredyt na oświadczenie pożyczki internetowe kredyt chwilowka w markach pożyczki bez baz kraków pozyczka na umowe zlecenie w czestochowie placówki kredyt banku w rzeszowie kredyty konsolidacyjne expander podatek od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank rawa maz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank piotrków kontakt pożyczki społecznościowe w domu euro pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank kredyt bank wroclaw godziny otwarcia kredyt bank włocławek plac wolności kontakt wong pożyczki porównanie pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki prywatne pod weksel warszawa kredyt bank lubuskie pożyczki gotówkowe bez biku ing bank online kredyty z komornikiem kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej alior bank kredyt studencki nowe zasady odsetki od pożyczki podatek pożyczki chwilówki wonga kredyt bank druki zaświadczeń przedawnienia pożyczki kredyt bank oława kontakt jakie jest opracowanie dla pożyczki pod konto w pko kredyty mieszkaniowe blog pożyczka pozabankowa merritum bank pożyczki środa wlkp bezpieczny kredyt pozabankowy zabezpieczenie pożyczki proz pożyczki bez bik łódzkie kredyt konsolidacyjny na 20 lat bez zabezpieczeń udzielić pożyczki po ang pożyczki oblicz ratę umowa pożyczki do spółki z oo kredyty konsolidacyjne kraków przedawnienie umowy pożyczki bankowej

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad