wycena pożyczki gwarancja pożyczki kredyt bez bik zaswiadczen praca pożyczki bocian pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki w pracy kredyt bank kudowa zdrój omyła pożyczki pożyczki prywatne przemyśl kredyt bank zgubienie karty kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator ing kredyt chwilówki zabrze kredyt samochodowy meritum bank kredyt bank lodz piotrkowska pozyczki pozabankowe na dowod 4000 zl kredyt bank departament prawny kredyt bank łask kredyt w skok stefczyka kredyty chwilówki łowicz udziele pożyczki prywatnie kraków pożyczki bez bik w bydgoszczy bardzo szybki kredyt bez bik kredyty chwilówki rzeszów kredyty chwilówki dla bezrobotnych pożyczki marka bydgoszcz meritum pozyczka na wyciag z konta umowa pożyczki prawo cywilne pożyczki prywatne z dostawą do domu pożyczki kredytowe praca w bocianie pożyczki pożyczki wodzisław śląski kredyt studencki pko okazanie legitymacji kredyt bank wycena kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator wkład własny potrącenia pożyczki mieszkaniowej optima pożyczki oddziały asper pożyczki forum pożyczki na dowód chojnice umowa pożyczki wibor umowy kredytowe w spółce komandytowej marża banku kredyt obrotowy kredyt bank lublin godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu wzór oakham pożyczki asper pożyczki opinie umowa pożyczki aneks wniesienie aportem pożyczki pozyczki na weksel u klienta w domu mazowieckie wzór oświadczenia pożyczki pieniędzy pożyczki na dowód kłodzko udzielać pożyczki ang kredyt mieszkaniowy stałe oprocentowanie uzasadnienie pożyczki remontowej kredyt bank toruń fosa staromiejska kredyty chwilówki os teatralne bocian pożyczki poznań praca kredyt bank wydział windykacji odsetki ustawowe od pożyczki 2011 raciborz pozyczka pod weksel kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank żagiel kontakt kredyty bez bik opinie udziele prywatna pozyczka śląsk pozyczki prywatne bez zaswiadczen bez bik i krd tczew wierzyciel pożyczki bez bik kredyty pozabankowe definicja kredyt bank kasprzaka warszawa kredyt online bez biku pożyczki dla zadłużonych forum kredyty bez bik miedzyrzecz kredyt bank sa legnica pożyczki na dowód szybko pożyczki prywatne umowa cywilno prawna kredyt samochodowy ing kalkulator umowa pożyczki dla urzędu skarbowego adam lorek pożyczki pożyczki oddłużeniowe dla rolników pożyczki bez bik żyrardów pożyczki bez bik kołobrzeg koszty pożyczki prywatnej kredyt orange 1zl odsetki od pożyczki w deklaracji vat kredyty bez biku jelenia góra kredyt samochodowy alior bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny kruk wzór pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi w jakim banku wziac kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki lubelskie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki vivus warunki kredytu studenckiego w pko bp pożyczki pozabankowe starogard gdański kredyt bank warszawa wiatraczna pozyczki bez zaswiadczen w uk kredyty bez bik i krd walbrzych pożyczki w planie kont kredyty chwilowki dabrowa gornicza oprocentowanie kredytów idea bank kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa zlecenie numer telefonu do kredyt banku zagiel pożyczki wysokooprocentowane oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp kredyty dla zadluzonych w biku poznan umowa pożyczki skok stefczyka kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę komornika szybkie pożyczki bez bik kielce kredyt bank kursy walut chf kredyt bank nowe miasto lubawskie pożyczki 1000 wzór umowy o pożyczkę w zastaw kredyt konsolidacyjny chorzów pożyczki barczewo kredyt bank w bielsku podlaskim kredyt konsolidacyjny zabrze kredyt bank oferty pracy pozyczki z komornikiem miedzyrzec podlaski kredyt tarnobrzeg umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne podatek kredyty chwilowki kepno pożyczki w skoku forum kredyt konsolidacyjny a refinansowy formularz spłaty pożyczki pożyczki od ręki bez zaświadczeń kredyt w uk forum kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatów za granicą kredyt bank w ząbkach umowa pożyczki jaka forma kredyt konsolidacyjny jaka rata pożyczki dla każdego lombard mikołów kredyt bank gdynia świętojańska godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki pracowniczej rafał kania pożyczki wykop kredyty pozabankowe cieszyn bocian pozyczki radom kredyty chwilówki logo kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim ranking pożyczki bez bik i krd poznań opodatkowanie umów pożyczki jak księgować odsetki od udzielonej pożyczki kredyt bank ełk słowackiego pożyczki ltro pożyczki chwilówki na dowód białystok 50000 kredytu z komornikiem w koszalinie pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2011 pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych umowa pożyczki pod weksel wzór kredyt bez bik z komornikiem pozyczki posrednictwo warszawa bez dochodu tanie pożyczki na dowód kredyty chwilówki uwaga tvn kredyt na oświadczenie kredyt ustawa prawo bankowe bocian pożyczki praca zarobki pożyczki społecznościowe wikipedia umowa pożyczki spółki pożyczki na własną działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank jelenia góra kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny pko sa pożyczki przez internet oszustwa kredyt bank działdowo kredyty bez bik szczecinek karencja w spłacie pożyczki pożyczki prywatne wrocław forum funkcje pożyczki kredyt bank kraków oddziały kredyt bank warszawa ochota parabanki kredyty chwilówki pożyczki gotówkowe na konto kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibanku pożyczki lider pożyczki na dowód przez internet alior bank kredyt w rachunku bieżącym dla firm kredyt bez bik na działalność gospodarczą wzór na obliczenie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyty pozabankowe kalisz oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej w pko sa pożyczki w domu klienta polkowice pożyczki na dowód ostrów wielkopolski idea bank jakie oprocentowanie kredytu kredyty chwilówki praca tychy rentowność pożyczki potwierdzenie zawarcia umowy pożyczki kredyt bank bankomaty włocławek pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości prywatne spłata pożyczki z amber gold jak zaksięgować umowę pożyczki między spółkami kredyt bank lista haseł jednorazowych udzielenie pożyczki po angielsku kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim opinie prywatny inwestor udzieli pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne bz wbk kredyty na umowe na czas okreslony pożyczki na rok umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej wzór kredyty bez bik przez internet kalkulator pożyczki bank śląski kredyt samochodowy w banku pko bp kredyty chwilówki praca forum kredyt bank warszawa tarchomin kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim forum kredyt bank rozwiązanie umowy pożyczki pozabankowe chrzanów optima pożyczki do domu gdańsk kredyty konsolidacyjne na 10 lat bocian pożyczki olsztyn pozyczki umowa na zlecenie krakow kredyt samochodowy nowa firma kredyt bankowy pdf chomikuj pożyczki łowicz kredyty pozabankowe krakow bez posrednikow pożyczki na dowód podobne do providenta wzór umowy pożyczki pienięznej kalkulator pożyczki lukas kredyt bank wizja lokalna potrącenie pożyczki z odprawy emerytalnej kredyt bank sa gorzów wlkp kredyt gotówkowy bez bik pożyczki na dowód bez dochodu pożyczki darowizny pożyczki de minimis pożyczki na dowód lubuskie kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku forum pożyczki na rok przez internet pożyczki tak to kredyt bank 24 kb pożyczki w skoku kredyt w banku skok kredyt bank zywiec godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku nordea opinie kredyt gotówkowy dla firm bez bik pożyczki z ubezpieczeniem orange one kod na kredyt pożyczki pozabankowe w ciechanowie kredyt w banku wymagania kredyt bank żagiel oddziały kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior banku forum kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej w ing domowa pożyczka bocian pożyczki na dowód inowrocław bocian pożyczki piotrków trybunalski kredyty chwilówki pierwsza za darmo kredyt bank oława godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki spółce przez wspólnika obliczenie podatku od pożyczki pozyczka pozabankowa mazowiecki bez dochodow kredyt bez bik dla rolnika odsetki od pożyczki a koszt uzyskania przychodu kredyt pozabankowy długoterminowy umowa pożyczki wzór bez odsetek kredyty pozabankowe w toruniu kredyt pekao sa kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe dobre miasto umowa pożyczki wysokość odsetek kredyty chwilówki przedłużenie bank pocztowy kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a zus pozyczki chwilowki bez bik krd od reki zabrze małgorzata iwańska pożyczki opinie pożyczki dla pracowników kredyt w credit agricole forum pożyczki gotówkowe millenium pożyczki dla firm na oświadczenie pożyczki bez bik września kredyt bez biku na dowód kredyty chwilówki myszków kredyt konsolidacyjny korzyści kredyt bank zagan jak księgować pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki radomsko opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki wspólnika pożyczki pozabankowe wieluń prosell pożyczki szybkie pożyczki śląsk kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochody z zagranicy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez małżonka kredyt mieszkaniowy ile wkładu własnego kredyty mieszkaniowe dofinansowanie kredyt chwilówka warunki kredyt bank zaswiadczenia kredyt bank pocztowy forum kredyt bank pabianice ul zamkowa kredyt z banku rozwoju rady europy kredyt bank w mikołowie kredyt konsolidacyjny porównywarka kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt prywatny bez bik krd big kredyty chwilówki nobiles kredyt studencki pko bp kontakt podatek od pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty bez bik walbrzych kredyt bank osiedle polan nowe pożyczki bez bik kredyty chwilówki franczyza pożyczki forminx finance umorzenie pożyczki zmarłemu pracownikowi pożyczki pozabankowe rzeszów kredyty chwilówki nowy targ pozyczki przelewy bez bik kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe koszt szybkie pożyczki śląsk kredyt bank s a ul kasprzaka 2 8 konwersja pożyczki na dopłaty pozyczki deblin bez bik oprocentowanie rachunku depozytowego w kredyt banku alior bank karta kredytowa na dowod kredyt banku infolinia udzielenie pożyczki innej firmie osoby prywatne udzielające pożyczki na procent w ndm kredyt studencki pko asper pozyczki forum pożyczki kredyt dla zadłużonych kredyt bank zagiel kontakt pożyczki prywatne cieszyn pozyczki pozabankowe przez internet legnica kredyt bank ostroleka godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy multibank forum pożyczki ogłoszenia zmiana nazwiska a kredyt w banku pozyczka bez dochodu skarabeusz kredyt bank w legnicy godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki oprocentowanej pożyczki na weksel śląskie kredyt bank zeromskiego godziny otwarcia getin bank kredyty samochodowe telefon pożyczki chwilówki w lesznie pożyczki bez bik w warszawie korzystne pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe z bikiem bank pko kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki 1500 kredyt bank sa radom kredyty chwilówki optima pozyczki gros leszno umowa o zwrot pożyczki kredyt bankowy jego rodzaje kredyt mieszkaniowy stary portfel kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik bydgoszcz szybkie pożyczki piła kredyt w banku hsbc uk pożyczki bez bik bartoszyce pożyczki bez bik biała podlaska poręczenie pożyczki w pracy pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki 24h warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior banku forum czy bank stanfader udziela kredytow bez bik kredyt bank w ostrowi mazowieckiej kredyty gotówkowy bez biku kredyt samochodowy mbank mikropożyczki online pożyczki bez bik na dowód kraków pożyczki od ręki lublin kredyt bank polna kredyt bank zakładanie konta kredyty mieszkaniowe bez biku kredyt bank wolomin godziny otwarcia kredyt bank które bankomaty bez prowizji pożyczki pod zastaw złota warszawa pożyczki na dowód od ręki gdynia alior bank sa kredyt kredyt bank długie ogrody godziny otwarcia pozyczki bez bik z obsluga w domu pożyczki dla podmiotów ekonomii społecznej kredyt bank 24 infolinia umowa zlecenie kredyt w banku kredyt od ręki bez biku kredyt bank problemy z logowaniem pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu gdańsk kredyt bank lomza dworna kredyt w banku pocztowym dla pracowników pożyczki pozabankowe bez biku potrzebuję pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank biuro obsługi klienta szybkie pożyczki bez bik bydgoszcz kredyt z komornikiem w łodzi kredyty chwilówki warszawa grójecka czy można dobrać kredyt w getin banku forum pożyczki na leczenie kiedy kredyt bankowy ulega przedawnieniu alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie bocian pożyczki katowice kontakt akropol pożyczki kredyt bank bankomaty łódź partner pożyczki opinie pożyczka od 18 lat bez bit pożyczki provident kraków kredyt bank gdynia karwiny godziny otwarcia kredyt bank łomianki kredyt bank w pabianicach oprocentowanie pożyczki lombardowej kredyt studencki pko 2012 pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik forum umowy pożyczki po angielsku kredyt bank godziny otwarcia placówek kredyt w orange jaki nr pożyczki bez biku i z komornikiem wysokie pożyczki na dowód umowa pożyczki dla osób fizycznych kredyt bank świebodzin kontakt kredyt bank rezygnacja z konta kredyt bank ślaski przedawnienie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej marlena nowakowska pożyczki opinie kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki bez weryfikacji wniosku pożyczki bez bik chełmno kredyt prywarny z zabezpieczeniem ubezpieczenia pro domo pożyczki kontakt nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bank jakie bankomaty za darmo pożyczka od osoby fizycznej turek dobra pozyczka warszawa dla zadluzonych kredyt bank poznan krauthofera udzielę pożyczki prywatnej bez przedpłat odsetki ustawowe od umowy pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki ciechanów pożyczki optima bydgoszcz kredyty bez bik stalowa wola pożyczki pozabankowe ostróda pożyczki chwilówki zielona góra oświadczenie pożyczki kredyt bank sa zagiel rejestracja umowy pożyczki od udziałowca polska pozyczka dla bedacych w uk kredyty bez bik kutno pożyczki 30 stki pożyczki ratunkowe pożyczki dla mikrofirm bez bik odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem kredyty pozabankowe chorzów kredyt studencki pko bp termin składania wniosków kredyt bank w krośnie udzielone pożyczki prezentacja w bilansie potwierdzenie zawarcia umowy pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki alior bank kredyty gotówkowe bank spółdzielczy udzielenie pożyczki innej firmie kredyty chwilówki chrzanów umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyty chwilówki katowice warszawska kredyt bank w międzyzdrojach w jakim banku kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt bank warta kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorstw kredyt bank zarząd kredyt bank plac solny jaki jest numer na kredyt orange kredyt bank wakacje kredytowe umowa spłaty pożyczki na raty kredyt bank sa oddział lublin pożyczki dla niepracujących pożyczki prywatne od rodziny kredyt mieszkaniowy a firma na ryczalcie pożyczki gotówkowe chorzów skarabeusz pożyczki krotoszyn pożyczki przez internet dla firmy kredyt bank oświęcim godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik 2000 pożyczki pozabankowe ostrowiec pożyczki bankowe kalkulator kredyty chwilówki bytom ul jagiellońska pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet bez bik kredyt bank wadowice godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum pożyczki bez bik w radomiu ewidencja odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bank leasing kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander kredyt bank otwock kredyt dla bedacych w bik katowice kredyt bank w lubartowie natychmiastowe pożyczki przez internet pozyczka bez sprawdzania parkmar pożyczki fundusze inwestycyjne pożyczki kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych łódź godziny przelewow kredyt banku pożyczki od ręki łódź kredyt bank warszawa kosiarzy kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w allianz banku kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp kalkulator kredyt rns banki pożyczki łódź opinie kredyty dla nowo powstalych firm bez bik umorzenie pożyczki koszt podatkowy kredyt bank laczy sie szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet umowa pożyczki spółki ze wspólnikiem kredyt ratalny a umowa na czas określony kredyt bank zmiana limitu dziennego kredyt bank depozyt pożyczki od osób prywatnych bez przedpłat pożyczki chwilówki z dostawą do domu kredyt bank infolinia lublin kredyt bank w wyszkowie podatek od pożyczki w rodzinie 2013

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad