kredyt studencki pko wniosek kredyt konsolidacyjny bank polski bocian pożyczki kontakt warszawa eurobank kredyt kredyt chwilowki lubin pożyczki na dowód osobisty bez zaświadczeń kredyt w banku dla zadłużonych kredyt bez bik zory deutsche bank kredyt bez zatrudnienia kredyty chwilówki jaworzno leopold bankomaty kredyt banku w białymstoku opodatkowanie pożyczki od rodziców kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż udzielę pożyczki prywatnej 2011 kredyt pozabankowy bez bik forum pożyczki chwilówki żory umowa pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie pozabankowe kredyty wnioski pożyczki pod zastaw opatów kredyt chwilówka jarocin kredyt bank lokaty oprocentowanie 2012 pożyczki w uk pożyczki bocian kamień pomorski kredyty bez bik szamotuły pożyczki od osób prywatnych toruń kredyt bank polkowice praca umowa pożyczki w walucie obcej a pcc chwilówki bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt konsolidacyjny na 12 lat pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń o dochodach pożyczki dla rencistów wrocław nazwa pożyczki udzielonej przez bank kredyt bank konto osobiste 7 pożyczka 20000 w lesznie bez bik wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób z komornikiem szybki kredyt 5 tys niski procent opolskie pozyczki bez bik i krd numerz tel kredyt studencki pko ostatnia transza kredyty bankowe plan kont kredyt bank kondratowicza kontakt bank pko sa kredyt studencki dokumenty księgowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyty pozabankowe atiz kredyt w banku śląskim bocian pożyczki koscierzyna pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych lublin www kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt bez bik do 10 tys wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór pożyczki prywatne sosnowiec kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku bgż kredyt bank niepodległości pożyczki od osób prywatnych na procent kredyty bez bik długoterminowe kredyt konsolidacyjny z niska rata kredyt bank które bankomaty bez prowizji kredyt bank myszków pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty bez bik i krd dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny 25000 pożyczki polska różne polska usługi cetelem 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gotówkowe płock pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości bydgoszcz warunki przyznania kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp kredyt bank garbary 71 poznań pożyczki prywatna gdzie wziac kredyt bez biku kredyt bank warszawa wawozowa kredyt bank w mińsku maz bocian pożyczki opinia szybki kredyt bez bik i big umowa pożyczki dla udziałowca wzór kredyty chwilówki soho bocian pożyczki legnica umowa pożyczki od wspólnika spółki z o o kredyty chwilówki uwaga pokwitowanie spłaty pożyczki wzór kredyt bank demo pożyczki chwilówki łódź narutowicza kredyt bank sa chełm kredyt mieszkaniowy w noble bank pro domo pożyczki praca kredyt konsolidacyjny 150 tys bez zgody wspolmalzonka kredyt samochodowy który bank pożyczki bez bik na telefon pożyczki od osób prywatnych siedlce pożyczki dla firm kraków udzielić pożyczki english kody orange na kredyt kredyt mieszkaniowy bz wbk forum zagraniczny inwestor pozyczki fundusz korona pożyczki kredyt bank koło tel kredyt konsolidacyjny bnp paribas opinie pożyczki dla młodych podrobiona umowa pożyczki kredyt dla firm bez bik kielce kredyty i pożyczki długoterminowe w bilansie kredyt bank adres główny umowa pożyczki a vat kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla 2014 nowe pozyczki udzielane w domu lublin pożyczki alter meritum bank kredyt online kredyt bank turek kontakt best partner pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik dla firm kredyty mieszkaniowe wcześniejsza spłata postbank kredyt samochodowy pożyczki na dowód z komornikiem kredyt bank 9 oddział warszawa kredyt bank kolbuszowa pożyczki dla firm bez bik big krd pko bank polski wniosek o kredyt studencki kredyty mieszkaniowe pko bp forum kredyt chwilówka opole bez bik pożyczki na dowód od 19 lat godziny przelewow w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami umorzenie pożyczki w spółce komandytowej pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez dochodu kredyt bank rybnik plac wolności kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander bank pozyczki dla osob krd i pracujacych na czarno szczecin optima pożyczki katowice kredyt bez bik w płocku kredyty bez bik dabrowa gornicza kredyty chwilowki grojecka umowa pożyczki wspólnika do spółki kredyt bank pionki pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd warszawa umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a osobą fizyczną pożyczki kredyt dla zadłużonych bocian pożyczki lidzbark warmiński kredyty poza bankowe lublin adresy i nr tel kredyt bank iban bic pożyczki udzielone pracownikom w bilansie bankowe kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt gotówkowy w banku pko bp pożyczki bez bik w gorzowie wlkp pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen przez internet pelikan pożyczki pożyczki lfr kredyt konsolidacyjny w db kredyt opinie pożyczki domu pożyczki od osób prywatnych ogłoszenia pozyczki prywatne do reki pozyczki udzelane w domu warszawa santander kredyt w salonie samochodowym ktorym kredyt bank lipowa białystok godziny otwarcia dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp kredyt bank warszawa stara miłosna kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku 2012 pożyczki na święta kredyt bank zytnia 15 pożyczki gotówkowe krd kredyt bez bik złotów pożyczki dla młodych kredyt konsolidacyjny meritum bank kredyt studencki forum prawne partner pozyczki naklo nad notecia kredyt studencki pko wniosek kredyt bank romera zastrzeżenie karty kredyt bank pożyczki w vivus opinie pozyczki gotowkowe pock w jakim banku opłaca się wziąć kredyt kredyty oddłużeniowe pozabankowe kompensata pożyczki z dywidendą umowa pożyczki między osobami prawnymi pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej forum kredyt bank wirtualna karta kredytowa kredyt bank 3 maja słupsk umowa pożyczki zwrot pożyczki a oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki opracowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw kredyt bank poznan godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik w banku umowa ramowa pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim warunki bocian pożyczki przyznawalność umowa pożyczki z własnym pracownikiem umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami prawnymi kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie warunki kredyt bank rejestracja kredyt konsolidacyjny w chwilówkach alior bank kalkulator kredytu samochodowego pożyczki bez krd bik pożyczki na weksel toruń kredyty chwilówki mysłowice potrzebuje pożyczki bez bik pożyczki piotrków trybunalski kredyt mieszkaniowy pko kalkulator pożyczki na dowód ostróda umorzenie pożyczki po angielsku bocian pożyczki skargi umowa pożyczki spółce z o o wzór kredyt bank kasprzaka 2 8 kredyt pod zastaw auta bez biku pożyczki bocian praca kredyty mieszkaniowe nowe zasady 2013 jak zwiększyć kredyt odnawialny pekao umowa pożyczki na raty wzór umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi a zus kredyty dla bezrobotnych kredyt pozabankowy na oswiadczenie firmy wycena pożyczki na dzień bilansowy pożyczki w domu płock pożyczki społecznościowe działalność gospodarcza pożyczki chwilówki legionowo pożyczki bez bik komornik oprocentowanie pożyczki w bankach pożyczki pozabankowe on line oddziały kredyt banku w lublinie kredyty bez bik na dlugi okres splat inowroclaw 50000 kredytu z komornikiem w koszalinie pożyczki dla firm warszawa pożyczki chwilówki pruszków kredyt bankowy a pozyczka kredyty chwilowki klodzko pożyczki pozabankowe takto kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki kredyt bank radość udzielenie pożyczki podmiotowi zagranicznemu umowa pożyczki miedzy członkami rodziny wzór umowy pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki nasielsk kredyty bez bik i krd dla firm kredyt bank windykacja meritum bank kredyt opinie kredyt bank chełm kontakt pożyczki na dowód debica pożyczki mieszkaniowe ranking pożyczki bankowe bez bik kredyt samochodowy getin bank kalkulator pożyczki na weksel gdańsk kredyt bankowy i jego funkcje pozyczki bez zaswiadczen chrzanow pożyczki na rozwój firmy pożyczki społecznościowe forum banki ktore udzielaja kredytu przez internet pożyczki pod zastaw piotrkow extra kasa pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłuzonych kontakt pożyczki kalkulator kredyt bank notowania kredyt bank warszawa kondratowicza definicja pożyczki podporządkowanej kredyty bez bik świdnica kredyty chwilówki czechowice dziedzice kredyt bank lokaty strukturyzowane podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bez bik forum 2012 eurocash pożyczki lublin niebezpieczne pożyczki pożyczka bez krd forum kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza tel kredyt na mieszkanie w banku millenium kredyt studencki warunki pko przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku kredyt w santander bank kredyt bank sa katowice pozyczki bez bik i krd numerz tel jak wziasc kredyt w banku pocztowym pozyczka typu providen euro cen bocian kredyt bank aktywacja karty kredytowej kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking banków kredyt bank królewska 55 zwrot pożyczki bez umowy pisemnej kredyt bank lublin zana 38 d grudziadz parkmar pozyczki kredyty chwilówki ciechanów kredyt bank rzeszów godz otwarcia umowa pożyczki skok kredyt bank lodz wolczanska wzór umowy pożyczki z zfśs jak księgować pożyczki kredyty chwilówki koszalin spłata pożyczki walutowej w złotówkach kredyt konsolidacyjny expander kalkulator kredyt bank wykaz bankomatów kredyt bank rachunek depozytowy kredyt bez bik knurów kredyt bank niepodległości pożyczki gotówkowe porównanie ofert pożyczki online lista umowa pożyczki pcc jak wypełnić kredyt samochodowy dla rencistów kredyt z komornikiem bez opłat kredyt samochodowy ge money bank pożyczka na oświadczenie online 3000 kredyt samochodowy oferty banków pod jaki nr wziąć kredyt w orange kredyt bank sa warszawa oddziały pozyczki bez bik dabrowa tarnowska kredyt bank warszawa godziny otwarcia sobota kto udzieli pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt gotówkowy eurobank online pożyczki pod zastaw rtv warszawa kosiński pożyczki pożyczki bez granic siemianowice śląskie pozyczki internetowe bez sprawdzania bik i krs male kredyty anglia kruk pozyczki bielsko b kredyt bank ostrow wlkp kredyt bank mysłowice kredyty chwilówki tychy kadry umowa pożyczki na zakup mieszkania niezarejestrowana umowa pożyczki porównanie kredytów mieszkaniowych maj 2013 kredyt bez bik cieszyn pożyczki bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczki pod zastaw w poznaniu gdzie kredyt samochodowy bez bik kredyt bank lokata opinie najnowsze pożyczki chwilówki online czy pożyczki pozabankowe są bezpieczne kredyty w pko bp sa szybki kredyt w jakim banku najlepiej wziasx pożyczki gotówkowe toruń pożyczki bez bik bank kredyt bank białołeka bez bik kredyty bez sprawdzania bazy bik pozyczki na dowod bez zaswiadzczen i limitów wiekowych umowa pożyczki od rodziny a pcc nowe pożyczki chwilówki online kredyt bank poznań winogrady kredyt bank piła sikorskiego pożyczki na rozwinięcie działalności gospodarczej ing bank kredyt samochodowy kredyt konsolidacyjny co to znaczy pożyczki pozabankowe legnica pożyczki na kopalni bocian pożyczki chojnice regulamin pożyczki w eurokoncie kredyt bez biku koszalin pożyczki na dowód sosnowiec pożyczki przemyśl kredyty bez banku kredyt konsolidacyjny 50 tys kredyt bank kęty pozyczka filemon pożyczki w kasynach kredyt bez bik pszczyna kredyty bez bik bielsko kredyty mieszkaniowe dla osob pracujacych w uk kredyt bank węgrów kredyt bank które bankomaty bez prowizji profi credit warunki otrzymania pożyczki regulamin pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank nowy targ kredyt w banku spoldzielczym pszczółka kredyt inowrocław kredyty bez bik na mieszkanie kredyt bank sa żagiel pożyczki na dowód kwidzyn kredyty bez bik i krd olsztyn kredyt bank lubin tel bocian pozyczki windykator terenowy pożyczki chwilówki bez bik ranking kredyt bank koniec dąbrowa górnicza kredyty dla osob w bik pożyczki na dowód bez bik łódź wyłudzenie pożyczki w providencie kasa branickiego pożyczki pozyczki lichwa pila kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko pożyczki prywatne siedlce kredyt konsolidacyjny co znaczy kredyty chwilówki goleniów kredyt mieszkaniowy bez wkładu własnego 2012 kredyt w banku pko sa forum kredyty pozabankowe dla zadluzonych z komornikiem pożyczki wbk pozyczki w pko kredyt on line pozabankowy pożyczki w domu śląsk kredyt bank sa akcje bank credit agricole kredyt mieszkaniowy bank millennium kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator eurobank kredyt w 15 minut pożyczki chwilówki ostrów mazowiecka kredyt studencki pko transze pożyczki gotówkowe płock kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki money kredyt bank rzecznik prasowy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej z wekslem kredyt orange 1zl pożyczki prywatne dla bezrobotnych najtańsze kredyty mieszkaniowe forum pożyczki pozabankowe mogilno potrzebuje pożyczki bez bik kredyt na dowod do reki bez dochodow gryfino szybkie pozyczki dla zadluzonych w uk dom pod zastaw kredytu okres oczekiwania forum pożyczki przez internet bez big bez zaświadczeń kredyt pozabankowy na kupno mieszkania kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku wbk kredyty mieszkaniowe bankier kredyt mieszkaniowy zasady przyznawania pożyczki chwilówki kościan pożyczki rodzinne bez podatku kredyt pozabankowy przez internet forum kredyt bank poleska godziny otwarcia kredyty bez sprawdzania w bazie bik umowa pożyczki między firmami wzór bank pko sa kredyt na dowód pożyczki pozabankowe wawa kredyty bankowe bibliografia kredyt konsolidacyjny 25000 kredyt bank 2012 ubezpieczenie pożyczki po co kredyt bank lodz wolczanska kredyt studencki pko na rok pozyczki bez sprawdzania w biku czy można wziąć kredyt w zagranicznym banku kredyt w banku bez pracy kredyt bank definicja pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie czy umowa pożyczki ulega przedawnieniu kredyt bankowy na zakup mieszkania pożyczki w anglii forum szybką pożyczka do domu klienta kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw pko umowa pożyczki pienięznej aviva pozyczki warszawa umowa pożyczki skutki podatkowe pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi lublin bocian pożyczki infolinia kredyt konsolidacyjny jaki procent pożyczki orange pokwitowanie odbioru spłaty pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki człuchów kredyt bank conrada warszawa godziny otwarcia przedłużenie umowy pożyczki kredyt bank mieszkanie dla młodych drugi kredyt w tym samym banku forum kredyt bank bez biku pożyczki chwilówki bielsko kredyt w getin bank opinie pożyczki od rodziny pcc duo pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki prywatne szczecinek koncepcja pożyczki zwrotnej kredyt bank oświęcim godziny otwarcia pożyczki indywidualne kredyt konsolidacyjny 70000 pożyczki bez granic siemianowice kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp opinie kredyt pod zastaw domu w banku cel umowy pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw międzyzdroje kredyt bez bik kutno pożyczki 24h kredyt bez bik nowy sącz kredyt bank bfg pożyczki gotówkowe zagiel pożyczka przez internet bez sprawdzania pko bp wrocław kredyt studencki umowa pożyczki bez terminu zwrotu bocian pożyczki opinie kredyt pozabankowy szybko kredyt bank infolinia z komórki współpraca pożyczki bez bik kredyt gotówkowy bez bik pożyczki internetowe ranking pożyczki bez bik chełm

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad