kredyt chwilówka przez sms pożyczki pod zastaw lublin kredyt pozabankowy gdzie kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp sa kredyty bez bik bielsko biala pożyczki przez internet bez prowizji pozyczki lichwa pila bocian pożyczki zabrze,gliwice umowa zwrotu pożyczki wzór mbank pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki korporacyjne pozyczka bartek pożyczki od rodziny a podatek pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeńpoznan pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen przez internet bocian getin bank wniosek o kredyt online pożyczki toruń kredyt samochodowy w banku pko kredyt bank w chrzanowie kredyt bank jasło kontakt mikropożyczki lubelskie kredyt bez bik i krd płock w jakim banku brac kredyt kredyt bank olkusz godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki profit kredyty chwilówki nr tel kredyt gotówkowy bez bik poznań kredyty bez bik lomza panda pozyczki opole kredyt prostoliczony śmierć kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik bydgoszcz wycena pożyczki na koniec roku alior bank kraków pozyczki na pit pożyczki 20 000 kredyt bank grupa kapitałowa kredyt konsolidacyjny w nordea bank kredyt bez bik i zus kredyt bez bik bielsko kredyty bez bik 10000 kredyt bank ukraina optima pożyczki dla domu pożyczki biznes forum pożyczki ratunkowe poznań getin bank kalkulator zdolności kredytowej banki ktore udzielaja kredytu przez internet kredyt studencki banki 2012 kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 186 pożyczki bez wpisu do bik dyrektor kredytbank zamość śląsk pożyczka prywatna pod weksel umowa pożyczki pieniędzy u notariusza pożyczki poznań kredyt bank oprocentowanie konta oszczędnościowego kredyty bez bik będzin kredyt konsolidacyjny charakterystyka kredyt studencki pko przedluzenie kredyty chwilówki głubczyce bocian chwilowka kredytową nr tel międzyrzecz kredyt w banku pekao jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z wfośigw umowa pożyczki a us kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka kontakt kredyty bez biku w kutnie kredyt bankowy pod zastaw samochodu pożyczki chwilówki słupsk pożyczki pod zastaw łuków żyrowanie pożyczki idea bank warunki pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki zestawienie pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych poznań w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na budowe domu pożyczki gotówkowe anglia pożyczki bocian reklama pożyczki ogłoszenia warszawa kredyt bank zielona gora kontakt pożyczki i darowizny w rodzinie kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki kościuszki jak udzielić pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bez bik 24 wzór umowy dobrej pożyczki kredyt na zakup ziemi bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku forum udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel szukam szybkiej pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór darmowy pożyczki na dowód długoterminowe pożyczki pod weksel trójmiasto bocian pożyczki sms kredyt bank wypłata z bankomatu kredyty mieszkaniowe warunki otrzymania ewidencja pożyczki od udziałowca odsetki karne umowa pożyczki kredyt bank białystok radzymińska godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank niemcy najtańsze kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking kredyt samochodowy w getin bank opinie kredyty gotówkowe bez bik lublin kredyt na samochód bez bik zaświadczeń kredyt mieszkaniowy 3x0 opinie pożyczki bocian bytów easy cash pożyczki opinie pożyczki bez bik podkarpacie kredyt bank sprzedaż walut kredyt bank konsultant pożyczki bez bik wrocław forum kredyt bank krosno godz otwarcia kredyt bank konto bankowe kredyty mieszkaniowe bank millenium pożyczki barczewo kredyt konsolidacyjny a gotówkowy wycena otrzymanej pożyczki na dzień bilansowy kredyt w banku spoldzielczym kredyt bankowy jako żródło finansowania pozyczki bez sprawdzania baz jaworzno szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank kolo alior bank kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego pożyczki bez bik z dostawą do domu kredyt bank w raciborzu ekspres kasa pożyczki bank pko bp kredyt firmowy abil pożyczki kredyt bank pszczyna kontakt kredyt bank adres lublin kredyt bank lokata strukturyzowana opinie kredyt samochodowy jaki bank wybrać pożyczki gotówkowe chwilówki przez internet najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej 2013 kredyt bank grójecka 45 godziny otwarcia jak udzielić pożyczki pozyczki banknot kredyt bank warszawa czynne w sobote kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie oprocentowanie odsetki od pożyczki angielski pożyczki w domu klienta w warszawie pożyczki notarialne kredyty bez biku grudziadz umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank sa kursy walut bocian pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyty banki ranking kalkulator kredytu samochodowego w mbanku kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku wbk pożyczki wrocław pozyczki jarocin bez zaswiadczen bez bik kredyty bez bik w lodzi w ktorym banku najtanszy kredyt kredyty chwilowki lask pożyczki chwilówki vivus kredyty chwilówki dzierżoniów kredyt bank bankomat prowizja warunki kredytu w banku millenium kredyt bank włocławek kontakt kredyty chwilówki opinie praca kredyt w uk gdzie najlepiej mąż bierze pożyczki bez mojej wiedzy kredytypożyczki oddłużenia śląskie kredyt studencki pko aneks pożyczki bez bik kutno kredyt bank pruszków kontakt kredyt bez bik do 5000 niedzielne pożyczki prywatne kredyt konsolidacyjny chojnice kredyty bez bik pszczyna oprocentowanie pożyczki w skoku stefczyka umowa pożyczki pcc 2013 szybki kredyt bez bik pożyczki chwilówki w przemyślu pozyczki na dowod osobisty kredyt bank nip regon nobilon gdansk pozyczki umowa pożyczki między dwoma osobami umowa pożyczki spółka komandytowa kredyt bez biku gdansk oddłużanie pożyczki najtańsze kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking pożyczki pozabankowe z obsługą w domu kredyt bank regulamin ekstrakonto bank kredyt dom lębork pozyczki i kredyty bez bik i krd pożyczki kokos kontakt kielce pożyczki bez bik najtańsze kredyty konsolidacyjne forum jak uzasadnic pozyczke na remont pokoju pozyczki na raty reklama pożyczki vivus kredyt mieszkaniowy bez zdolności kredytowej eurocent pożyczki chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny z ubezpieczeniem kredyt pozabankowy na firmę kredyty chwilówki kierowca kredyt bank w warszawa pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic pożyczki zagranicznej a pcc kredyty chwilówki świętojańska nefis pożyczki pożyczki unijne na otwarcie działalności kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw pko bp kredyt bez bik ostrów wlkp kredyt bank rozmowa kwalifikacyjna pozyczka dla pracujacym w czechach kredyt bank kolbuszowa kredyt bank mokotowska 49 pożyczki na dowód polkowice pożyczki na dowód ekspres kasa umowa pożyczki przykłady potwierdzenie spłacenia pożyczki pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kielce umowa pożyczki pieniężnej między osobami fizycznymi kredyt samochodowy w santander opinie umowa pożyczki wzór pieniędzy kredyt bez bik dla firmy banki kredyty dla firm pożyczki bez bik dla firm pożyczki inwestycje kredyt bank online logowanie kredyt bank sosnowiec godziny otwarcia udziele pożyczki prywatnej forum pożyczki bez biku ełk kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziców wzór szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyty i pożyczki państwowego długu publicznego kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp umowa cywilna pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt bank demo kb24 pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej pożyczki dla każdego 48 potrzebuje pinie pożyczki u prywatnej osoby krakow kredyt konsolidacyjny wrocław pożyczki warszawa bez zaświadczeń warunki kredytu w kredyt banku kredyt bank wojska polskiego kredyt chwilówka na telefon kredyt bank warszawa centrum pożyczki prywatne z dostawą do domu udzielę pożyczki prywatnej szybko i bez sprawdzania umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne wzór pożyczki ostrów wlkp dla zadłóżonych kredyty pozabankowe poznan look finanse pożyczki jak wziąść pożyczke kredyt mieszkaniowy bez bik forum pożyczki bez bik gostynin umowa pożyczki treść wzór umowy pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt mieszkaniowy a praca za granicą pożyczki optima praca pozyczka bez sprawdzania baz szczecin oferta kredyt bank historia banku kredyt bank wielkokacka żyrowanie pożyczki kredyt samochodowy w banku bgż kronos pożyczki opinie pożyczki prywatnie poznań kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki przyznania kredyt bez bik vivus pożyczki umowa pożyczki a darowizna pożyczki w banku pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy firma kredyt studencki w jakim banku 2011 kredyty chwilowki pozyczki nowy targ 24h przez telefon kredyty chwilówki 5000 kredyty bez bik bankowe pożyczki dla bezrobotnych pila idea bank kredyt na start firmy opinie kredyt bez bik grójec kredyt bank sa investor relations kredyt konsolidacyjny 25000 kredyt inwestycyjny w credit agricole kredyt gotówkowy w pko sa kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy dla mlodych malzenstw pożyczki krapkowice deklaracja odsetki od pożyczki pożyczki bez sprawdzania rejestrów kredyt w pko opinie jak księgować pożyczki ujęcie pożyczki w bilansie kredyty chwilówki słupsk kredyt konsolidacyjny na działalność gospodarczą kredyty chwilówki z zajęciami komorniczymi pozyczki w lodzim z dojazdem do klienta kredyty chwilówki białystok lipowa 45 kredyt bank żagiel lublin kontakt pożyczki bez zgody współmałżonka kredyt bez bik i krd dla firm kredyty bez bik lodz mikropożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności 2014 pożyczki bez bik wodzisław śląski kredyty bez bik ogłoszenia pożyczki pozabankowe starogard gdański zwrot pożyczki przychód kredyt w pko bp opinie 2012 pozyczka dla zadłuzonych kredyty chwilówki w domu klienta witam kredyt bez bik i krd kredyt bank w ostrowie wlkp bank pko sa kredyt studencki dokumenty pożyczki pozabankowe na umowe cywilno prawna najtanszy kredyt w jakim banku kredyt bank autodealing kredyty chwilówki inwestycje opinie pożyczki świąteczne na dowód alior bank kredyt gotówkowy online kredyty bez bik będzin lichwiarskie pożyczki gotówkowe czestochowa historia pożyczki przedawnienie długu pożyczki prywatnej przyrzeczenie udzielenia pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe bez bik kredyty bez biku gdynia pożyczki poza bankowe turek odsetki od pożyczki koszt podatkowy kredyt bank ilość placówek pożyczki gotówkowe prywatne kredyt bank chałubińskiego 8 kredyt bank podkarpackie kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking banków kredyt samochodowy lukas bank pożyczki bez bik optima umowa pożyczki jaki procent pożyczki w domu klienta polkowice kredyty bez biku z komornikiem pożyczki darowizny pożyczki dla firm poznań kara za niezgłoszenie pożyczki do us rodzaje kredytów bankowych dla przedsiębiorstw pożyczki lichwiarskie łódź kredyty chwilówki wiki via sms przedłużenie pożyczki kredyt preferencyjny alior bank umowa pożyczki do spółki z oo kredyt na kąta w 15 minut bez big krd na dowód pożyczki prywatne na weksel gdańsk bocian pożyczki żory poręczyciel pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank warszawa kondratowicza godziny otwarcia udzielenie pożyczki wspólnikowi przez spółkę pożyczka od ręki dla 18 latkow pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych łódź pożyczki gotówkowe konsolidacyjne forum pożyczki bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie porównanie pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem pożyczki bez bik krd big umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej amber gold pożyczki opinie 2012 kredyt orange pod nr pożyczki na dowód lubuskie warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe mały kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku spoldzielczym kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zus i us kredyt konsolidacyjny najdłuższy okres pozyczki na raty pożyczki door financial kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rodziny bank pocztowy kredyt gotówkowy forum pożyczki chwilówki swarzędz pozyczka z obslugą klienta w domu pożyczki na dowód kielce bocian pożyczki mielec kredyt bez bik na start cash pożyczki regulamin pomocnej pożyczki oblicz ratę pożyczki pko bp pożyczki pozabankowe pleszew kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pekao sa kredyt bank krdbplpw czy trudno dostać kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bank raport roczny 2009 kredyt bank banco santander kredyt bank w kępnie kredyt bank lokata terminowa kredyt bank w stargardzie szczecińskim pożyczki pod weksel cała polska płock pożyczki bez bik pozyczki bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt bank godziny otwarcia słupsk alior bank kredyt warunki kredyt bank świętokrzyskie kredyt studencki pko czy warto kredyt bank w sokółce kredyt bank efs kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego lukas bank skok wybrzeże pożyczki opodatkowanie udzielenia pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe finansowo pożyczki bez historii kredytowej kredyt w banku bez umowy o prace księgowanie pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt bank warszawa ciołka 10 umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki dla pracowników księgowanie kredyt w orange jaki numer kredyt w eurobank opinie kredyt bank chałubińskiego warszawa jak zrobić przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku kredyt bank włocławek godziny otwarcia kredyt chwilówka rawicz potwierdzenie udzielenia pożyczki odsetki od pożyczki różnice kursowe kredyt bez bik gdzie najlepiej kredyt bank warsaw pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności 2014 global pożyczki świdnica szybkie kredyty przez internet kredyt bank garbary poznań godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki pruszków pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla sędziów kredyt bank bialystok radzyminska kredyty chwilówki kołłątaja wrocław pożyczki bez dochodu na dowód kredyt w banku alior kredyt bankowy pod zastaw mieszkania wyliczanie rat pożyczki niezgłoszenie pożyczki kredyty bez bik zielona góra kredyt bank vi oddział warszawa numery telefonu o pozyczke wrzesnia kredyt studencki pko decyzja nobilon gdansk pozyczki pożyczki prywatne świętokrzyskie pozycki bez zaswiadczeń bez bik 50000 odsetki od pożyczki jako przychód pożyczki długoterminowe przez internet kredyt bez bik inowrocław pożyczki chwilówki iława pożyczki bez bik na dłuższy okres pożyczki pozabankowe nysa pożyczki na dowód krasnystaw kredyt bank świętokrzyskie el global rzeszów kredyty opinie przewalutowanie kredytu w banku millennium kredyt z banku pod zastaw lokaty kredyt studencki wbk warunki kredyt orange pod jaki numer kredyt w banku łąckim pożyczki i kredyty preferencyjne oprocentowanie pożyczki w skoku kredyt samochodowy w santander consumer bank kredyt bank fuzja pracownicy kredyt bank limit wypłat alior bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt umowa pożyczki weksel kredyty chwilówki kierowca jak dostac kredyt w uk kredyt bankowy jako źródło finansowania pożyczki na rok czasu pożyczki bez bik we wrocławiu kredyt bankowy małe i średnie przedsiębiorstwa pożyczki w uk na rok bank ing czynny udzielanie kredytu pożyczki multika kredyt bank pakiet medyczny pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości andrychów pożyczki we frankach wyłudzenia kredytów tarnowskie góry pożyczki prywatne pod weksel 2013 pożyczki w domu klienta w warszawie pożyczki bez bik bez meldunku w dowodzie pozyczki u klienta w domu dolny śląsk kredyty chwilówki fabryczna 12 kredyt bank środa śląska godziny otwarcia pożyczki na świeta kredyty chwilówki żywiec pożyczki pomysł na biznes kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea bank kredyt bank karwiny godziny otwarcia pożyczki preferencyjne wikipedia konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kredyt bank sa inwestycyjny dom maklerski kredyt bank bielany wr kredyt bank wpłata na konto kredyt pozabankowy bez zaświadczeń pożyczki chwilówki bez bik ranking kredyt bank program rabatowy kredyty pozabankowe plock kredyt pozabankowy na raty kalkulator pożyczki idea bank górna wilda pożyczki kredyt bank bilgoraj godziny otwarcia chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki godula pożyczki z funduszu europejskiego kredyt w eurobanku bez bik księgowanie pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche bank opinie promocja pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank świdwin bocian pożyczki gotówkowe kalisz kredyt samochodowy ranking styczeń 2014 kredyt bankowy jest pożyczki opodatkowanie kredyt bank leszno al krasińskiego kredyt bez bik szamotuły pożyczki bez bik zus pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik pożyczki dla małych firm bez bik

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad