pożyczki między firmami a pcc kredyt bank mbank pożyczki panorama firm kredyt bank gdańsk grunwaldzka udzielone pożyczki w bilansie bocian pożyczki mail kredyty chwilówki zduńska wola ubezpieczenie pożyczki zwrot kredyt bank przelewy online jak wziąć kredyt w orange na 5 zł bocian pożyczki wagrowiec pożyczki amber kredyt szybkie pożyczki bez bik białystok kredyt bank przeniesienie karty kredytowej pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem online umowa pożyczki dla udziałowca wzór kredyt bez bik bytom bocian pożyczki praca łódź wyliczenie rat pożyczki szukam pożyczki dla firmy kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego 27 umowa o spłatę pożyczki pożyczka na dowód choszczno prywatne pożyczki na weksel pożyczki dla zadłużonych gorzów wlkp pożyczki na które trzeba uważać kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw 2014 oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej umowa pożyczki koszty pożyczki na dowód bielsko biała kredyt bank w polsce pożyczki gotówkowe alior bank żyrant pożyczki kredyt bank przemyśl ul dworskiego pożyczki 1000 pożyczki w rachunkowości szybkie pożyczki bez bik lublin kredyty bez sprawdzania w bazie bik pożyczki chwilówki przez internet opinie pozyczki skok bez info monitora umowa pożyczki pcc zwolnienie kredyt bank marza pożyczki udzielane w domu poręczenie pożyczki w pracy kredyt na dowód bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyty bez bik i big kalkulator rat pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank szuwarowa godziny otwarcia pozyczki w domu klienta wloclawek kredyt bank warszawa stara miłosna kredyt bank wrocław plac legionów pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik kredyt idea bank forum pożyczki bez weryfikacji kredyt w banku bez zaświadczeń jaki nr na kredyt w orange pożyczki na procent od osób prywatnych pożyczki pod weksel wrocław kredyty konsolidacyjne łódź obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bank ełk godziny otwarcia pożyczki cywilno prawne kredyt studencki bank pekao sa kredyt studencki pko oprocentowanie kredyt bez bik opinie pożyczki na dowód eurobank udzielać pożyczki po angielsku umowa pożyczki raty pożyczki optima opinie pożyczki oddłużeniowe warszawa kredyt bank kołobrzeska gdańsk godziny otwarcia pozyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank sieradz godziny otwarcia pozyczki dla mlodych prywatne bialystok szybkie pożyczki bez bik kielce kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyty pozabankowe gliwice umowa pożyczki dla dziecka umowa pożyczki banku pożyczki bocian łódź przez internet pożyczki z zajęciami komorniczymi pożyczki od osób prywatnych na procent 2013 helikon pozyczki pożyczki prywatne 10000 pożyczki państwowe ujęcie pożyczki w bilansie pożyczka na dowód w pro domo nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bez bik zaswiadczen pożyczki bez bik optima jaki kod w orange na kredyt kalkulator pożyczki pocztowy oświadczenie o przyjęciu pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa windykacja kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli w 2013 w jakim banku najłatwiej o kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki na świeta umowa pożyczki maksymalne oprocentowanie kredyt bank zywiec godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe pułapki pożyczki typu incredi kredyt bank w gorlicach kredyt bank licytacje umowa pożyczki spółka cywilna pożyczki gros kalisz kredyt bank zielonka godziny kredyty pozabankowe ranking pożyczki jeremie mazowieckie pożyczki bez bik dzierżoniów pożyczka 60000 bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pdf pożyczki ostatnia deska ratunku kredyt w rachunku bieżącym getin bank jaki bank da pozyczke bez biku kredyty chwilówki łódź piotrkowska kredyt bank chełm godziny otwarcia kredyty bez biku wadowice kredyt bank chełmża jakie banki daja kredyt w euro oprocentowanie nominalne pożyczki szybkie pożyczki wałbrzych kredyt chwilówki praca opinie potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki umowa pożyczki podatek od czynności cywilnoprawnych kredyt bank konsolidacja pożyczki na dowód krasnystaw skok kujawiak oferty pozyczki 2014 pożyczki bez bik chorzów kredyt bez bankowy kredyty niebankowe pozyczki pozabankowe na kazdy dochod siedlce pożyczka 40000 zl bez biku pożyczki amber kredyt mieszkaniowy dochody z zagranicy kredyt mieszkaniowy 120 000 pozyczka na dowód w tesco kredyt bank kontakt szczecin pozyczki na oswiadczenie o dochodach przedmiotem pożyczki mogą być kredyt bankowy a akt notarialny bocian pożyczki olsztyn pozyczki bez bik ktore mozna wyplacic na poczcie pożyczki delfin pożyczki na dowód w pko udzielę pożyczki prywatnej na procent kredyty studenckie wbk kredyt bank dłużnicy bank pko sa kredyty kalkulator pożyczki bez bik nakło nad notecią kredyt bank awaria lokaty w kredyt banku opinie pożyczki jst kredyt bez bik legionowo kredyty bez bik rzeszow kredyt samochodowy dla marynarzy umowa pożyczki z obcokrajowcem przedłużenie umowy pożyczki kredyt bez bik w pile kredyt abis kredyt bez bik nowy tomyśl dobre pożyczki pozabankowe umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs wzór getin bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt studencki bank zachodni kredyt pko sa forum czy umowa pożyczki ulega przedawnieniu ekspresowe pożyczki bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki od członka rodziny kredyty mieszkaniowe w jakim banku pożyczki przez internet ranking kredyt bank wspiera polskich żeglarzy pozyczka bez przelewania 1 gr kredyt konsolidacyjny parabank umowa pożyczki z budżetu gminy kredyt samochodowy mbank regulamin kredyty chwilówki w kaliszu pożyczki bez bik bogatynia pożyczki pozabankowe rzeszów broker pożyczki krajowe kredyt bank k24 kredyt bank sa opole pożyczki konsularne mbank pożyczki dla firm kredyt bank zaswiadczenie kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej eurobank kredyty chwilówki zabrze opolska 2 pożyczki w domu myszkow odsetki od pożyczki kup orion pożyczki kredyt bez bik optima kredyt bank wielicka kraków godziny otwarcia umorzone pożyczki pożyczki w domu klienta warszawa kredyt bank zgierz kontakt optima pożyczki telefon pożyczki od osób prywatnych podatek vivus uk pożyczki kredyt bank adresy w warszawie szukam pożyczki bez bik karencja w spłacie pożyczki co to jest kredyty bankowe ksiazki kredyty konsolidacyjne kalisz pożyczki inowrocław kredyt w alior banku opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny jak działa pożyczki dla studentów i absolwentów kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking banków warta pożyczki lublin cesja wierzytelności z tytułu pożyczki kredyt bank praga północ kredyt mieszkaniowy credit agricole forum pożyczki pozabankowe świdnica pożyczki bocian bielsko biała umowa pożyczki zawarta pod warunkiem umowa pożyczki wzór rodzina kredyt konsolidacyjny ge money bank kalkulator bank pko sa kredyty gotowkowe kredyty samochodowe alior bank nowe pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet bocian pożyczki słupsk kredyt samochodowy mbank oprocentowanie pko bp kamień pomorski kredyt odnawialny bez biku kredyty oddłużeniowe konsolidacja kredyt konsolidacyjny rodzina na swoim pożyczki bez bik internetowe kredyty gotówkowe bank pko sa pożyczki provident pozyczki z komornikiem w starachowicach getin bank kredyt samochodowy opinie twój kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp pożyczki w jeden dzień kredyty chwilówki wieliczka kredyty chwilówki facebook odsetki od pożyczki kup łódź pożyczki prywatne kredyt konsolidacyjny santander opinie umowa pożyczki notariusz cena pożyczki chwilówki gniezno kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator credit agricole kredyt bank lokaty bankowe kredyt bank wniosek kredytowy pożyczki bez bik słubice lubuskie pożyczki bez bik w starachowicach kredyty bez bik pszczyna pożyczki gotówkowe lublin kredyt bank lokaty 2011 umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a pit pożyczki gotówkowe w holandii kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę zadłużeń lokata w kredyt banku 6 5 odsetki od pożyczki od osoby prywatnej kredyt bank marki alior bank kredyt z ubezpieczeniem kredyt bank godziny otwarcia ostrołęka kredyt konsolidacyjny plusy i minusy kredyt konsolidacyjny 30 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank opinie pożyczki międzychód pozyczki dla osob w biku we wroclawiu kredyty studenckie mbank umowa pożyczki koszt notariusza bocian pożyczki podkarpacie tanie kredyty gotówkowe pozabankowe pożyczki z parabanków oprocentowanie pożyczki w banku kredyt bank wilda pożyczki bez bik włocławek kredyty bez bijk poznan wilda pożyczki panda opole pożyczki raty bank pko sa kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt konsolidacyjny czy warto kredyt bankowy na rozpoczecie dzialalnosci gospodarczej kredyt bez bik legnica pożyczka na procent brodnica pożyczki rolnicze kredyty chwilówki bez prowizji umowa pożyczki pieniężnej formularz kredyt bank rachunek dla firm kredyt bank złodzieje kredyt bank lokaty strukturyzowane pożyczki referat ranking kredytów w bankach pożyczki 30 tys kredyt studencki pko sa ekspreskasa pożyczka na dowód szybkie pożyczki bochnia pożyczki pozabankowe dla każdego kredyt bank leszno godziny otwarcia najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty chwilówki tarnów udzielenie pożyczki z budżetu gminy szybki kredyt bez bik krd pożyczki chwilówki w domu umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie do urzędu skarbowego kredyt w barclays przez internet pozyczka banknot siedlce pożyczki pod zastaw mińsk mazowiecki pożyczka bez bik na samochód pożyczki pod zastaw gliwice pożyczki na duże kwoty kredyt bankowy a pożyczka bankowa kredyty chwilówki grójec finan pożyczki gotówkowe ślimak pożyczki toruń rafał konarski pozyczki kredyt w banku pocztowym dla pracowników pożyczki dla zadłużonych uk kredyt bank dom maklerski pożyczki ze spłatą tygodniową kredyt konsolidacyjny chf getin bank konsolidacja kredytów kredyt bank z jakich bankomatów za darmo umowa pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie kredyt studencki pko bp żyrant kredyt konsolidacyjny wady i zalety kredyt bank sanok tel kredyt bank lokata przez internet kredyt bank mościckiego tarnów udzielanie pozyczek a vat kredyt konsolidacyjny 100 wartości nieruchomości pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości prywatne szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki prywatne giełda pko sa pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt w banku czy przez pośrednika pozyczki prywatne na weksel pożyczka bez sprawdzania w krd i bik kredyt banku sa pożyczki długoterminowe bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik ciechanow pożyczki prywatne chodzież kredyty bankowe praca licencjacka kredyt bank lokaty online umorzenie pożyczki wzór pisma kredyt bez bik na juz kredyty bez bik ostrów wielkopolski pożyczki duże kwoty w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na dom oszuści pożyczki prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi rolnej pożyczki pod zastaw giżycko kredyt konsolidacyjny z niskim dochodem mariusz dudziński pożyczki opinie pożyczki pozabankowe biała podlaska kredyty chwilówki dział marketingu kredyt samochodowy ranking banków kredyt bank łosice kredyt konsolidacyjny do 10 lat praktyka w kredyt banku pcc od pożyczki dla firmy kredyty bankowe i ich zabezpieczenia praca magisterska kredyt konsolidacyjny na firmę kredyt bank żeromskiego 77 kredyt bank reklama mafia kredyt oddłużeniowy w banku kredyt w banku w irlandii umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki kredyty bez bik bielsko biala kredyty chwilówki praca zarobki kredyt bank przelewy przychodzące praca w bocian pożyczki forum najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat bocian pożyczki dla kogo pożyczki prywatne opolskie kredyt bank w gliwicach pożyczki ekstra kasa kredyt w nordea bank opinie w jakim banku wziac kredyt gotowkowy kredyt bank raszyn godziny kredyt bank kolo minimalna rynkowa wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt online bez bik krd pożyczki w firmie bocian kredyt bank ul kasprzaka warszawa pożyczki inwestorskie pod zastaw pozyczki na raty kredyt bank starachowice telefon umowa pożyczki osobie prywatnej pcc od pożyczki od firmy getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego kredyt bank kondycja finansowa warunki uzyskania kredytu w getin banku kredyt bez bik tarnowskie góry pożyczki przez internet bez bik kredyty chwilówki bez bik pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorców sesje przelewów w kredyt bank kredyt bank sa tarnobrzeg kredyty chwilówki białystok walbrzych pozyczka w domu pozyczka 15 tys przez internet santander kupił kredyt bank luty 2012 kredyt bank długa kraków godziny otwarcia kredyty i pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank kupon 6 pożyczki polbank charakter pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe łódź kredyt na dowód przez internet bez biku kredyt bez bik inowrocław w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotowkowy kredyt bez bik pod weksel kredyt bank oferty kredytowe umowa pożyczki walutowej prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe bydgoszcz kredyt bank nowa karta kredyt bank świnoujście godziny otwarcia szybki kredyt bez bik on line refinansowanie pożyczki provident kredyt w jakim banku forum umowa pożyczki w rodzinie pozyczki z komornikiem sosnowiec kredyt bez bik i big online szukam pożyczki dla zadłużonych pożyczki na start dla firm kredyt dla zor w banku pocztowym kredyt bez bik ostrów wlkp pozyczki elblag bez zaswiadczen umowa zwrot pożyczki pożyczki bez bik dla bezrobotnych pożyczki prywatne jelenia góra kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku pko bp pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt konsolidacyjny gmina jak udzielić pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bankowy praca dyplomowa pożyczka meritum stargard pozyczka pieniezna w dublini pożyczki online 0 kredyty bez bik gumtree kredyt bank na pradze ulica adres pożyczki prywatne z komornikiem credit agricole swiebodzin pozyczka 10tys raty pożyczki przedawnienie szybkie pozyczki na dowod umowa pożyczki firmie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli w pko kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kraków kredyt bez bik gryfice pożyczki rumia kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pko sa pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania bydgoszcz aureus pozyczki pko kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pozyczki poza bankowe skarbiec kredyt bez bik lubin kredyt bank sa nip pożyczki bez formalności pożyczki bez bik na święta pożyczki online bez bik od 18 lat pożyczka prywatna bez sprawdzania baz kraków kredyt w banku spółdzielczym bez bik bocian pożyczki regulamin kronos pożyczki kontakt kredyt bank nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bank w krakowie pożyczki w all money bank pko sa kalkulator kredytu kredyt bank z jakich bankomatów kredyt konsolidacyjny ipko pożyczki provident kraków wzór umowy pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik przez internet pożyczki darmowe kredyt bank grudziądz kontakt pożyczki bez kosztów prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe białystok umowa pożyczki dla osób fizycznych kredyt bank demo pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki windykacja szybki kredyt online bez bik i krd spłata kapitału pożyczki kto bierze pożyczki kredyt studencki pko do kiedy wnioski kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik poznań kredyt bank kto jest wlascicielem kredyt bank legnica rynek godziny otwarcia kredyt bank marki godziny otwarcia w jakim banku kredyt konsolidacyjny forum pozyczki pozabankowe bez pracy potwierdzenie oddania pożyczki pożyczki bez żadnych zaświadczeń kredyty bez biku w kutnie pozyczki bochnia prywatne pozyczki bez baz kraków szybkie pożyczki przez internet na dowód bezbik najkorzystniejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 umowa pożyczki w fundacji kredyty samochodowe dla firm ranking bankomaty kredyt banku w kielcach najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kredyt bank 24 swift kredyty chwilówki dział marketingu kredyty chwilówki zgierz pożyczki franczyza optima pożyczki piła kredyt bank chf kredyt bank sa z siedzibą w warszawie windykator kredyty chwilówki kredyt samochodowy getin bank warunki

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad