kredyt bank w rawiczu kredyty hipoteczne lodz pod zastaw domu pekao sa kredyt studencki 2012 kredyt chwilówka bez bik i krd kronos pozyczki przyznawalnosc kredyt bank wałbrzych ul słowackiego pożyczki chwilówki ozorków pożyczki bez bik w opolu kredyt chwilówka w krakowie kredyt bank w lęborku ang pożyczki pożyczki 24 kredyt prostoliczony opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik częstochowa pożyczki internetowe ranking kredyt konsolidacyjny bph oblicz ratę pożyczki w pko bp anulowanie umowy pożyczki kredyt bez bik gorzów wlkp kredyt bez bik na raty pożyczki 24 pro kredyt konsolidacyjny online kredyt bank wrocław strzegomska godziny otwarcia good cash pożyczki idea bank opinie kredyt samochodowy przelewy w kredyt banku godziny kredyty chwilówki gorzów wlkp potrzebuję pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank koszalin kod na wzięcie kredytu w orange kredyty w anglii forum pożyczki 300 zł meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie getin noble bank spłata kredytu umowa kredytu bankowego a pożyczka czy kredyty chwilówki działają na prawie bankowym pozyczki do domu gniezno kredyty chwilówki kalkulator kredyty bez bik we wrocławiu kredyt bank adres siedziby pożyczki od ręki bocian kredyt bank biskupiec bocian pozyczki dla zadluzonych kredyt bank leżajsk kontakt kredyt bankowy a kredyt konsumencki kredyt bank lipowa białystok pożyczki do domu piła kredyt konsolidacyjny bez formalności pozyczki bez krs i bik na oswiadczenie forum pożyczki pod zastaw radom kredyt na dom w uk forum pożyczki płock kredyt bank mazowieckie kredyt w sobotę pozyczka na dowod bez biku w wieku 18 lat umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej wzór umowa pożyczki pienięznej kredyt w credit agricole forum kredyt dla policjantow promocja 2014 umowa pożyczki wzajemna gdzie uzyskać kredyt bez bik regulamin dobrej pożyczki kredyt bank leszno tel jak udzielić pożyczki kredyt bank puławska 303 kredyt bank zastrzeganie kart kurs chf w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki od udziałowca pcc pożyczki chwilówki bochnia pozyczki bez big i bik dla zadluzonych pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach online kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2013 kompensata odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki czechowice pożyczki pozabankowe kartuzy białystok pożyczki bez bik kwota nominalna pożyczki kredyt bank radzymińska białystok kredyt bank w busku oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej szybkie pożyczki online opinie kredyty bankowe praca dotacje unijne pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe bochnia regulamin udzielania pożyczki dla firm w mbanku pozyczki lichwa pila pożyczki pozabankowe ełk wyłudzenie pożyczki kredyty chwilówki brzesko kredyt w orange jaki numer kredyty chwilówki świebodzin pożyczki bocian koszalin przeliczenie pożyczki kredyt bank poznan godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lomza pilsudskiego kredyt w 5 minut kredyt bank tczew godziny otwarcia pozyczki pozabankowe z zajeciem komorniczym boleslawiec jak wziąć kredyt 5 zł w orange kredyt studencki warunki kredyt bank oddział krynica zdrój pożyczki trzebiatów kredyt konsolidacyjny bez poręczycieli kredyt bank lokaty terminowe oprocentowanie kredyt mieszkaniowy karta podatkowa kredyt bank bednarska finan pożyczki kłodzko pożyczki chwilówki bez bik big krd kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank opinie pożyczki w skoku stefczyka kredyty chwilówki koło kredyt bank skoczów telefon kredyt bez zus us gdańsk umorzenie pożyczki koszt podatkowy kredyty mieszkaniowe po nowym roku pożyczki przez internet lista firm kto płaci podatek od pożyczki z zagranicy pożyczki gotówkowe sosnowiec kredyty chwilówki siemianowice śląskie pożyczki inowrocław pozyczka typu provident euro cen bocian kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższe oprocentowanie kredyt bankowy inwestycyjny zasady udzielania pożyczki w providencie kredyt bank kampania telefoniczna udziele pożyczki prywatnie wrocław pożyczki prywatne bez baz kraków kredyt w cetelem bank pożyczki pozabankowe kartuzy umowa pożyczki gofin umowa pożyczki i pcc rzeszów grunwaldzka 42 czy warto wziąźć kredyt kredyt studencki bank pekao sa odsetki od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego umowa zwrot pożyczki kredyt bez bik opole kredyt bank wysokie mazowieckie getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy forum profi credit kalkulator pożyczki optima pożyczki konin kredyt bank kosztorys i harmonogram prac budowlanych pożyczki od osób prywatnych białystok kredyt samochodowy bez bik kraków kredyt bank placówki warszawa mokotów kredyt bank białołęka bez bik kredyty chwilówki szczecin krzywoustego pozyczki bez zaswiadczen chrzanow alior bank kredyt oferta podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki z poręczycielem kredyt bank konferencja bocian pożyczki kielce forum pożyczki vivus opinie forum kredyt bez bik dolnośląskie nieuczciwe pożyczki fast pożyczki kredyty na sam dowód pozabankowe racibórz pożyczki pod zastaw działki rolnej kredyt bank x oddział warszawa rejestracja umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym prywatny kredyt na mieszkanie bez wkładu kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank kredyty gotówkowe dla zadłużonych kredyty getin bank kalkulator najtańszy kredyt w którym banku kredyt pozabankowy na firmę w jakim banku wziąć kredyt rodzina na swoim bocian pożyczki gdynia kredyt konsolidacyjny bez badania zdolności kredytowej symulacja kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy kredyty albo pożyczki bez biku w grudziądzu pożyczka pod hipoteke w białogardzie w banku umowa pożyczki z poręczeniem numer kredyt do orange kredyt przez internet bez zadnych zaswiadczen pożyczki bez bik gliwice umowa pożyczki przelewem alior bank kredyt opinie kwota pożyczki brutto kredyt samochodowy dla żołnierzy kredyt z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet kredyty banku sgb pożyczka typu provident skarabeusz pożyczki przemysl czy trudno dostać kredyt w getin banku prywatne pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń poznań mikropożyczki pomorskie kredyt bank warszawa puławska kredyt bank piła kontakt praca pleszew biuro kredytowe bocian pożyczki przedstawiciele banki udzielające pożyczki kredyt na oswiadczenie pożyczki prywatne pozabankowe kredyt bank radzyń podlaski pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości małopolska aureus pożyczki pożyczki łódź plac wolności druk umowy pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt chwilówki nowy sącz kredyt bank kętrzyn pożyczki społecznościowe spłacalność pszczółka pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy ing oprocentowanie optima pożyczki lębork szybkie pożyczki piaseczno kredyt mieszkaniowy w 2014 roku kredyt w bos banku kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kredytowa forum commodus pożyczki kredyt bez bik 5000 wrocław kredyt bank program lojalnościowy pozyczki bocian kontakt sroda wlkp bocian pozyczki goleniow kredyt mieszkaniowy pko czas oczekiwania kredyt bank wyszogrodzka płock umowa pożyczki z oprocentowaniem kredyt bank oferty kredytowe kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta zarobki auto kredyt bez bik forum eurocash pożyczki lublin pożyczki gotówkowe z komornikiem pożyczki bez biku lublin kredyt bank łuków kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego w eurobanku banknot pozyczki kredyt bankowy proz kredyt na orange jaki numer ale gratka pożyczki pozyczki w domu na oswiadczenie elblag pożyczka na sam dowód bez przelewania pieniazków udzielenie pożyczki spółce osobowej przez wspólnika eurobank kredyt prywatne pozyczki pod zastaw szczecin kredyt bez biku lublin pożyczki bez biku w koninie pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe alior bank kalkulator udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę pożyczki bez bik big krd erif umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank kredyt bank sa lublin ul zana 39a kredyty bez bik slask kredyty mieszkaniowe lipiec 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny zabrze kredyt na wyciag bankowy pożyczki pfron kredyt gotówkowy eurobank online kredyt bank 1 oddział gdańsk zgorzelec pozyczka prywatna pożyczki bez krd pożyczki w domu klijeta na umowę o dzieło pożyczki roczne kredyt samochodowy online mbank opinie umowa pożyczki zwrot w ratach kredyt bank kontakt telefoniczny kredyty chwilówki warszawa ochota pożyczki chwilówki olkusz pożyczka w kredyt banku opinie gdzie dostane kredyt bez bik i krd kredyt mieszkaniowy deutsche bank opinie 2012 kalkulator rat pożyczki ing pożyczki 15 tys kredyty pozabankowe długoterminowe kredyt bank infolinia 24h kredyty pozabankowe bez bik pożyczki profi credit kalkulator pożyczki dla uczących się pożyczki chwilówki chojnice bank on pożyczki umarzanie pozyczek w parabankach pożyczki dla bankowców kredyt bez bik gumtree kredyt studencki warunki spłaty prywatne pożyczki w białymstoku pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka kredyty chwilówki szczecin wyzwolenia auto kredyt bez bik pozyczki z komornikiem boleslawiec kredyt gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy pozyczki prodomo wejherowo kredyt bank plac solny godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik gdańsk kredyt samochodowy sygma bank kredyty pozabankowe malbork kredyty chwilówka żywiec kredyt bankowy to aktywa czy pasywa umowa pożyczki a podatek pcc kredyt bez bik rawicz kredyty chwilówki bytom ul jagiellońska bank spółdzielczy biała podlaska kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki na nową działalność gospodarczą wzór umowy pożyczki weksel kredyt mieszkaniowy przy niskich zarobkach kredyt na samochód bez bik i krd konin kredyt bank bankomaty kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm zadłużonych umowa pożyczki bez podatku kredyty i chwilówki eurobank pozyczka przez internet bik kredyt bank w rawie mazowieckiej kredyt gotówkowy z bik pożyczki na dłuższy okres chwilówki płock pożyczki płock chwilówki bielsk pozyczki na dzialalnosc bez bik niespłacanie kredytu mieszkaniowego kredyt bez biku bez zaświadczeń pożyczki w domu klienta dzierżoniów pożyczki bez bik bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt bank bz wbk fuzja kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pko kredyt mieszkaniowy karta podatkowa kredyty chwilówki cieszyn kredyty chwilowki kepno kredyt konsolidacyjny skok jaworzno pożyczki fasadowe definicja kredyt bankowy wstęp kredyt bank biała podlaska kontakt kredyt bank siedlce godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku alior bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt kredyty bez bik i krd koszalin kredyty bankowe msp pożyczki pozabankowe świętokrzyskie firma udzielająca pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki wkład własny pożyczki chwilówki mogilno kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście kredyt samochodowy w mbank opinie kredyty chwilówki numer konta szybkie pożyczki bez bik szczecin kupon 1 kredyt bank kredyty bankowe msp kredyt bank pso mikropożyczki wielkopolska pożyczki od zaraz wrocław provident kredyty bez bik gniezno szybkie pożyczki bez bik warszawa kiedy kredyt w banku ulega przedawnieniu kredyt bez biku w stalowej woli pożyczki takie jak w providencie pożyczki z bikiem i komornikiem kredyty bez bik raciborz kredyt bank marki godziny otwarcia jaki dobry kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bez biku na dowód wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku credit agricole kredyty chwilówki płock opinie pożyczki pozabankowe bezrobotnych el global rzeszów kredyty opinie dotacje unijne pożyczki pożyczki unijne dla małych firm dolnośląskie kredyt studencki w pko bp forum kredyt bank profil spokojny kredyt bez bik online kredyt z komornikiem prywatny getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt samochodowy w getin banku opinie kredyt bank ror ekstrakonto kredyt w orange umowa o kredyt wypełniony wzór kredyty konsolidacyjne z opóźnieniami odsetki od pożyczki deklaracja kredyt bank gorlice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław kredyt bank banco santander fines pożyczki opinie pożyczki bez bik w brodnicy pożyczki z opóźnieniami w bik pożyczki w skoku pożyczki chwilówki na dowód bez zaświadczeń bocian pożyczki jakie dokumenty potrzebne wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy od brata umowa pożyczki jak wypełnić kredyt bank kto jest właścicielem kredyty chwilówki małopolska optima pożyczki do domu opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny 10 lat pożyczki bez bik jarosław umowa pożyczki dla pracownika kredyt bank zmienia nazwe kredyt bankowy a kredyt kupiecki kredyty chwilowki lebork pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat prywatne pożyczki częstochowa pożyczki ślimak poznań auti na kredyt bez bik pomorskie kredyt bank bogatynia godziny otwarcia pożyczki regita pożyczki bez krd olsztyn szybkie pożyczki bez bik warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bgż kredyt w banku na spłatę komornika kredyt bank kołobrzeska gdańsk telefon kredyty konsolidacyjne gotowkowe kredyt na dowód tarchomin siedziba warszawa kredyty gotówkowe bez bik forum pozyczki bez bik wegrow kredyty chwilówki gorzów sikorskiego pożyczki tuchola szybkie pożyczki koszalin kalkulator obliczania odsetek od pożyczki kredyt prawo bankowe definicja umowa o kredyt studencki pko bp pożyczki bez bik i krd płock mg finance pożyczki cesja pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla singli wniosek kredyt samo hodowy bez bik pożyczki od prywatnych firm pożyczki od osób prywatnych forum pożyczki do domu bydgoszcz pożyczki od osób prywatnych leszno wzór druku pożyczki bocian pożyczki starogard gdański pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2011 kredyt mieszkaniowy na zarobki z zagranicy kredyt pożyczka pozabankowa kredyt konsolidacyjny eurobank opinie pożyczki łobez pozyczki online kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 000 kredyt bank niemcewicza udziele pożyczki prywatnej szybko bez sprawdzania szybkie pożyczki przez internet ranking kredyt bank przejęcie 2011 kredyt bank kołobrzeska gdańsk pożyczki prywatne wałcz pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości śląskie kredyt w domu klienta lubon kredyt bank rumia gdańska pożyczki pomarańcza lublin pożyczki gotówkowe od ręki kredyt bez bik dla zadłuzonych odsetki od pożyczki a przychód kredyt bank gdynia skwer kredyt bank oferty kredytowe kredyt konsolidacyjny a rodzina na swoim oddziały kredyt banku białystok pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kielce kredyt bez bik strzelin kredyt bank lokata forum odznaka pożyczki narodowej 1933 kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych w bik prywatne pożyczki pod weksel łódź kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych forum kredyt bez biku bez zaswiadczen kredyt na pit infolinia pożyczki pro domo pozyczki w domu klienta kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej mbank pożyczki kraków konwersja pożyczki na akcje bezpieczny kredyt bez bik opinie kredyt bank w wałbrzychu getin noble bank kredyt opinie pozyczki na nowa firme pożyczki mława abis pożyczki infolinia kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki gofin karencja w spłacie pożyczki co to jest kredyty bez biku rzeszów mariusz tierling poznań pożyczki hortus pożyczki kredyt dla nowych firm bez bik porównanie kredytów mieszkaniowych maj 2013 szybkie pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat szybki kredyt online bez bik i krd kredyt bankowy literatura kredyt bank kariera kredyt bank tarnobrzeg skarabeusz pożyczki dąbrowa górnicza pożyczki pod zastaw starachowice kredyt bank dabrowa górnicza eurolan pozyczki kredyty pozabankowe dla osob z komornikiem kredyt bank sopot godziny otwarcia bank pko kredyt 20000zł kredyt bez biku gliwice bocian pożyczki nidzica czy kredyt bank jest czynny w soboty kredyt gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy opinie kredyt bank mielec godziny otwarcia kredyt bank plac powstańców warszawy kredyt bank jumper 3 pożyczki bez bik tarnobrzeg kredyt chwilówka prudnik umowa na czas określony kredyt mieszkaniowy forum siedziby chwilowki kredyt jaslo pożyczki gotówkowe bez poręczycieli pozyczki raz dwa trzy bez bik i krd prymus pożyczki okres przedawnienia umowy pożyczki kredyt bank licytacje kredyt bank kraków rakowicka godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki poznań praca kredyty chwilówki reportaż

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad