pożyczki do 300 zł kredyt bank forum 2012 pożyczki ratunkowe w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na auto pożyczki chwilówki pomorskie odsetki od pożyczki otrzymanej od udziałowca tanie pożyczki na dowód kredyt konsolidacyjny a umowa na czas określony pożyczki w bolesławcu kredyty bankowe szyguła kredyt bank wrocław kontakt umowa pożyczki w euro cechy pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki prywatne kołobrzeg pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego lukas bank kredyty chwilówki grunwaldzka pożyczki prywatne bielsko biała pożyczki na sam dowód bez zaswiadczeń łomża pożyczki gotówkowe opinie chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki godula kredyt konsolidacyjny czas oczekiwania kredyt bank grajewo kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2013 kredyt w banku za granica pożyczki jak w provident pożyczki jeremie koszalin pożyczki tylko na dowód umowa pożyczki cesja kredyt na mieszkanie bank pekao kredyt konsolidacyjny db oprocentowanie kredytu w fm banku pożyczki pewne szybkie pożyczki bez bik radom getin bank kredyt samochodowy bocian pożyczki lublin kredyt bank w żorach wycena pożyczki w walucie obcej definicja pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego keris wiesława sirek pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank godziny otwarcia koszalin kredyt samochodowy dla firm ing niespłacanie kredytu mieszkaniowego kredyty pko bp opinie kredyt konsumpcyjny w banku bph kredyt bank w kościanie lukas plus pożyczka pozabankowa bez bik kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole forum kredyt bank polisolokata kredyt bank konsultanci kredyty chwilówki strzelin kredyt w krakowskim banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank plac zbawiciela telefon pożyczki na projekty unijne pożyczki chwilówki bez bik poznań amortyzacja pożyczki podporządkowanej lodz bank pko bp kredyty dla wspolnot mieszkankowych kredyt bank w nowym sączu bocian pożyczki gdynia bank pko sa kredyty studenckie orange kod kredytu kredyt bank kepno pożyczki chwilówki w domu udzielenie pożyczki udziałowcowi kredyt mieszkaniowy na zarobki w anglii pożyczki bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt bank czeladź pożyczki bez bik rawicz pożyczki ratunkowe umowa pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi kredyty chwilówki jakie raty przeniesienie pożyczki na kapitał kredyt bank samochody poleasingowe kredyt bank biuro maklerskie pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta swidnica kredyt samochodowy kalkulator bank pocztowy panda pozyczki opole szybkie kredyty gotówkowe pozabankowe alior bank kredyt gotówkowy dokumenty pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych z komornikiem pożyczki na dowód przasnysz kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki godziny otwarcia oprocentowanie w getin banku kredyt warunki kredytu credit agricole kredyty mieszkaniowe dla samotnych matek 2013 pożyczki grajewo pozyczki bez zaswiadczen bielsk podlaski pożyczki dla emeryta kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku ing kredyty konsolidacyjne polbank pożyczki ze złą historią w biku kredyt bank iii oddział poznań alior bank oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego pożyczki ekspresowe na dowód pozyczki bez dochodu pożyczki chwilówki łódź piotrkowska kredyt bankowy warunki zgorzelec pozyczka prywatna udzielam uczciwych prywatnych pozyczek kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa godziny otwarcia przykładowa umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki pozabankowe bezrobotnych umowa pożyczki literatura tfad pożyczki kredyt lombardowy banku komercyjnego pożyczki prywatne od ręki kredyt mieszkaniowy abc rezygnacja z konta bankowego kredyt bank umowa pożyczki provident pdf pożyczki na umowę cywilno prawną warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych z komornikiem formularz pożyczki wzór warunki pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki nowe online kredyt bez biku dla zadłuzonych kredyty bez bik sosnowiec kredyt studencki pekao sa opinie księgowanie pożyczki z bgk pozyczka z bociana dla kogo kredyty mieszkaniowe opinie promocyjne kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczki blog kredyt konsolidacyjny w bs kredyty samochodowe dla firm bez bik pożyczki w kokos opinie kredyt bank wągrowiec umowa pożyczki między firmami wzór kredyt studencki pko kiedy spłata czy umowa pożyczki jest umową wzajemną kredyt konsolidacyjny dla działalności gospodarczej kredyty chwilówki opinie praca umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs księgowanie pożyczki bez bik strzelce opolskie kredyt bez bik pko kredyt studencki lukas bank kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy singiel na swoim szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe online szybkie pożyczki bez krd i bik optima sa pożyczki opinie jaki kredyt konsolidacyjny wybrać ewidencja pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie pożyczki w parabankach szybkie pożyczki bez dochodów santander bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator bank pekao sa ubezpieczenie kredytu kredyt bank warszawa abrahama pożyczki rzeszów pożyczki na dowód wrocław kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza bandrowskiego kredyt bank w zywcu przejęcie kredytu przez firme pożyczki płock kredyt rodzina na swoim bank pocztowy kalkulator darmowe pożyczki bez bik rejestracja pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe lokata swobodna kredyt bank gdynia bławatna gdzie udziela pozyczki ze zlym bikiem kredyt alior bank forum kredyt bez bik i krd szczecin kredyt bank łączy się z kredyt studencki pekao dokumenty pożyczki chwilówki na dowód poznań kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pekao sa szybkie pożyczki bez bik kalisz pożyczki na dowód zamość kredyt bank w lomiankach kredyt w banku millenium opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy z komornikiem pożyczki 4000 kredyt bank sa żagiel lublin pożyczki bez bik us i zus pożyczki chwilówka na dowód umowa pożyczki dla instytucji kultury kredyt bank produkty strukturyzowane oblicz kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyty chwilówki świdnica kredyt bez bik online 25000 pozyczki na dowód kraków kredyt dla nowo powstałych firm bez bik żyrafa pożyczki rejestracja kredyt bank godziny otwarcia skierniewice pożyczki od zaraz kredyt bank zarobki umowa pożyczki nieoprocentowanej wzór koszt pożyczki gotówkowej pozyczki z krd w starachowice kredyty bez zaswiadczen i bez biku przedawnienie umowy pożyczki kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko promesa udzielenia pożyczki pożyczki vivus opinie forum bocian pożyczki tarnów pan kowalski otrzymał kredyt w banku kredyty chwilówki skoczów pożyczki bez bik 2000 kredyt orange 2zl pożyczki do domu szczecin kredyt bank łódź ketlinga kredyt bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bankowy podział kredyt konsolidacyjny skok wielkopolska pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa opodatkowanie pożyczki podatkiem dochodowym pożyczki pozabankowe pod nieruchomość kredyt dla nowo powstałych firm bez bik kredyt bank aktualne oprocentowanie lokat wzór umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem kredyt w banku bgż opinie umowa pożyczki a umowa kredytu bankowego umowa pożyczki udziałowca wzór udzielam pożyczki prywatnej pozyczka z biura pracy wodzisliu pożyczki cashper chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki godula dokumentowanie pożyczki pożyczki dla rolników 2012 kredyt w banku spółdzielczym warunki w jakim banku wziąć kredyt bez zaświadczenia kredyt bank cennik opłat wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki na franczyzę kredyty chwilówki sieradz kredyt bank w ełku pcc od umowy pożyczki a kup pożyczki tlf kredyt bank warszawa ciołka pożyczki dla osób z komornikiem pożyczki w grupie kapitałowej bgk kredyt mieszkaniowy wzór umowy pożyczki z pracownikiem krakow ul dluga pozyczki money kredyt bank konto osobiste oprocentowanie pozyczki online bez przelewu kredyt konsolidacyjny oblicz raty pozyczki w domu klijenta jarocin kredyty na sam dowód pozabankowe racibórz kredyty w uk po polsku kredyt bank sprzedaż dewiz kredyty mieszkaniowe tanie kredyty chwilówki brzozów kredyty chwilówki forum praca pożyczki gotówkowe 50000 umowa pożyczki właściwość sądu znaczenie kredytów w działalności banku pożyczki poczta polska pożyczki chwilówki ostróda kredyt bez bik polkowice kredyt w orange kod pożyczka bez zaświadczec i bez sprawdzania w biku pożyczki dla zadłużonych gdynia pozyczki dla mlodych prywatne bialystok pozyczka do domu gdynia kredyt bank wroclaw godziny otwarcia pożyczki na oświadczenia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń provident kredyty bez bik czestochowa pozyczki pozabankowe pszczyna od 18 lat kredyt bank łódź zgierska 42a kredyt bank w ełku prowizja za uruchomienie pożyczki pożyczki całą dobę kiedy odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem kredyt bank bonarka kredyty chwilówki rrso kredyt bank wspólnoty mieszkaniowe umowa pożyczki miedzy członkami rodziny pożyczki chwilówki tomaszów maz provident pożyczki praca umowa pożyczki firmie kredyt samochodowy bez bik i big getin bank kredyty samochodowe forum potrącenie pożyczki z zfśs z zasiłku chorobowego kredyt bez bik żory kredyt studencki pko bp przedłużenie kredyt bez bik stargard kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych pożyczki do 5000 zł bez bik pozyczki bez zaswiadczen w inowroclawiu pożyczki gotówkowe gdzie najlepiej kredyt konsolidacyjny fortis forma pisemna pożyczki pożyczki w domu klienta optima pożyczki chwilówki za 0 kredyt konsolidacyjny bez umowy o prace w którym banku kredyt gotówkowy kredyty konsolidacyjne 2013 kredyt bank zwycięstwa gliwice kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim 2012 pożyczki chwilówki z dostawą do domu kredyt bankowy wstęp getin noble bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty mieszkaniowe po nowym roku polskie pozyczki opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy oplaty przedawnienie odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki na oświadczenie bocian pożyczki dla widniejących w krd kredyty bez bik rawicz kredyt w banku dla zadłużonych emida pożyczki prywatne pożyczki bez bik tychy kredyt bank janów lubelski poznan glogowska pozyczki bez biku kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca opinie bocian pożyczki myślibórz kredyt pozabankowy 10 tys pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie kredyt bez bik 20 000 pożyczki chwilówki śląskie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zus pożyczki konsolidacyjne z komornikiem pożyczki przez internet oszustwa pożyczki międzybankowe kredyty mieszkaniowe 2004 pożyczki pod zastaw wszystkiego poznań pożyczki w amber gold pożyczki pozabankowe typu provident kredyt bank z jakich bankomatów pożyczki bez bik od 18 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny wielka brytania kredyt bank krakow godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki lubliniec oprocentowanie pożyczki w alior banku kredyt bank centrum obsługi biznesu kredyt chwilówka nowa ruda kredyt bank białystok lipowa godziny otwarcia spłata pożyczki w innym banku kredyt studencki pko legitymacja po terminie pożyczki bezzwrotne dla firm fundusze inwestycyjne pożyczki kredyty i gwarancje bankowe zbigniew dobosiewicz pdf kredyt zagraniczny z komornikiem szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz kredyt bankowy regulacje prawne kredyt bank krosno bankomaty kredyt bank zarobki forum udziele pozyczki w bydgoszczy kredyt bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt dla nowych firm bez biku kredyty bez bik w olsztynie pożyczki w domu klienta łódź kredyt studencki pko bp termin składania wniosków jak zrobić przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku kredyt mieszkaniowy prowizja banku kredyt konsolidacyjny credit przeniesienie pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny poznań kredyt mieszkaniowy deutsche bank opinie 2012 pożyczki do domu poznań pożyczki chwilówki przez internet nowe pożyczki z negatywnym bikiem szybka pozyczka kwidzyn bank pożyczki pod zastaw rzeszów kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe kredyt inwestycyjny ranking banków kredyt bank lokaty opinie kredyty bez bik mława kredyty chwilówki forum praca jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z wfośigw kredyt w banku a krd pożyczki chwilówki lubań getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy forum kredyty bez bik slupsk pożyczki mieszkaniowe ranking pożyczki pozabankowe bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyty bez biku poznań pożyczki bez bik bochnia pożyczki w credit agricole kredyt bank przelicznik walut getin noble bank kredyt obrotowy pożyczki lombardowe warszawa umowa pożyczki przelewem kredyt bank legnica rynek kredyt bank karta junior oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego getin bank kredyt bank zambrów telefon gdzie kredyty bez biku wroclaw z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny credit kredyt konsolidacyjny przepisy kredyt bank belchatow godziny otwarcia kredyt eurobank online kredyt bank sa krs alior bank kredyt dla zadłużonych kredyty bez bik łódź kredyt konsolidacyjny dla pracujacych za granica kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkładem własnym kalkulator oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior bank kredyt oszczędnościowy w getin banku prywatna umowa pożyczki pieniędzy prywatne pożyczki na weksel kredyty konsolidacyjne forum kredyty chwilówki goleniów umorzenie pożyczki a przychód kredyty bez biku wałbrzych kredyt bank krapkowice kontakt alior bank przelicznik kredytu oprocentowanie pożyczki kalkulator kredyt w banku pekao sa opinie w jakim banku najszybciej kredyt pozyczki bez dochodu kredyty bez biku gniezno kredyt orange pop 1 zł poszukuję pożyczki pod zastaw kredyty chwilówki bez prowizji turbo express pożyczki polskie finanse pożyczki kredyt bank bezpieczeństwo pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń o dochodach pozyczki w domu klienta pożyczki jako źródło finansowania kredyt bank foksal godziny otwarcia kredyty bez biku gdańsk pozyczki bez biku kredyty pozabankowe rybnik kredyty bez bik 20000 bocian pożyczki gotówkowe legnica kredyt chwilówka ulotki odzyskanie pożyczki kredyt alior bank kredyty chwilówki zamość partyzantów poszukuję pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór doc profi credit pożyczki profit pożyczki opinie kredyt gotówkowy w santander oprocentowanie umowa kredytu w prawie rzymskim pożyczki online w 15 minut pro bono pożyczki pożyczki bez bik kasiora kredyt samochodowy bez bik kalkulator kredyt bank dyrektor hr kredyt on line pozabankowy prywatne pozyczki na procent dublin kredyt studencki pko transze pożyczki z up kredyt bank warszawa tel pożyczki białystok kredyt bank międzyrzec podlaski godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki polsko niemiecka pcc od umowy pożyczki dla pracownika kredyty i chwilówki pożyczki na dowód od 19 lat konfuzja pożyczki pozyczki bez biku online bocian pożyczki bez bik brzeg pożyczka prywatna białystok ogłoszenia banki które udzielają kredytów bez biku kredyt w polskim banku dla obcokrajowca pożyczki społecznościowe abis wzór na odsetki od pożyczki z zfśs kredyt gotówkowy mieszkaniowy kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator rat kredyt bank radom tel bocian pożyczki podobne kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego zus kredyt bez bik gotówkowy finan pożyczki legnica kredyt bank wibor 3m kredyty bez bik sochaczew pożyczki pod zastaw działki budowlanej odsetki od pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi kredyty chwilówki krzeszowice kredyty pozabankowe w toruniu kredyt konsolidacyjny zły bik kredyt bank myślenice godziny otwarcia pożyczki do 5000 bez bik część pożyczki państwowej puszczona w obieg pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik online kredyt bank warszawa ursus jak dlugo sie czeka na kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki bzwbk kredyty bank pko sa forum kredytowe kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczki dla zadłużonych białystok pożyczki skarabeusz nowy targ pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz gdańska pożyczka na dowód chwilówka w częstochowie pożyczki chwilówki pozabankowe bez bik pożyczki dla firm kraków pożyczki pozabankowe legnica kredyt bank wypowiedzenie umowy ubezpieczenia na życie kredyty bez banku pożyczki pod zastaw gołdap kredyt bank rawa maz godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki łódź piotrkowska kredyt bank koszt przelewu zagranicznego kredyt bank narutowicza 55b lublin kredyt na mieszkanie w getin banku wrocław pożyczki prywatne kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko czy umowa pożyczki musi być oprocentowana getin bank kredyt samochodowy ubezpieczenie kredyt bank jumper jak dostac kredyt w polsce pracujac w uk czy można wziąć pożyczkę na prawo jazdy pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw poznań

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad