kredyt bank puławska kredyt w banku spółdzielczym w łańcucie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla 2013 kredyty chwilówki wymagania pożyczki chwilówki na sam dowód wartość nominalna pożyczki kredyt bank gdansk chelm godziny otwarcia kredyt na firmę idea bank opinie pożyczki dla odrzuconych przez bik pożyczka bez umowy o pracę iz zadłużeniem kredyt bankowy w rachunku zysków i strat księgowanie pożyczki z wfośigw kredyt bez bik będzin blog pożyczki prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe rybnik pcc od pożyczki wspólnika spółki osobowej camperia pożyczki bez big mikropożyczki dla polski wschodniej mikropożyczki na start pożyczki pod zastaw łomża kredyt chwilowka daja bez bik kredyt w orange kod pożyczki krotoszyn umowa pożyczki ratalnej wzór druku pożyczki kredyty pod zastaw mieszkania lubań kredyt mieszkaniowy przy zarobkach 2500 kredyt bank kepno pozyczka w parabanku bez bik do 20000 pożyczki siemianowice śląskie kredyt bank koszt przelewu kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli dofinansowanie kredyt bank lease idea bank opinie kredyt na start pożyczki dla start up kredyty mieszkaniowe ranking 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny rzeszów kredyt bank twardzickiego kredyt bez biku zabrze kredyt bank pko bp kalkulator pro domo pożyczki płock umowa pożyczki od kolegi kredyty bez bik łomża kredyt chwilówki zabrze kredyty pozabankowe dla zadluzonych z komornikiem kredyt bank lubicz udzielenie pożyczki pkwiu pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen nowy sacz paulina dabrowska pozyczki kredyt bank leszno kontakt kredyty bez biku katowice alior bank i kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki wbk kredyt bank w międzyzdrojach pożyczki pozabankowe kościerzyna kasy stefczyka czy warto wziasc kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty chwilówki właściciel kredyt bank gdynia kontakt pożyczki z pup potrzebuje pożyczki mam komornika pozyczki bochnia kredyt bank pulawska 303 pożyczki w domu pożyczki chwilówki bez baz kredyt w banku oprocentowanie kredyt bez bik 4 tys kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy pożyczki dla zadłużonych uk fundacja warty i kredyt banku razem możemy więcej krs pożyczki online bez bik i krd wzór umowy pożyczki chwilówki kredyty chwilówki kedzierzyn kredyty pozabankowe definicja praca pożyczki bocian kredyt konsolidacyjny provident pcc od pożyczki udzielonej spółce przez udziałowca poliso lokata w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander bank pożyczki pozabankowe polkowice opinie pożyczki provident kredyt bank koszalin piłsudskiego 85 księgowanie pożyczki w walucie szybkie pożyczki kościan umorzone odsetki od pożyczki a przychód podatkowy kredyty chwilówki spłata kredyty bez bik krd gdansk wrzeszcz ul mickiewicza kredyt bank katowice pożyczki na dowód chełm szybkie pożyczki w uk dla polaków pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód kredyt pozabankowe online najkorzystniejsze pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank białystok radzymińska telefon kredyt studencki eurobank kredyt bank sa poznań kredyt bank warszawa czynne w sobote prywatne pożyczki bez sprawdzania pożyczki chwilówki do ręki bocian pożyczki wymagania pożyczki optima piła bezpieczny kredyt bez bik opinie zamknięcie rachunku w kredyt banku idea bank opinie kredyt obrotowy express finance pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny ge money bank kredyt samochodowy getin bank spłata pożyczki podporządkowanej kredyt bank w słupsku kredyt bank godziny otwarcia czestochowa pożyczki gotówkowe millenium pożyczki prywatne uk kredyty albo pożyczki bez biku w grudziądzu wzór podania o umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki wojenne pożyczki od osób prywatnych białystok kredyty mieszkaniowe pko bp forum pożyczka chwilówka prywatna wrocław pożyczki chwilówki toruń kredyty chwilówki gorlice kredyty chwilowki swidnica kredyt bank godziny otwarcia łódź kredyt bank wejherowo telefon kredyty pozabankowe rzeszów kredyt bank bonarka kredyt bank godziny otwarcia kielce kredyt bank lebork godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki od ojca pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik online pożyczki online ranking kredyty bez bik poznań głogowska kredyt bank lubartów dobre pozyczki przez internet szybki kredyt dla firm bez bik kredyt bank zielonka telefon kredyt bank zakopane wzór umowy pożyczki od udziałowca spółki kredyt gotówkowy santander oprocentowanie preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko sa kredyt bank lokata z premią 6 5 pożyczki orange pożyczki łowicz kredyty chwilówki jasło czy łatwo dostać kredyt w banku spółdzielczym banki które udzielają kredytów bez biku pożyczki prywatne siedlce pożyczki bez zaświadczeń skok pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej szczecin umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs jak obliczyć nominalne oprocentowanie pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a podatek dochodowy pożyczki od udziałowców księgowanie pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu bez bik everest finanse pożyczki kredyt samochodowy dla firmy kalkulator pożyczki bez bik na dowód kraków euroefekt pożyczki kredyt w eurobanku kalkulator kredyt bank niepodległości poznań kredyt bank warszawa patriotów kredyt bank departament windykacji kontakt kredyty chwilówka bielsko pozyczka miedzylllll pożyczki w języku polskim alior bank kredyt firmowy optima pożyczki leszno pożyczki pod zastaw srem kredyt bank w bielsku podlaskim kredyt bank skawina godziny otwarcia kredyty w anglii forum pożyczki gdańska 69 bydgoszcz szybki kredyt online bez bik i krd kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bez bik w płocku kredyt bank leasing kredyt pozabankowy bytom umorzone pożyczki restrukturyzacja pożyczki w skok kredyt bank zagiel kontakt kredyt gotówkowy w banku pko bp santander kredyt na samochod w uk kredyt bank bydgoszcz modrzewiowa kontakt pozyczki na dowód bez dochodów pożyczki dla ludzi z komornikiem kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego godziny otwarcia bank zachodni wbk sa kredyt studencki podatek od pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator porównanie kredyt bank sa iban kredyt bank plac powstańców karencja pożyczki czy łatwo o kredyt w getin banku kredyty bez sprawdzania bik i krd szybkie pożyczki panda prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań polskie pozyczki opinie kredyt bez zaświadczenia o dochodach forum kredyt bank grodzisk mazowiecki kontakt kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche bank kredyt w banku jaki procent kredyt bez bik koszalin kredyt bank sopot kontakt pożyczki na pit 37 czy latwo otrzymac w m banku kredyt konsolidacyjny czy można dobrać kredyt w getin banku pożyczki prywatne ciechanów pożyczki prywatne jaworzno pożyczki chwilówki buk obliczanie odsetek pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt bank marza kredyt dla firm w mbanku konsolidacja zabezpieczona pod jaki numer kredyt do orange pożyczki pod zastaw mińsk mazowiecki kredyt banki 24 pożyczki chwilówki nowe firmy pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kredyt gotówkowy w banku millenium kredyt bankowy inwestycyjny mikropożyczki z efs warunki kredytu w banku millenium pożyczki prywatnie poznań pożyczki chwilówki skok stefczyka kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki kredyty chwilówki bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówki wszystkie pożyczki z bikiem i komornikiem bocian pożyczki legnica pożyczki od udziałowców księgowanie pożyczki wieruszów pożyczki na dowód olsztynek umowa pożyczki zwolnienie z pcc kredyt bank belgia kredyt chwilówka wieliczka potwierdzenie pożyczki pożyczki na otwarcie działalności pożyczki na oświadczenie o dochodach pożyczki pozabankowe vivus darmowe pożyczki chwilówki bank pko bp kredyt dla pracujacych za granica kredyt bank siedlce godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki wzór pisma pożyczki od osób prywatnych online pożyczki bez bik i krd włocławek kredyty mieszkaniowe knf kredyt bank opinie pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu poznań bydgoszcz pozyczki do domu na alimenty najnowsze pożyczki chwilowki umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a przychód pracownika pożyczki od prywatnych inwestorów na weksel warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki wzór pożyczki dla zadluzonych w krd pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik zielona góra kredyt bank żeromskiego warszawa kredyt bank białystok dubois godziny otwarcia pożyczki na oświadczenie przez internet kredyt chwilówka ile procent pożyczki kwota wolna kredyty bez bik w bydgoszczy kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochody cash pożyczki torun pożyczki pozabankowe pod weksel wrocław pożyczki pozabankowe puławy w jakim banku kredyt na dowód pożyczki na dowód bez krd kredyt bank leszno kontakt rafał kuryłowicz pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe getin bank kredyty chwilówki ostrów mazowiecka pozyczki niebankowe podobne do providenta pożyczki ostrołęka szybkie pożyczki kalisz pozyczki inne niz prowident potrącenie z wynagrodzenia raty pożyczki kredyt bank oddział leszno ewidencja księgowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs rejestracja pożyczki umowa kredytu w prawie rzymskim pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa gumtree pożyczki na dowód lubań prywatne pozyczki bez baz kraków udzielać pożyczki proz pożyczki bez bik w starachowicach pożyczki biłgoraj pożyczki gotówkowe online kredyt w banku bph opinie pozyczka bartek kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank opinie feninks pozyczki pozabankowe strona glowwna kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche bank księgowanie przelewów w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zyrantow kredyt bank warszawa ul kondratowicza kredyt bez bik 15000 alior bank kredyt odnawialny pożyczki chwilówki jarosław pożyczki gumtree nowe pożyczki online kredyt mieszkaniowy w irlandii forum pozyczka bocian dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank olecko kredyt bank ciołka 10 godziny otwarcia kredyt w toyota bank pozyczki bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator getin bank kredyt bez big krakow firc pożyczki reklama pożyczki piosenka kredyt pocztowy na dowód biedronka pożyczki dla pracowników pożyczka w domu klijęta elbląg kredyty chwilówki poznań 23 lutego kredyt bez bik płock kredyt samochodowy eurobank pożyczki dla zadłużonych gorzów wlkp gdzie znajduje siedziba bocian pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych i z komornikiem natychmiastowa wymagalność pożyczki pożyczki pomiędzy firmami pożyczki od osób prywatnych łódzkie udzielenie pożyczki a pcc umowa pożyczki realna czy konsensualna kredyt dla mundurowych w banku pocztowym kredyty chwilówki odsetki udziele pozyczki na umowe katowice kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małżeństwa pożyczki na dowód 2013 kredyt dla nowo otwartych firm z komornikiem bank pko kredyt studencki regulamin kredyt bank otwock karczewska godziny otwarcia kredyt konsumpcyjny bank millenium formularz pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki dla pracowników tesco pożyczki janosik kredyt bank różana pożyczki internetowe w 15 minut kalkulator pożyczki lukas bank kredyt na dowód bez biku pożyczki finansowo pożyczki gorzów wlkp bankomaty kredyt banku w gdańsku księgowania przelewów w kredyt banku wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej pod zastaw kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie kredyty do firm parabanki pożyczki chwilówki bez bik olsztyn pożyczki pod zastaw maszyn rolniczych kredyt bank leszno regon kredyt bank lodz pilsudskiego kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank ślimak pożyczki kontakt kredyty pozabankowe zielona góra kredyty studenckie zasady przyznawania umowa pożyczki od członka zarządu kredyt bank w nowym sączu umowa pożyczki w pierwszej grupie podatkowej kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole kredyt w 5 minut pozyczka od 18 lat częstochowa kredyt bank jakie bankomaty za darmo pożyczki w polbanku kredyt bank gdynia godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik olecko pożyczki ekspresowe warszawa kredyt bank karta visa przeksięgowanie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy bank credit agricole kredyt mieszkaniowy bocian pożyczki odstąpienie od umowy umowa pożyczki między rodzeństwem wzór pożyczki 18 lat pozyczki dla beezrobotnych jak zaksięgować kredyt bankowy kredyt samochodowy w credit agricole opinie kredyt bank żytnia pożyczki gotówkowe kluczbork sprawdzone pożyczki pozabankowe forum kredyt bank radzymińska białystok pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców łódzkie kredyt bez bik dla kazdego pożyczki bez krs bocian pożyczki jelenia góra kredyt gotówkowy bez bik i zdolności kredytowej duzy kredyt bez bik wieruszów kredyt bank wzór zaświadczenia kredyt bank fosa staromiejska toruń kredyt konsolidacyjny 40 000 kędzierzyn koźle pozyczki bez biku i krd meritum pozyczka na wyciag z konta kredyt dla bezrobotnych bez bik i krd kredyty pozabankowe głogów pożyczki prywatne bez wpłaty kredyt dla firm bez bik pozyczki bez biku i zaswiadczen i dochodach kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche banku opinie kredyt bank toruń grudziądzka najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat kredyt bez bik chełmno kredyty bez bik nowy sącz pożyczki w domu klienta kredyty bez banku pożyczki chwilówki vivus kredyt bank w zielonce jowisz pożyczki skarabeusz pożyczki chełm idea bank kredyt dla nowych firm opinie umowa pożyczki a zabezpieczenie kredyty poza bankowe włocławek pożyczki na dowód bełchatów pożyczki novum kruk opinie kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki bez bik tablica kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek 2012 bocian ełk pozyczki kontakt pożyczki dla niepełnoletnich pożyczki pozabankowe kraków forum kredyty chwilówki w tychach pożyczki pod zastaw rumia pożyczki w domu klienta bez bik pożyczki dla firm 2014 kredyt mieszkaniowy 3x0 w credit agricole pożyczki bezzwrotne dla młodych rolników kredyt bank rachunek bankowy praca pożyczki chwilówki mini pożyczki eurobank kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie udzielenie pożyczki gofin umowa pożyczki między rodziną wzór korzystne pożyczki bankowe pożyczki prywatne wrocław forum kredyt w banku gbs pożyczki prywatne radomsko umowa pożyczki wspólników kredyt konsolidacyjny kasa stefczyka wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki na czas określony kredyt bank sa w warszawie departament windykacji jak księgować pożyczki udzielone gdzie pożyczki prywatne pożyczki pozabankowe ostróda kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank limit przelewu kredyt bankowy a pożyczka pieniężna kredyt bankowy klasyfikacja kredyt bez bik online 10 lat przejęcie kredyt banku przez wbk prywatne kredyty na dowod online bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank oblicz ratę kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorstw kredyt bank fundusz nieruchomosci ii fiz kredyt bank żniwna poznań godziny otwarcia kredyt na pit bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki wzór kredyt bank fundusz papierów dłużnych kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2012 pożyczki toruń kredyt samochodowy w banku pekao sa krzysztof pawiński pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe grudziądz kredyt bank lokata junior pożyczki bez bik porównanie pożyczki barcin bank millennium kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pozyczki od osob prywatnych poznan kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt opinie pcc od umowy pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami bank pekao sa ubezpieczenie kredytu kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rozwodnika pożyczki na dowód osobisty szybki kredyt bez bik warszawa kredyt bank białystok godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik pożyczki szczecin kredyt bank lipno telefon pożyczki pozabankowe goleniów my banq pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej getin bank pożyczki bez oprocentowania kredyt chwilówka 15 minut bocian pożyczki gryfice kredyt konsolidacyjny na poczcie oferty pożyczki prywatnej pozyczka typu providen euro cen bocian kredyt bez bik na kilka miesiecy kredyt bank fundacja kredyt bank biała podlaska rywal pcc od pożyczki płaci charakter umowy pożyczki kredyt bez biku jaworzno kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku spółdzielczym kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bank polski kredyt bank fax kredyt bank w mińsku mazowieckim bocian pożyczki jarocin dobranie w takto pozyczka kredyty chwilówki ząbkowice śląskie kredyt bank sa opole kredyt bank tychy godziny otwarcia atiz pożyczka kredyt banku pko kredyty bankowe praca magisterska

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

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Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad