ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2013 pożyczki na dowód w banku umowa pożyczki podatek 2013 alior bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum dobre szybkie pozyczki bez biku i krd oprocentowanie kredytu w santander bank w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na samochód oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej pożyczki bez bik kutno gdzie po kredyt bez bik kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank konstantynów łódzki godziny kredyt bez bik toruń kredyt w getin banku na pit kredyty chwilówki gorlice kredyt bank żytnia warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw łapy pozyczka 70000 bez bik kredyt w pekao sa opinie pozyczki bez zaswiadczen chrzanow umowa pożyczki pod zastaw wzór pożyczki chwilówka na dowód kredyt pozabankowy na zaswiadczenieno zarobkach kredyt bank warszawa ul chełmska 9 czy łatwo dostać kredyt w credit agricole pożyczki od osób prywatnych oferty pożyczki okay kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking banków pożyczki bez bik bez zaświadczeń o dochodach pożyczki na dowod mlawa kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik krd kredyty bez biku gorzow wlkp kredyt bank psie pole dobry kredyt bez bik kalkulator pożyczki kredytu kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku bph kredyt studencki pko bp do kiedy kredyt bank sa w pile kredyt pozabankowy 5000 szybki kredyt bez bik online kredyty gdańska 69 roznoszenie ulotek bydgoszcz wzór pożyczki pracowniczej pożyczki bez bik krd warszawa gwarant pożyczki chwilówki tanie pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulator pożyczki ekspresowe warszawa alior bank kalkulator kredytu samochodowego pożyczki pl kredyt bank zmiana konta potwierdzenie zapłaty pożyczki lokata junior w kredyt banku pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz na dowód pożyczki prywatne z dostawą do domu obliczenie spłaty pożyczki kredyty przez internet bez bik kredyty bez bik i bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank kraków dietla godziny otwarcia znaczenie kredytu bankowego pozyczka wonga uk kredyty chwilówki dłużnicy kredyty chwilówki praca opinie skarabeusz pożyczki bełchatów kredyty chwilowki gdansk wrzeszcz opodatkowanie pożyczki od najbliższej rodziny odsetki od pożyczki nota czy faktura pożyczki społecznościowe co to jest kredyt bez zaświadczeń i bik warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomości pozyczki bez bik wegrow kredyt bank czestochowa dekabrystów kredyty mieszkaniowe bph pożyczka w domu bez bik kredyt bank plock 1 maja sezam pożyczki krotoszyn kredyty mieszkaniowe dla singli forum kredyt samochodowy w santander bank kredyt prowizja banku pożyczki w domu łódzkie kredyt bank oddział marki godziny otwarcia fundusz pożyczki natychmiastowa wymagalność pożyczki z zfśs kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki przyznania pożyczki pozabankowe na samochód kredyt bank białystok warszawska umowa pożyczki od brata wzór pożyczki wielkanocne kredyty bankowe dla msp pożyczki konsolidacyjne w skok stefczyka kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rencisty pożyczki ostrołęka pożyczki social lending kredyt bank kod swift w jakim banku najlepiej brać kredyt na samochód optima pożyczki oleśnica kontakt kredyt bank polaczenie kredyt bank warszawa grochowska koszt pożyczki gotówkowej podatek dochodowy od nieoprocentowanej pożyczki kredyt bank olsztynek pożyczki na dowód do ręki umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu prawo kredyt odnawialny bank pko jak dziala pożyczka pozabankowa bez bik i zabezpieczeń pożyczki podobne do bocian w jakim banku wziac kredyt kredyt w banku kredyty bez bik skok pożyczki na 60 dni szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód pożyczki bocian gryfice pożyczki bez bik we wroclawiu kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen o dochodach oświadczenie o oddaniu pożyczki pożyczki uam pożyczki trzydziestki kredyt bank starzyńskiego kredyt bank garwolin godziny otwarcia optima sa pożyczki kredyt odnawialny w eurobank pożyczki społecznościowe na dowód pożyczki prywatne zamość pożyczki giełdowe natychmiastowe pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy poznań kredyt na dom w uk forum pożyczki pozabankowe z komornikiem warszawa mikropożyczki finanse kredyt bez bik 40000 kredyt bank łódź oddziały pożyczki głogówek umowa pożyczki podatek 2012 pozyczka pieniezna w dublinie kredyt bez bik do 10 tys pożyczki 60 dni pożyczki dla pracujących za granicą pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości lublin credit agricole pożyczki kredyt bank lidzbark warmiński kredyt bank mbank alior bank kredyt dla firm kredyty chwilówki uwaga kredyty chwilówki inowrocław kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank oprocentowanie kredyt bank kondycja kredyt bank kwidzyn godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zgierska godziny otwarcia pożyczki cywilno prawne pozyczki domowe pozbankowa pożyczka 10000 długoterminową pan kowalski otrzymał kredyt w banku kredyt bank rakowicka pożyczki dla uczących się pozyczks bez erif bik krd wrocław pożyczki kokos kontakt kredyt bank giżycko telefon umorzenie pożyczki walutowej pożyczki na działalność kredyt w banku bph kredyt bank numer kontaktowy pożyczki gotówkowe uk pozyczka dla zadluzonych przez łomża kredyt samochodowy w getin bank opinie pożyczki pozabankowe grójec kredyt bank tomaszów mazowiecki telefon pożyczki udzielone bilans pożyczki na dowód skierniewice kredyt studencki pko forum opodatkowanie pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami bocian pożyczki bytów kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche banku opinie umowa pożyczki pcc pożyczki bez bik i krd zamość kredyt w boś banku kredyt studencki w bz wbk kredyt bank focha bydgoszcz millenium bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyty chwilowki umowa zlecenie bocian walbrzych kredyt kredyt bank lublin ul zana 39a kredyt bank żary telefon kredyt bank pszów godziny otwarcia getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu dla firm pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności 2014 kredyty chwilówki w łukowie umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą pcc pożyczki na dowód tarnów pożyczki bez erif, pożyczki bez bik na umowe zlecenie bocian pożyczki jarocin szybka pozyczka z dostawa do domu zywiec kredyty chwilówki zarabiaj z nami opinie szybki kredyt 5 tys niski procent opolskie kredyt mieszkaniowy dochody z zagranicy pożyczki eden kredyt konsolidacyjny na ile lat pożyczki warka kredyt bank biuro prasowe pożyczki chwilówki zabrze kredyty bez bik walbrzych pożyczki prywatne giełda kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa kredyt bank lubicz pożyczki finan częstochowa pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności 2014 kredyt samochodowy na firmę dokumenty pożyczki prodomo kredyty chwilówki bielsko alior bank kredyt w rachunku bieżącym wartość godziwa pożyczki kredyty chwilówki on line kredyt bank kontakt pożyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki internetowe dla bezrobotnych kredyt z banku gospodarstwa krajowego kredyt konsolidacyjny pko kalkulator kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego w banku pocztowym pozyczka dla pracujących na czarno bez bik wawa kredyt bez bik zgierz pożyczki na oświadczenie przez internet kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego kontakt kredyty chwilówki białystok lipowa 45 kredyt bez bik krd dla firm poszukuję pożyczki pod zastaw pożyczki 1500 pożyczki pod zastaw rtv nowy sącz open finance kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń przeniesienie pożyczki na kapitał pożyczki pod weksel łódź kredyt konsolidacyjny przetarg pożyczki pozabankowe zduńska wola umowa pożyczki od udziałowca a pcc pozyczka na dowod bez biku w wieku 18 lat pożyczka całkowicie przez internet kredyt bank wyplata za granica gdzie najlepiej wziasc kredyt na oswiadczenie 2014 pożyczki dla jst umowa pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki społecznościowe kokos forum kredyt konsolidacyjny chwilowki kredyt bank druk zaświadczenia kredyty chwilówki tychy kontakt umowa kredytu bankowego kodeks cywilny udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki bez bik przemyśl pożyczki chwilówki on line kredyt bank w olecku pozyczki do domu klienta swidnica pko bp sa kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bank tychy godziny otwarcia warszawa arkadia kredyty pożyczki wspólników windykacja pożyczki prywatnej kredyt samochodowy bez bik i big prodomo pożyczki toruń pożyczki social lending udzielenie pożyczki a vat 2012 koszt pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki do domu bocian oprocentowanie kredytu studenckiego w pko bp dokumentacja podatkowa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małych firm umowa pożyczki pod zastaw druk pożyczka bez infomonitora pożyczki prywatne bez bik przez internet optima pożyczki oddziały pożyczki bez bik jarosław kredyt bank ekstrapremia pożyczki konsumpcyjne porównanie kredyty chwilówki 23 lutego umowa pożyczki inwestycyjnej umowa pożyczki podatek pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny w żaglu kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach potrzebuję pilnej pożyczki 2014 pożyczki udzielone pracownikom w bilansie umowa pożyczki pod zastaw auta wzór kredyty dla firm bez biku kredyt bank lębork telefon pożyczki chwilówki w pile pożyczki ostrów wlkp dla zadłóżonych warunki pożyczki provident jak zaksięgować umowę pożyczki bocian pożyczki kielce getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny forum bank pko lublin kredyt na dowod osobisty optima pożyczki zielona góra koszt pożyczki w lombardzie konwersja pożyczki na kapitał odsetki kredyty w alior bank forum ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2013 kredyt bocian glogow kredyty chwilówki opole książąt opolskich pożyczki bez bik proficredit kredyt bank warszawa kondratowicza pożyczki społecznościowe dla firm kredyt bank lublin opinie kredyt bank świebodzice godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe wągrowiec kredyt z dofinansowaniem unijnym idea bank opinie kredyt bank żytnia 15 pozyczki z obslugą domową warszawa kredyty gotówkowe w banku pko sa pożyczki spłacane tygodniowo częstochowa kredyty pozabankowe oświęcim pożyczki pozabankowe żagań kredyty bez bik zgierz kredyt bank krucza godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez dochodu na dowód kredyt obrotowy deutsche bank oprocentowanie kredyt bank w zielonej górze pożyczki bez zaswiadczen rzeszów sobota kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego 14 kredyt bank kto jest wlascicielem kredyt konsolidacyjny odstąpienie od umowy pożyczki chwilówki toruń kredyt bank sulechów kontakt kredyt bank płatność kartą za granicą praca dodatkowa pożyczki kredyty chwilowki bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank world mastercard getin noble bank kredyt opinie kredyt bank w koninie pożyczki chwilówki na sam dowód umowa pożyczki z budżetu gminy pożyczki dla emerytów bez ograniczeń wiekowych kredyt bank departament windykacji consumer finance kredyt bank chrzanów tel pożyczki prywatne stargard szczeciński pożyczka na dowód od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń kredyty chwilówki pracownik reklamy kredyt bank wroclaw plac solny pożyczki bez bik do 2000 zł pożyczki darlowo kredyt w banku potrzebne dokumenty kredyt bank karwiny godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe starogard gdański umowa pożyczki od udziałowca zagranicznego pożyczki z dostawą do domu pozyczki chwilowki bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach grojec kredyt bez bik i krd katowice kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka kredyt bankowy dla msp kredyt mieszkaniowy samotna matka udzielić pożyczki proz pożyczki na dowód włocławek kredyty chwilówki tarnów bema kredyt konsolidacyjny z niska rata kredyt samochodowy w raiffeisen bank kredyty chwilówki opinie praca kredyt bank problem z logowaniem pożyczki chwilówki mogilno prywatne pożyczki na sam dowód ekspres kasa przedłużenie pożyczki kredyt bank w ostrowcu kredyt bank milanówek alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny dokumenty pozyczka oddłużeniowa na spłatę komornika kredyt w 15 minut na dowod w kb24 wzór umowy zawarcia pożyczki kredyt bez bik dla każdego pożyczki pozabankowe we wrześni kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior opinie kredyt bankowy wady i zalety pożyczki bez bik dębica bezpieczne pożyczki przez internet kredyt gotowkowy chwilowka tczew kredyt bez bik olsztyn cesja pożyczki kredyt na dowod mielec najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy pożyczki provident gdańsk alior bank kredyt forum kredyty bez bik swidnica kredyt bank aukcje umowa poręczenia spłaty pożyczki kredyt studencki wbk forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w innym banku kredyt preferencyjny w banku spółdzielczym kredyty chwilówki przez internet bez bik pożyczki domu pożyczki starogard gdański umowa pożyczki z własnym pracownikiem pożyczki pod zastaw chorzów pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa 24h kredyt bank w radomsku rodzaje kredytów w banku pko bp ile kosztuje umowa notarialna pożyczki ang pożyczki kalkulator rat kredytu pożyczki kredyt bank łódź ketlinga pożyczki oddziały warszawa decyzja o umorzeniu pożyczki z zfśs wzór kredyt bank długa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank bok pożyczki pozabankowe prywatne kredyt konsolidacyjny inteligo kredyty chwilówki logo kredyt w banku meritum szybkie pożyczki kalisz potrzebuje pinie pożyczki u prywatnej osoby krakow kredyty dla małych firm 2014 jelenia góra kredyt studencki w pekao pultusk prywatne pozyczku 2014 opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank koniec warunki otrzymania pożyczki kredyt studencki pko transze pożyczki 4000 kredyt bankowy pdf chomikuj kredyt bank zamość kredyt bank wiceprezes kredyt online bank pocztowy umowa pożyczki od udziałowców pro domo pożyczki szczecin pożyczki dla zadłużonych online kredyt samochodowy w banku pko bp alior bank kredyt gotówkowy forum pożyczki pruszcz gdański kredyt w bank zachodni wbk chwilówki gliwice pożyczki gliwice chwilówki knurów kredyt w domu klienta gdzie wziac kredyt bez biku kredyt pozabankowy z tanimi odsetkami kredyt bank królewska pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik krd big pożyczki pod weksel kraków kredyty pozabankowe bez bik przez internet kredyty bez bik i krd poznań kredyty chwilowki plock santander consumer bank kredyt bez bik kredyt bankowy dla zadłużonych pcc od pożyczki wspólnika spółki komandytowej pożyczki online 0 kredyt samochodowy dla firm ing kredyt bez bik i dla zadłużonych umowa pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt konsolidacyjny ze zlym bikiem kredyt a bankowy rejestr umowa pożyczki pieniężnej gofin pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard nr telefonu pożyczki kołobrzeg bocian pożyczki wagrowiec pożyczki nowy sącz kredyty chwilówki tychy kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe bytom pożyczki typu provident bocian kierownik premium pożyczka rawicz kredyt mieszkaniowy praca za granica pożyczki na oświadczenie kraków kredyt bank złotoryja pożyczki bez biku zielona góra pożyczki papierów wartościowych kredyt chwilówka międzyrzecz kredyt bank lomianki godziny otwarcia kredyt pozabankowy katowice kredyt bank częstochowa oddziały kredyt bank lease kredyt bank w rybniku zwolnienia grupowe w kredyt banku oświadczenie pożyczki wzór kredyt bank iii oddział w warszawie pozyczki dla zadłuzonych w banku pko finanse kredyt bank raszyn kredyt w banku pekao sa opinie pożyczki w koszalinie bkie pozyczki domowe kraków pożyczki bez biku i krd kredyty chwilówki nysa rynek kredyt bank w gryfinie umowa pożyczki dla spółki cywilnej umorzenie pożyczki a podatek kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku zachodnim wbk umowa pożyczki od rodziny a pcc kredyty bez bik poznań głogowska najtańszy kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt konsolidacyjny bz wbk opinie kredyty bez bik sochaczew kredyt bank nowe konto kredyt gotówkowy eurobank forum kredyt w domu klienta kredyt obrotowy w alior banku pozyczki pozabankowe okolice boleslawiec kredyt bank lokaty dewizowe umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pit kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na czas określony alior bank kredyt forum pożyczki kępno kredyt bank skawina kontakt kredyt bank gliniana wrocław kredyt bez biku lodz kredyty bankowe dla msp kredyt studencki w banku spółdzielczym kredyty gotówkowe chwilówka auto kredyt bez biku bocian pozyczki dla zadluzonych umowa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyty bez bik radomsko kredyt w orange pod jaki numer pożyczki chwilówki bez przelewu pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń bocian ekstra kredyty chwilowki

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad