umowa pożyczki ile podatku pożyczki pod weksel warszawa kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank opinie kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko najszybsze pozyczki w domu klienta kredyty chwilówki tychy niepodległości kredyty chwilówki praca forum czy odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bocian pożyczki grudziądz kredyt studencki w bz wbk kredyty chwilówki warszawa jana pawła kredyt samochodowy ranking banków umowa pożyczki w języku angielskim pożyczki kredyty bez bik banki kredyty online kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 rok daiglob pożyczki kredyt bez bik debica pożyczki pożyczka na już kredyt mieszkaniowy w idea bank kredyt bank sa łódź umowa pożyczki bez zgody małżonka kredyty konsolidacyjne lodz kredyt bank skoczów kontakt umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki wzór pożyczki bez bik i krd poznań kredyt bank rachunek depozytowy kredyt bez bik do 7000 pożyczki bez bik na sms pożyczki pod zastaw dębica pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód częstochowa kredyt w banku centralnym umowa pożyczki z klauzulą wykonalności pozyczki na dowod ze zadluzeniem inowroclaw umorzenie pożyczki w spółce wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy od brata kredyt bank bankomaty wbk kredyt do 15000 bez bik kredyty chwilówki opinie o firmie spłata pożyczki w amber gold udzielić pożyczki po angielsku kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych 25000zl kredyt w banku zagiel kredyt bez sprawdzania w biku kredyt konsolidacyjny plusy i minusy pożyczki na umowę zlecenie kredyt konsolidacyjny kasa stefczyka idea bank kredyt na start opinie kredyt bank warszawa regon kredyt bank bankomaty olsztyn bankomaty kredyt banku ciechanów pożyczki bez bik małopolska pożyczki bez zaświadczeń dla firm udzielenie pożyczki po angielsku kredyt na dowód w domu kredyt w banku na oswiadczenie przykładowa umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pod jaki numer kredyt w orange pożyczki gotówkowe świnoujście pożyczki bez bik suwałki pożyczki prywatne pod nieruchomość podporządkowanie spłaty pożyczki bocian pożyczki łódź kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2014 mikropożyczki przez internet pożyczki społecznościowe czy warto pożyczki bez bik i krd leszno pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe pożyczki chwilówki bez bik gdynia rola kredytu w działalności banku pożyczki zagranicznej a pcc kredyt samochodowy getin bank opinie pozyczka w domu klienta bialystok pożyczki dla firmy pożyczki od prywatnej osoby pożyczki bez biku wieluń pomoc w uzyskaniu kredytu warszawa prywatne firmy kredytowe wadowice kredyt bank wojska polskiego szczecin kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank kalkulator kredyt bank lublin żagiel ul zana pożyczki chwilówki online od 18 lat kredyt studencki pekao dokumenty pożyczki pozabankowe pruszków udzielone pożyczki w bilansie kredyt w getin noble bank szybkie pożyczki legionowo umowa pożyczki pod zastaw udziałów udzielę pożyczki prywatnej bez przedpłat kredyt bank warecka warszawa kredyt chwilowki zielona gora umorzenie pożyczki na zakup środka trwałego umowa pożyczki podatek dochodowy kredyt bank likwidacja konta kredyty bez bik brodnica szybkie pożyczki chwilówki sync bank kredyt na dowod szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank targowa dobre pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank poleasingowe pożyczki bez dochodu kredyt bank sa adres pożyczki bez bik bochnia kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach plock pożyczki gotówkowe krd pożyczki mieszkaniowe pwr symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej bocian pożyczki nowa ruda kredyt bez biku do 5000 pożyczki długoterminowe przez internet pożyczki bez bik w starachowicach pożyczki brzesko bocian pożyczki radom pożyczki z komornikiem pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza pożyczki katowice ul moniuszki 7 kangurek pożyczki w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy forum pko kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy dla mlodych malzenstw umowa pożyczki z firmą kredyt pozabankowy 5000 kredyt bank warszawa zoliborz kredyt konsolidacyjny z gotówką pożyczki na dowód bank pocztowy latwy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt konsolidacyjny jak dostać kredyt bank w tyszowcach kredyt samochodowy czy gotówkowy forum zwrot pożyczki pokwitowanie wzór pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw kredyt chwilówka jastrzebie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik ranking kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro czy złotówkach kredyt bank elektroniczny kredyt bank krosno dyrektor pozyczki bez bik ciechanow banki udzielające pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie udzielenie pożyczki proz kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking 2013 alior bank kredyt przelicznik pożyczki od osób prywatnych kraków udzielenie pożyczki podmiotowi powiązanemu kredyt bank w międzyzdrojach pożyczki podkarpacie kredyty bez biku z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny w gminach umowa pożyczki rejestracja w us prywatne pożyczki tczew kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus opłaty kredyt samochodowy dla marynarzy pożyczki pozabankowe 24h czy chwilówki dają pożyczki dla bezrobotnym kokos pożyczki forum bocian pożyczki lublin kredyty mieszkaniowe definicja szybkie kredyty bez bik i krd w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki z komornikiem chorzów kredyt bank powstańców śląskich warszawa pożyczka 25000 kokos odroczenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyt bank w zakopanem kredyt pozabankowe umowa zlecenie kredyt w banku wniosek o pozyczke z kronos bez online jaki jest numer na kredyt w orange kredyt konsolidacyjny dla prowadzących działalność kredyt samochodowy paribas bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik piła al konstytucji kredyt konsolidacyjny na umowe zlecenie pożyczki gotówkowe w alior banku kredyt studencki warunki 2012 umorzenie pożyczki dla pracownika kredyty w banku santander pozyczka na umowe 24 h kielce łukasz fornela pozyczki kredyt bank grojecka warszawa odsetki od pożyczki ceny transferowe kredyt bez bik zielona gora kredyty bez bik tarnów santander bank pożyczka na dowód katowice kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyt chwilówka jastrzebie kredyt konsolidacyjny tani pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik i krd szybkie pożyczki vivus pożyczki bgż pożyczki na założenie własnej firmy kredyt bank olsztyn aura prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań umowa pożyczki in blanco pożyczka bez bik i krd konin tel pożyczki dla firm pko pożyczki mieszkaniowe pwr kredyt bank pelplin kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe w niemczech kredyt na firme bez biku pożyczki społecznościowe a podatek pożyczki chwilówki w niedziele pożyczki chwilówki bez bik big krd pożyczki gotówkowe bez wychodzenia z domu kredyt bank bogatynia godziny otwarcia kredyt bank nfc mikro pożyczki zamiast dotacji pożyczki online bez weryfikacji kredyt w pko bp kalkulator pożyczki online bez bik kredyty bankowe konto wynikowe czy bilansowe getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyty bez sprawdzania bik i krd pożyczki millenium bank pko sa oprocentowanie kredytów kredyty bez biku gorzow wlkp kredyt bank x oddział w warszawie kredyt konsolidacyjny na 25 lat pożyczki bez bik chorzów kredyt online abis pozyczki chwilowki kontakt telefonizny umowa pożyczki ze wspólnikiem spółki umowa pożyczki na zakup mieszkania pożyczki przez internet bez biku i krd kredyt mieszkaniowy przy wkładzie własnym pożyczki dla ludzi bez pracy kredyt bank warszawa ul targowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank warszawa telefon cash machine pożyczki kredyty chwilówki internetowe pożyczki w domu klijeta na umowę o dzieło kredyt bank bialystok godziny otwarcia ewidencja księgowa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych w bik profi credit pożyczki bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe w płocku umowa pożyczki referat wiarygodne pożyczki bez bik pożyczki prywatne bez dochodów kierownik premium pożyczka rawicz kredyty chwilówki sokołów podlaski wzór umowy pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi pożyczki bez bik ruda śląska kredyt mieszkaniowy dla 60 latka kto płaci podatek od udzielonej pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania bik kredyt bank wejherowo godziny otwarcia pozyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach kredyt w banku potrzebne dokumenty kredyty bez bik częstochowa kredyt bank we włocławku kredyt bank błonie szybka pożyczka 20tysięcy obsługa w domu meritum pozyczka na dowod i wyciag z konta kredyt bank gdansk kartuska pożyczki ebi kredyt prowizja banku helios pożyczki pożyczki unijne rzeszów kredyt bez bik na weksel kredyty bez bik wroclaw kredyt pozabankowy długoterminowy kredyt bank gdańsk kołobrzeska 12 szybkie pożyczki bartoszyce druk pcc od umowy pożyczki pożyczki starogard gdański kredyty bez bik do 20000 kredyt bank blue city kredyty w banku millennium kredyt bank centrum kart płatniczych pożyczki bez bik big erif kredyt gotówkowy getin bank kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe dobre miasto alior bank kredyt przez telefon firma optima pożyczki kredyt bank lublin ul zana 39a pożyczki bez bik mława pożyczki dla zadłużonych zielona góra alior bank kredyt online kredyty chwilówki krosno kredyt bank w goleniowie kredyt refinansowy w banku pocztowym kredyt studencki w pekao bocian pożyczki dla kogo szybkie pożyczki online bez bik jak dostac kredyt bez biku kredyty chwilowki pozyczki nowy targ 24h przez telefon kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik katowice kredyt konsolidacyjny na 15 lat bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki na dowód kutno pożyczki dla dużych firm eurobank kredyt na mieszkanie gold cash pożyczki kredyty chwilówki dla firm kod kredyt w orange kredyt samochodowy dla firm alior bank kredyt bank warsaw pożyczki pozabankowe w kaliszu kredyty i pożyczki w uk kalkulator pożyczki alior kredyt bank wzór zaświadczenia czy bocian pożyczki sprawdza bik pożyczki prywatne chełm pożyczki na rozwój działalności helikon pożyczki opinie kredyt bank sa oddział w pile standardowa umowa pożyczki pozyczka dla firm bez oprocentowania dotacje białystok pożyczki kraśnik kredyt bank ostrzeszów bocian pożyczki żywiec kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń szczecin opodatkowanie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej pożyczki gotówkowe świdnica szybkie kredyty bez bik i krd połączenie kredyt banku z bz wbk kredyty w uk po polsku getin bank kredyt samochodowy na oświadczenie pożyczki typu provident bocian czy kredyty chwilówki działają na prawie bankowym wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej pdf pożyczki dla firm porównanie skarabeusz pożyczki wieluń pożyczka z komornikiem w mysłowicach mennica pożyczki opinie kredyt bank warszawa ul kasprzaka 2 8 kredyt bez bik pod zastaw mieszkania minutka pożyczki kredyt w eurobank kredyt bank pracownicy pożyczki odnawialne kredyty mieszkaniowe z wkładem własnym pożyczki bez bik kłobuck kredyt konsolidacyjny jak działa pożyczki mbank kredyt bank żagiel sa kontakt kredyt bank krosno pożyczki ratalne bez bik kredyt w banku śmierć dłużnika kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rencisty alior bank kredyty mieszkaniowe proste pożyczki gotówkowe szybki kredyt bez bik pożyczki pewne pożyczki pelikan gdzie w rzeszowie można dostać dobry kredyt bez bik pożyczki bez bik ogłoszenia kredyt bank niepodległości 54 kredyt banku pko pożyczki bez bik do 1000 przedłużenie pożyczki w wonga zgłoszenie umowy pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego promotor pożyczki opinie banki w uk udzielające pożyczki emigrantom pożyczki prywatne dla nowych firm kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole forum pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy wymagania pożyczki świąteczne na dowód kredyty bez bik malbork kredyt bank grójecka kredyt gotówkowy banku bph kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż forum mariusz wasilewski pożyczki mikropożyczki wiki kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik w bydgoszczy kredyt bank strzelce opolskie godziny otwarcia pożyczki od osób prywatnych na procent 2013 pożyczki chwilówki zgierz kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego 14 kredyt bez bik bolesławiec pożyczki pajęczno kredyty chwilówki forum praca kredyt samochodowy bez banku kredyty chwilówki praca katowice pożyczki gotówkowe śląsk pożyczka na rente socjalna krakow pożyczki bgk pozyczki od zaraz bez big i krd przez internet wniosek o restrukturyzację pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe na pit pożyczki na dowód dla zadłużonych wpłatomat kredyt banku warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe we wrocławiu kredyt bank leszno kontakt kredyty banku pko bp ubezpieczenie pożyczki w pko kredyt bank założyciele pożyczki dla adwokatów optima pożyczki kraków kredyty mieszkaniowe przelicznik umowa pożyczki download kredyt bank ostatnie księgowanie pożyczki bez biku dla zadłużonych szybkie pożyczki na dowód bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli forum umowa pożyczki pieniędzy znajomemu pożyczki na dowód w 15 minut pożyczki na dowód kredyty szybkie pożyczki opinie kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego alior bank umorzenie pożyczki koszt podatkowy niespłacanie pożyczki w providencie kredyty sms bez bik kredyt bank w kluczborku kredyt bank kłodzko godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez opłat wstępnych bank bedzin ktory udzieli kredytu na dowod kredyt bez biku bialystok umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem wzór pożyczki wadowice bocian pożyczki płońsk pożyczki gotówkowe bez prowizji kredyty chwilówki rekrutacja pozyczki torun tablica pożyczki chwilówki rumia cechy pozyczki konwersja pożyczki na kapitał rezerwowy kredyt samochodowy paribas bank kalkulator kredyt bank godziny otwarcia poznań kredyt bank departament marketingu termin przedawnienia roszczeń z tytułu pożyczki kredyt bank oddział piła pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości pomorskie kredyt bez biku lodz mariusz tierling poznań pożyczki kredyt bank godziny otwarcia siedlce kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank pożyczki z ubezpieczeniem kalkulator oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt chwilówki zielona góra kredyt bank trojmiasto kredyt bank sa radom kredyty bez bik slupsk warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp pożyczki bez bik w białej podlaskiej pożyczki na dowód sosnowiec kredyt studencki w pko spłata kredyt studencki w jakim banku kredyt bank w olsztynku pożyczki pod zastaw elektronarzędzi radom umowa pożyczki między podatnikami vat kredyt bez bik słupsk kiedy odsetki od pożyczki nie są kosztem podatkowym kredyt bank fiz ii kredyt bank jak aktywować kartę pożyczki od ludzi kredyt bank belchatow kredyty mieszkaniowe poznań biedronka pożyczki dla pracowników kredyty w uk dla polakow bezpieczny kredyt bez bik opinie kredyt bank w gostyniu kredyt konsolidacyjny który bank kredyt bank archiwum kursów walut parkmar pozyczki pożyczki chwilówki provident umowa pożyczki gotówki między osobami prawnymi kredyt bank wroclaw strzegomska umowa pożyczki z poręczeniem kredyt bank pyrzyce kredyt bank godzina otwarcia kredyt bank chojnice kościuszki jak wziąć kredyt bez biku optima pożyczki online kredyt mieszkaniowy praca za granica szybkie pożyczki w uk kredyt remontowy w banku pekao sa kredyt bez biku do 5000 kredyt bank dąbrowskiego poznań pożyczki żary umowa pożyczki z siostrą pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik poznań getin bank kredyty samochodowe telefon kredyt 4 tys na dowód prowident biura kredytowe pozabankowe boleslawiec umowa pożyczki dla rodziny wzór kredyt bez sprawdzania biku kredyt bank pozyczka alior bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt w deutsche bank opodatkowanie pożyczek typu kokos forum czas przedawnienia pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking pożyczki dla polaków w niemczech kredyt bank ostrów maz pożyczki pod weksel katowice kredyt w ge money bank opinie bankomaty kredyt banku w lodzi umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi a podatek kredyt bank chełmska godziny otwarcia przedawnienie pożyczki odnawialnej pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez bik kredyty chwilowki legnica opinie kredyt bez bik pod zastaw samochodu umowa zlecenie kredyt w banku

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad