pomarańcza owocne pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny czy to się opłaca termin przedawnienia odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bank rawicz ul sarnowska kredyt bank prowizje alior bank kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki pozabankowe udzielane w domu kredyt konsolidacyjny w jakim banku wzór umowy pożyczki między firmami pożyczki bielsko biała kredyt bank w oświęcimiu kredyt bez bik bank spółdzielczy pożyczki pozabankowe 24h kredyt na dowod w credit agricole udzielę pożyczki pożyczki na oświadczenie bocian finan pożyczki legnica kredyty chwilówki kędzierzyn kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji kredyt bank kupon 5 kalkulator pożyczki bnp paribas pcc od umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem kredyt bez bik w płocku kredyty bez bik chorzów pożyczki o charakterze inwestycyjnym pozyczka w bankach na umowe zlecenie w czestochowie kredyt jako produkt bankowy praca licencjacka pożyczki gorzów szybki kredyt bez biku i krd kredyt bank nowa ruda pożyczki dąbrowa górnicza kredyt bank łódź piłsudskiego pożyczki najniższe oprocentowanie kredyt w kredyt banku forum pożyczki lichwiarskie warszawa refinansowanie pożyczki pożyczki cash kredyt bez biku tczew pozyczki brodnica od 18lat pożyczki bez bik zdunska wola provident koszt pożyczki kredyt samochodowy bez bik gdzie kredyt bank oferta kredytowa prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe bydgoszcz pożyczki tomasz lis kredyt samochodowy dla emerytów umowa pożyczki oświadczenie o poddaniu się egzekucji kredyty chwilówki logowanie kredyt studencki pko czy pekao pożyczki dla zadłuzonych kontakt kredyty chwilówki kredyt na dowód w getin banku gdzie można dostać kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik udziele pozyczki w bydgoszczy kredyt bez bik na 12 miesięcy pożyczki z komornikiem współpraca kredyt bank sa chełm umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw pożyczki gotówkowe chwilówka kredyt bez bik firma kredyty w aktywach banku umowa pożyczki z poręczycielem wzór pozyczki pozabankowe atiz krotoszyn cechy pożyczki i kredytu przedmiot umowy lojalka w kredyt banku wierzyciel pożyczki kontakt umowa pożyczki z własnym pracownikiem kredyt w alior banku a bik kredyt bank lokaty 2013 pozyczki internetowe skarabeusz pożyczki oddziały pożyczki online bez bik i krd i przelewania grosza kredyt w getin banku 2013 kredyt bankowy a emisja obligacji karencja w spłacie pożyczki co to jest szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe online pewny kredyt bez bik szybkie pożyczki online uk kredyt bank olsztyn aura nobilon pożyczki gdansk umowa pożyczki z udziałowcem kredyt w alior banku opinie pozyczki chwilowki zyrafa pożyczki na termomodernizację kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadluzonych w bik kredyt dla bezrobotnych bez bik i krd pożyczki infinite kredyt konsolidacyjny w polbank potrzebuję pożyczki 2014 potrzebuję pożyczki bez bik pożyczki chwilówki gliwice pozyczki na dowod wloclawek godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilowki ruda slaska pożyczki jeremie wrocław kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka 2 kredyt w banku nordea opinie pożyczki pod zastaw zgorzelec kredyt bank z jakich bankomatów pożyczki bez bik sanok kredyty mieszkaniowe co trzeba wiedzieć kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy pożyczki kraków bez bik kredyt bank w kętrzynie kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego bank pocztowy bocian pożyczki chełm pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki windykacja pożyczki wałcz kredyt pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik pożyczki online bez prowizji kredyt bank dywidenda 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny długi okres spłaty kredyt w banku na samochód kredyt w jakim banku oddziały kredyt banku w warszawie kredyty bank pko sa kredyt bank kod bic najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking alior bank kredyt bez bik kredyt studencki pko bp wcześniejsza spłata bezzwrotne pożyczki dla nowych firm oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego w mbanku kredyt bank 3 maja rzeszów kredyt bank wojska polskiego pożyczki pozabankowe ruda śląska kredyt bez bik tychy pożyczki prywatne olkusz kredyty konsolidacyjne porownanie pożyczki poza bankiem kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt bank jelenia góra ul wolności najprostsza umowa pożyczki kredyt dla firm bez bik zus us alior bank kredyt na remont kredyt bank żeromskiego warszawa godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla firm oprocentowanie kredyt bank focha kredyt bank lokaty oprocentowanie pożyczki pozabankowe bez dochodów umowa pożyczki osoba fizyczna korona pozyczki konin kredyt w meritum bank forum siódemka kredyty opinie pożyczka bez banku umowa pożyczki od udziałowca a pcc banknot pożyczki łódź kredyt bank sa swift kredyt bank kupon 5 kredyt technologiczny banki współpracujące kredyt konsolidacyjny ze zla historia kredytowa kredyt konsolidacyjny 70000 umowa pożyczki spółka zoo pożyczki pozabankowe głogów sulechow pozyczki w domu na dowod pożyczki podobne do vivusa oblicz ratę pożyczki ing kredyt bez bik złotów kredyt bank krotoszyn kredyty bez bik jelenia gora pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki szybki kredyt bez bik rzeszów kalkulator pożyczki w pko bp kredyt bank pleszew kredyt w banku spóldzielczym kredyt w banku na oswiadczenie kredyt pozabankowy bez zaświadczeń promesa pożyczki kredyty bez biku wroclaw kredyt bez bik leszno sennik kredyt bankowy kredyt konsolidacyjny plusy kredyt bank w sosnowcu kredyt bank kostrzyn nad odrą kredyt bank filia jastrowie kredyty bez bik w lesznie jakie banki w stargardzie udzielaja kredyty pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na działalność kredyt w eurobank forum kredyty chwilowki lodz kredyty w pko opinie pozabankowa pożyczka ze złym bik getin bank warunki udzielenia kredytu kredyt gotówkowy w banku spółdzielczym opinie pożyczki w domu częstochowa bankowy kredyt gotówkowy luban sl pozyczki prywatne kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki z internetu pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen lukas bank kredyty bankowe i ich ewidencja pożyczki bez bik w kielcach pożyczki pod zastaw piotrkow kredyt dla firm w fm banku profit pożyczki opinie ubezpieczenie do pożyczki gotówkowej udziele prywatnej pozyczki krakow bank bph kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator euromax pożyczki potrzebuje kredyt konsolidacyjny polskie pozyczki opinie kredyt bank infolinia z komórki kredyty chwilowki plonsk kredyt bank kolo kredyty bez biku grudziadz kredyt bank bankomaty wbk pożyczki pozabankowe lubin regulamin pożyczki vivus kredyt samochodowy getin kalkulator progresja pożyczki ranking banków na kredyt maksymalny koszt pożyczki kredyt bank belchatow optima pożyczki słupsk kredyty bez bik lubin kredyty bez bik chojnice umowa pożyczki z przechowaniem zastawu dobre pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki gotówkowe katowice elblag pozyczki w domu bez zaswiadczen najnowsze kredyty chwilówki kredyt bank ostrow wlkp kredyt bank dział kadr kredyt bank kondycja finansowa pożyczki bez bik od ręki kredyt pozabankowy na start firmy kredyt chwilówki praca opinie szybkie pożyczki legionowo pożyczki chwilówki toruń pozyczka dla zadluzonych przez łomża kredyt bank w śremie kredyt bank powiadomienia sms zabezpieczenie umowy pożyczki wekslem eurocash pożyczki lublin kredyt bank godziny otwarcia białystok kredyt bank gliniana kredyt bank nowy dwór mazowiecki godziny otwarcia kredyt bank starogard gdański chwilówki bez zdolności kredytowej commodus pożyczki warunki pożyczki w alior banku umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a podatek potrzebuje kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki bez bik 24 szybkie pożyczki online w uk kredyty chwilówki gniezno banki w uk udzielające pożyczki emigrantom kredyty chwilowki godz otwarcia kredyt bank 1 oddział gdańsk kredyt bank kraków królewska godziny otwarcia pożyczki bocian w kaliszu koszt umowy pożyczki notarialnej kredyt bank sa płock fikcyjna umowa pożyczki kredyt bez biku płock obligacja pożyczki dolarowej pożyczki chwilówki przez internet 24h santander consumer bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny firma kredyt bank w lipnie pożyczki bez bik olsztyn pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach danych pożyczki w jeden dzień umowa pożyczki zwolnienia pożyczka przez internet bez prowizji pozyczka bez bik kielce niepodpisana umowa pożyczki kredyt bank ostrowiec kredyt bank grodzisk wielkopolski umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej podatek umowa pożyczki kc kredyty chwilówki nr konta kredyt odnawialny w credit agricole kredyt bank w lublinie pozyczki inne niz prowident kredyt gotówkowy bez bik w banku pożyczki pozabankowe w koninie kredyt konsolidacyjny 150 tys bez zgody wspolmalzonka skarabeusz pożyczki przemyśl kredyt bank wroclaw placowki pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt konsumpcyjny bank millenium kredyt bank pila godziny otwarcia pożyczki na projekty unijne pozyczka z pracy przedawnienie kredyt bez bik w pko pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik wrocław pożyczki pod zastaw ruda śląska kredyt bank bankomaty darmowe pożyczki na oddłużenie kredyty chwilówki szczecin kredyty mieszkaniowe w jakim banku pożyczki gotówkowe w skoku kredyt bank gora kalwaria kredyty chwilówki jakie zarobki pożyczki bez bik szczecinek udzielenie pożyczki udziałowcowi szukam szybkiej pożyczki ubezpieczenie kredytu w credit agricole kredyt mieszkaniowy wymagane zarobki pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa sobota kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw forum kredyt bank kraków stradomska godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy od państwa kredyt bank kontakt mailowy pożyczki świebodzice kredyt bank w bialej podlaskiej kredyt bank zgorzelec godziny otwarcia przyrzeczenie udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkładem własnym umowa pożyczki między firmami a pcc lider pozyczki asper pożyczki opinie kalkulator kredytu bank pko bp pożyczki bocian rzeszów optima pożyczki reklama pożyczki racibórz bank spółdzielczy biała podlaska kredyt gotówkowy kredyt mieszkaniowy bez bik forum kredyt bankowy pasywa kredyt bez biku olsztyn kredyt samochodowy w lukas banku pozyczki na dzialalnosc bez bik profi credit umowa pożyczki pożyczki wałcz prywatne pozyczki chwilowki warszawa kredyt bank wroclaw sikorskiego kredyt bank plonsk bocian pożyczki pasłęk orange kody na kredyt udzielenie pożyczki osobie prywatnej kredyt bez bik racibórz pożyczki progres ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2013 provident pożyczki na dowód promesa udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank obsługa kart umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne wzór witam kredyt bez bik i krd optima pożyczki katowice kredyt bank lokaty oprocentowanie 2013 kredyt gotówkowy a umowa na czas określony wyrok umowa pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe porównanie ofert warta pożyczki lublin pożyczki bankowe oświadczenie pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator open finance alior bank kredyt technologiczny kredyt bank witomino pożyczki dla firm bph kredyt bank w toruniu godziny otwarcia kredyt bank gamma pożyczki bez biku przez internet pożyczki społecznościowe appfunds chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki śląskie kredyt dla banku nabywcy skok wołomin pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank olawa godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy zwrot podatku kredyt bez bik i krd przez internet bank pko bp oferty kredytów kredyt bank przejęty przez wbk kredyt bankowy ze złym bikiem pożyczki na pół roku kredyt bank lomza kredyt na dowód w banku cel umowy pożyczki pozyczki dla pracujacych w czechach pożyczki do domu kraków umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pcc umowa pożyczki między rodzicami a dziećmi w jakim banku wziasc kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki chwilówki świecie pozyczki z funduszu dla zadluzonych pożyczki pod zastaw auta lublin kredyt mieszkaniowy plus remont carecash pożyczki pożyczki prywatni inwestorzy czestochowa pozyczka pod zastaw auta kredyty chwilowki belchatow kredyt bank szczecin starzyńskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy getin noble bank pozyczyki atiz koszt przelewu kredyt bank retencja kredytów kredyt mieszkaniowy stary portfel kredyt konsolidacyjny kudoz kredyt bank inowrocław kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki rekreacyjnej kredyty chwilówki brzeg kredyty chwilowki swidnica bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator bank bedzin ktory udzieli kredytu na dowod pożyczki w getin banku opinie ubezpieczenie pożyczki w provident kredyt bank dewizy trzebinia pozyczki kosciuszki kredyt studencki pekao wniosek pożyczki na dowód bytom kredyt bank bydgoszcz modrzewiowa kredyt bank w pulawach oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank lokata econstans umowa pożyczki kto składa pcc pożyczki przedstawiciel kredyty bez bik i krd kalisz kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao bp pilnie potrzebuję pożyczki pozabankowej kredyty chwilówki kadry natychmiastowe pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy poznań pożyczki w banku pożyczki kredyty na dowód kredyty chwilówki kielce żeromskiego kredyty i pożyczki dla gmin kredyt na mieszkanie w banku pko bp pożyczki wodzisław śląski pożyczki w domu poznań prywatne pozyczki na procent dublin kredyt bank euro kurs astra pożyczki kredyt w orange pod jaki numer kredyt bank kraków pożyczki payu kredyty chwilówka namysłów umowa o udzielenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank adres mailowy pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla pracowników oświaty optima pożyczki program partnerski kredyt bez bik bolesławiec kredyt bank bankomat ustka idea bank kredyt opinie kredyt samochodowy w mbank opinie konsolidacja kredytu w bz wbk kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim pko bp kredyt bank maestro kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank opinie kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór umowy kredyt bankowy w niemczech udzielenie pożyczki udziałowcowi pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach szczecin pożyczki dla mikrofirm bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce pracujac za granica wycena bilansowa udzielonej pożyczki umowa pożyczki obowiązek podatkowy kredyty mieszkaniowe dla wojskowych umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki od udziałowca marka paslek pozyczki pozyczki dla zadluzonych w bik i krs kto udziela pozyczek bez bik chwilówki bez zdolności kredytowej firmy kredytowe w szamotulach pożyczki chwilówki firmy kredyt bank śródmieście kredyt bank zagiel warszawa pozyczki u klienta w domu dolny śląsk kredyt bank matejki gorzów kredyt bank spółdzielczy forum mikropożyczki dla firm 2012 podatek od pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą pożyczki pozabankowe w 15 min pożyczki internetowa kredyty dla zadłużonych bez biku asper pożyczki inowrocław umowa pożyczki w jednoosobowej spółce kredyt bank skok bankowy kredyt konsumpcyjny kredyty chwilówki staszów kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny oblicz raty kredyt bank sa oddział w białej podlaskiej pożyczki bez bik kraków oprocentowanie kredytu w santander bank kredyt bez bik polkowice wzór na obliczenie oprocentowania pożyczki szybkie pożyczki prywatne warszawa kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy bank pocztowy kredyt bank wieluń godziny otwarcia szybki kredyt w banku pozyczka prywatna chrzanow pożyczki całkowicie online kredyt bank ochrony środowiska kredyt bankowy przez internet pożyczki od osób prywatnych kielce getin noble bank kredyty gotówkowe kredyt mieszkaniowy 2013 pko umowa pożyczki z samym sobą kredyty chwilówki konin bocian pożyczki gniezno warunki dostania pożyczki kredyt dla firm bez bik i krd pożyczki 10000 kredyt bank kalisz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa w ostrołęce kredyt bank sa legnica szybkie pożyczki online uk umowa pożyczki prywatnie pożyczki chwilówki inowrocław fundusz górnośląski pożyczki

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad