umowa pożyczki a pcc 2012 kredyt bankowy finansowanie kredyt bank infolinia 24h gdzie dostanę kredyt bez bik pożyczki lublin lubartowska kredyt w uk lloyds kredyt na samochód bez bik i zaświadczeń odsetki od pożyczki cit promocje w kredyt banku pożyczki pod zastaw mińsk mazowiecki pożyczki bez prowizji kredyt na mieszkanie w jakim banku forum kredyt gotowkowy bez big i krd kredyt bez bik 20 tys pożyczki gotówkowe prywatne kredyt bank jarosław kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik pożyczki bez bik w kielcach pożyczki bez bik strzelce opolskie kredyty chwilówki 35 kredyt bank lokaty jednodniowe pożyczki gotówkowe parabanki dobre pożyczki forum umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie alior bank kredyt bez bik prodomo pożyczki toruń kredyt w banku czeskim kredyt bez bik oleśnica wzór umowy pożyczki nieoprocentowanej kredyt samochodowy online mbank kalkulator kredyt pozabankowy 30000 kredyt bank w zielonce kredyt bank przelew ekspresowy kredyt bank grodzisk mazowiecki kontakt pożyczki niskooprocentowane dla firm kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank forum pożyczki chwilówki iława adresy kredyt banku w warszawie pożyczki od gangsterów bankomaty kredyt bank łeba bocian pożyczki wałbrzych pożyczki dla osób pracujących w domu gdańsk pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank wołomin kredyt bank limit kredytowy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej wzór doc pożyczki pozabankowe chwilówki przez internet pożyczki polaków pożyczki społecznościowe opodatkowanie kredyt bank olsztyn wojska polskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sesje bankowe kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko santander consumer bank kredyty samochodowe mariusz dudziński pożyczki opinie kredyt bank radlin tel kredyt ratalny alior bank opinie kredyt bank luboń godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne cała polska kredyt mieszkaniowy w którym banku pożyczki na dowód szybko ekspresowe pożyczki wrocław bez big bik i krd pożyczki obligacyjne kredyt gotówkowy na umowę na czas określony kredyt bank konsultanci knf pożyczki dokumentacja podatkowa pożyczki kredyty bez bik ruda śląska pożyczki gotówkowe bank pekao sa pożyczki prywatne gliwice kredyt na samochód w credit agricole alior bank kredyt dla firm kompensata odsetek od pożyczki kredyty chwilowki strzegomska kredyt bank w ostródzie dyskontowanie pożyczki helios pożyczki kredyt bank tychy godziny otwarcia getin bank kredyt inwestycyjny oprocentowanie kredyt w raiffeisen bank kredyt bank krosno dyrektor kredyt bank zachodniopomorskie preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko regulamin kredyt bank międzyzdroje kredyt konsolidacyjny parabank kredyty mieszkaniowe money pożyczki z zakladowego funduszu świadczeń socjalnych pożyczki pod zastaw łódź kredyt bank sandomierz kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy bez małżeństwa kredyt studencki pko bp kontakt bank pko sa kredyty studenckie kredyty dla studentów wbk rata pożyczki kalkulator kredyt bank w białymstoku ul warszawska kredyt bank lokaty marzec 2012 szybkie pożyczki dla zadłużonych szczecin kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym idea bank opinie mikropożyczki bydgoszcz kredyty bez biku gniezno kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy alior bank kredyt bank puławska 303 godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne poznań kredyt bank ken godziny otwarcia nielegalne pozyczki online pożyczki pod weksel kredyt bank biznes kredyt bank lokata online kredyt bank ekstrabiznes kredyt bank w plocku jaki bank da pozyczke bez biku umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi bez odsetek pożyczki bez bik koszalin kredyt samochodowy volkswagen bank polska zabezpieczenie pożyczki nieruchomością pozyczka bez bik w mbank kredyt bank krasnystaw pozyczyki atiz kredyt bank warszawa powstańców kredyt bank rzeszow rejtana kredyty chwilówki ile się zarabia pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń umorzenie pożyczki podatek dochodowy kredyt bez bik zory kredyt konsolidacyjny jst kredyt bank sa lublin narutowicza 55b pozyczki bez bik przez internet kredyty chwilówki w tvn pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik forum pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik łódź kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe elbląg warunki pożyczki w providencie windykacja pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki lombard poznań pożyczki pod zastaw gdańsk kredyt bank numer banku pożyczka pod zastaw samochodu gdańsk kredyty bez bik na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank polaczenie tragedia w kredyt banku marża banku kredyt w euro kredyt bank przemyśl ul dworskiego kredyt ratalny santander consumer banku pożyczki bez biku regulamin pożyczki w eurokoncie pożyczki bartuś pożyczki gotówkowe dla emerytów alior bank kredyt internetowy kredyt bankowy księgowania kredyt bank lokaty bez podatku belki kredyt bank lesko szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe pozyczki do domu podkarpacie pożyczki bez bik podkarpacie kredyty chwilówki bielsko kredyt 5 zł orange pożyczki skarabeusz kolbuszowa kredyt chwilówka bez bik i krd pożyczki wewnętrzne iii oddział kredyt banku w poznaniu kredyty pozabankowe odfirm prywatnych ostrow lub kalisz kredyt konsolidacyjny bez krd pożyczki ślimak szczecin pożyczki krasnystaw kredyt bank 224 kredyt bank kołobrzeska 12 kredyty konsolidacyjne dla zadłużonych bez bik pożyczki w domu klienta śląsk pożyczki przez internet dla firmy ing pożyczka samochodowa pożyczka 20000 bez weryfikacji warszawa pożyczki wrocław bez bik kredyt bank wolontariat pracowniczy pożyczki bez bik jasło kredyt studencki bz wbk 2013 kredyt bank warszawa wilanowska pożyczki agerta kredyty od reki bez biku i krd na sam dowód w kielcach pożyczka bez bik i krd mława pożyczki bez wpisu do bik pożyczki chwilówki bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank bankomaty za granicą kredyty bez biku olsztyn pożyczki prywatne na zakup nieruchomości kredyt bankowy wymagania pożyczki skok wesoła umowa pożyczki z zfśs wzór pożyczki pozabankowe ostrów wielkopolski wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki ekspresowej pko sa kredyt bank rzgowska pożyczki chwilówki pierwsza za darmo pożyczki z funduszu pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców mazowieckie prośba o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs gdzie najłatwiej o kredyt bez bik zarobki w kredyt banku 2012 kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank kalkulator kredyt zagraniczny opinie kredyt bank żeromskiego warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki za granica kredyt konsolidacyjny wniosek kredyt konsolidacyjny gmina rzeszów pożyczki prywatne wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie pożyczki marka kredyt konsolidacyjny pocztowy ekstra kasa pożyczki kredyt w boś banku kredyt bank centrum obsługi biznesu kredyt bank w żyrardowie najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe ranking kredyt bank w kwidzynie pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik przez internet pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości lublin umorzenie pożyczki zfśs a podatek kredyt bank grudziądzka 93 umowa pożyczki charakterystyka pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi rolnej kredyt na dowód w alior banku kredyty bez bik gdańsk kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp sa kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą 2013 kredyt bank bialystok ul radzyminska kredyty chwilówki żyrardów udzielenie pożyczki podmiotowi powiązanemu kupon 1 kredyt bank szybki kredyt 2014r :l kredyty pozabankowe chorzów pożyczki bez bik 4000 kredyt gotówkowy bank bph pożyczki bez zaświadczeń poznań pożyczki pozabankowe koszalin kredyt bank dom maklerski pożyczki bez bik przez sms pożyczki bez bik śląsk pożyczki takto kredyt bez biku i zaswiadczen alior bank kredyty studenckie pozyczki w mielcu bocian kredyt bank łódź 11 listopada godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki a pit kredyt bank warszawa plac powstańców weryfikacja kredytow tempo finanse kredyt bank warszawa wesoła umowa pożyczki zakładowej kredyt bez bik nowa sól pożyczki wyszków idea bank kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym opinie kredyt bank adres pożyczki przez internet 30000 kredyty konsolidacyjne z zajęciem komorniczym umowa pożyczki ceny transferowe kredyt bank wpłata na konto mikropożyczki dla firm pożyczki u kruka kredyty pozabankowe gorzów wlkp pożyczki dla osób zadłużonych bocian pożyczki krosno pożyczki leszno narutowicza kredyt bankowy a pożyczka różnice kredyty bankowe sciaga kredyt bez bik w getin banku pożyczki bez bik sulechów kredyty w millenium bank umowa pożyczki między bratem a siostrą umorzenie pożyczki a vat pożyczki gdańska 69 bydgoszcz najtańsze kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking kredyty chwilówki logo kredyt samochodowy credit agricole opinie tomek zaciągnął w banku omb kredyt pożyczki dla podmiotów ekonomii społecznej profinet pożyczki praca kredyt bank lublin ul narutowicza 55b kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum banku gdzie szukać pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt bank zambrów pożyczki w domu klienta szczecin kredyt mieszkaniowy bez umowy na czas nieokreślony preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko opinie opodatkowanie pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt bank powstancow warszawy pożyczka w domu klijęta elbląg optima autokredyt pozabankowo odsetki od pożyczki zfśs wzór pozyczka iława na dowód bez zaświadczenia kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec 3 maja kredyty typu chwilówka nowa sól pożyczki prywatne całą polska formulaz getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w kruk umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami prywatnymi kiedy przedawnia się niespłacony kredyt bankowy pożyczki bez bik leszno pożyczki chwilówki wodzisław śląski pożyczki prywatne warszawa kredyt pocztowy na dowód kredyt bank w swinoujsciu duo pożyczki chwilówki konsekwencje podatkowe pożyczki jaki jest kod na kredyt orange pozyczki w domu klienta w plocku kredyt bank warszawa godziny otwarcia sobota kredyt samochodowy ranking 2014 umowa pożyczki pcc 2013 ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt pożyczki pod zastaw złota warszawa bank bph kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum umowa pożyczki z deklaracją wekslową kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania bez bik pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod zastaw udzielenie nieoprocentowanej pożyczki my banq pożyczki pożyczki kredyty dla zadłużonych kredyt bankowy a podatek vat kredyty w idea banku forum kredyt bank w glogowie pożyczki z zfśs a pcc bankomaty kredyt banku w koszalinie kredyt bank filia łomianki pożyczki w bolesławcu pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez biku pożyczki optima kredyty mieszkaniowe dla polakow pracujacych za granica umowa pożyczki spółce wzór pożyczki bez bik bez krd kredyt bank w garwolinie kredyt bank międzyrzecz kredyt bez bik w parabanku pożyczki od ręki gdańsk pożyczki prywatne wyszków kredyt bez bik i dochodow pożyczki dla dzieci kredyt bank sa krs bankomaty kredyt banku w rzeszowie kredyty chwilówki ulotki opinie w jakim banku najlepiej brac kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt studencki pko legitymacja kredyt prywatny wzór umowy cywilno prawnej podatek od odsetek od pożyczki wspólnika pożyczki dla zadłużonych rolników pożyczki na kilka dni kredyt konsolidacyjny który bank pozyczki z dojazdem do domu opole kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit 2013 pożyczka w domu klienta kredyty bez bik cała polska kredyt konsolidacyjny ipko kredyty bez biku wroclaw pożyczki bez bik dzierżoniów szybki kredyt bez bik 10000 pożyczki prywatne żyrardów kredyt bank makler kredyty w idea banku forum pozyczka na procent opole przedawnienie niespłaconej pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór umowa pożyczki z jedynym wspólnikiem umowa pożyczki z podmiotem zagranicznym kredyt w banku getin bank pozyczki dla kazdego 48 skok wesoła pożyczki bez bik kredyt z dofinansowaniem unijnym idea bank opinie prodomo pożyczki pożyczki bez krd i bik dąbrowa górnicza spółka udziela pożyczki osobie fizycznej kredyty chwilowki pl bez bik kredyt samochodowy deutsche bank kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki bez bik olsztyn kredyty bez bik włocławek pożyczki bez bik warszawa pożyczki finan wrocław wiesława udzielone pożyczki ang pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw warszawa pozyczki bez bik do 25000 pozyczki dla zadluzonych bez dochodu kredyt bank kurs usd jak wziąć kredyt w banku zagranicznym pożyczki kredyty chwilówki ostrołęka kredyt bank miedzyzdroje kredyty chwilówki bocian umowa o spłatę pożyczki umowa pożyczki dla fundacji z komornikiem kredyt kredyt bank ostrołęka godziny otwarcia uczciwe pożyczki pozabankowe forum kredyty bez bik i krd przez internet jak sprawdzic stan konta w kredyt banku przez internet kredyt bez bik gorzów wlkp kredyt bank oferta ror kredyty chwilówki ruda śląska nowy bytom optima pożyczki praca kredyt bank w brzegu kredyty chwilówki łódź oprocentowanie kredytu w banku śląskim wzór na wyliczenie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt studencki lista banków pożyczki bez bik 20 000 kredyt bank ipad kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank opinie kredyt na dowód w banku pocztowym pożyczki lendon fast pożyczki kredyt bank lubliniec kredyt chwilówki bez bik pozyczki dla zadłuzonych w banku pko finanse pożyczki na weksel toruń kredyt bank warszawa bartycka pożyczki pod zastaw kościan szybkie pożyczki toruń kredyt bank warszawa abrahama 18 promocja pożyczki umowa pożyczki z przewłaszczeniem umowa pożyczki podatek 2012 porównanie pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki rydułtowy w jakim banku wziąc kredyt kredyt w banku a krd kredyt bank zmiana limitu kredyty bez bik i krd katowice kredyt bank wroclawska kredyt bank pl kursy walut mikropożyczki w polsce fundacja kredyt banku razem możemy więcej kredyt bez bik 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kalkulator kredyt samochodowy mbank kredyty bez biku szybko wierzyciel pożyczki istota kredytu i pożyczki pożyczki dla firm opole kontrakt pożyczki pożyczki bank pko kredyty bankowe praca kredyt bank makler w jakim banku kredyt przez internet kredyt w banku ślaskim kredyty chwilówki piaseczno kredyt konsolidacyjny zalety pożyczki grodzisk mazowiecki kredyty bez bik biała podlaska kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim forum umowa spłaty pożyczki na raty pożyczki nowy sącz kredyt bank iban swift kredyty banki spółdzielcze kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator skok stefczyka pożyczki chwilówki rzeszów pożyczki oddłużające kredyty zamość bez bik kredyt bank radom ul żeromskiego kredyt bank 24 doładowanie telefonu pożyczki mieszkaniowe w policji kredyt bank ken warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód idea bank kredyt opinie kredyt bank w warszawie pożyczki dla dla każdego w uk bocian pożyczki provident kredyt bank w środzie śląskiej wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej pod zastaw kredyt studencki pko zaświadczenie z uczelni kredyt konsolidacyjny zadłużonych w zusie i w bankach pozyczki na weksel u klienta w domu mazowieckie kredyt mieszkaniowy na nowe mieszkanie pozyczki dla pracujacych w czechach raty pożyczki przedawnienie pensje w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank odsetki od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego fgp pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zus pożyczki z obsługą w domu radom pożyczki kokos opinie pożyczki prywatne lublin retencja kredytów kredyt bank żytnia warszawa kredyt studencki ing bank pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych forum pożyczki dla bezrobotnych i odrzuconych śląskie pożyczki chwilówki biznes pożyczki bez bik nowy tomyśl pożyczki prywatne pod weksel poznań kredyty mieszkaniowe na 100 wartości kredyt w banku spółdzielczym dla rolników kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator eurobank szybkie pożyczki bez bik płock kredyt gotówkowy w pekao sa czy latwo dostac kredyt w getin banku pożyczki udzielone przez jst pozyczki w uk po polsku zopa pożyczki gotówkowe na dowud bez biku kredyt bank okrąglak kredyt konsolidacyjny gmina ubezpieczenie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior banku kredyty chwilówki bez bik kraków najtanszy kredyt w banku pożyczki z poręczycielem kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pko sa

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad