kalkulator mega pożyczki ing jak zwiększyć kredyt odnawialny pekao pożyczki w koszalinie jak wziąć kredyt w banku kredyt bez bik do 2000 kredyt bank świebodzin kontakt w jakim banku można wziąć kredyt studencki tani kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty bez biku i zdolnosci kredytowej kredyt w citibank potrącanie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt w banku zagranicznym bocian walbrzych kredyt kredyty chwilówki kamienna góra pożyczki nowy dwór mazowiecki kredyt na samochód bez sprawdzania w biku szybkie pożyczki chorzów kredyty bez biku jaworzno kredyt konsolidacyjny 120 miesięcy kredyty banki porównanie kredyt bank marza kredyt bank sa ruda slaska pożyczki w polbanku chwjlowki pozyczki bez bik krd gliwice szybka pozyczka 15 tysięcy kredyty gotówkowe bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki na procent kraków kredyt bank kielce sienkiewicza umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt technologiczny banki pożyczki kredyty dla zadłużonych pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez zaświadczeń pożyczki pozabankowe 2012 dyrektor kredytbank zamość kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki udzielam pożyczki pod weksel symulacja kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy pozyczki bez bik krd pożyczki gotówkowej zabezpieczonej aktywami płynnymi pożyczki kasa fiskalna pożyczki chwilówki w świeciu szybkie kredyty przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny przez internet pożyczki bez bik bez krd kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko kalkulator pozyczek euro providus kredyty bez biku i komornika santander kredyt z kuponem kredyt bez biku w rybniku kredyt bank warszawa ul popularna kredyt bank białystok lipowa godziny otwarcia kredyt dla pracujących za granica forum kredyt getin krd pożyczki pozabankowe duże kwoty dorota król pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kraków kredyt bank warszawa krs kredyt bank lipowa białystok godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik internetowe kredyty chwilówki na dowód kredyt konsolidacyjny bs kredyt bez bik w koninie kredyt bez pracy pożyczki do 3000 zł kredyt bank trójmiasto pożyczki internetowe bez biku kredyt bank definicja kredyt chwilówka kondratowicza umowa pożyczki żyrant kredyty bez zaświadczeń i biku racibórz wniosek o preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt bank placówki godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór umowy vivus kwota pożyczki została zmniejszona konwersja pożyczki na kapitał wzór szybkie pożyczki bez bik online szybkie pożyczki bez bik i big pożyczki chwilówki bez krd pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt bank akredytywa prywatne udziele pożyczki w kościanie bocian pożyczki grudziądz pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń szczecin kredyt bank rrso kredyt bank zagiel pożyczki bez bik opolskie kredyt studencki banki 2013 kredyt bez bik od ręki kredyt bank olsztyn godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik bolesławiec kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorców kredyt bank lokaty lipiec 2012 prywatne pożyczki gorzów wlkp kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta opinie pożyczki bgż umowa pożyczki od członka rodziny wpłatomaty kredyt banku warszawa pożyczki ostrzeszów kredyt bank bezpieczne dziecko kalkulator kosztów pożyczki pożyczki przeterminowane pozyczka długoterminowa bez bik i krd dla bezrobotnych realne pożyczki prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw sosnowiec pożyczki prywatne pomorskie udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez wkładu własnego pożyczki porównywarka kredyt bez bik rawicz symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej ing umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs 2012 kredyt do orange pod jaki numer bocian pożyczki youtube kredyty chwilowki opole szybkie pożyczki bez bik wrocław przejęcie kredyt banku przez wbk kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko sa www kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki w domu klienta kalisz ubezpieczenie pożyczki mbank pożyczki bez krd i bez bik kredyt do orange kod kredyt bank belgia wzór umowy pożyczki udziałowca pożyczki pod zastaw bolesławiec pożyczki chwilówki za 0 pożyczki pozabankowe dla kogo alior bank kredyt inwestycyjny oprocentowanie optima pożyczki praca opinie pożyczki chwilówki przez internet dla bezrobotnych kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych z komornikiem w jakim banku kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pko sa kredyt bank bydgoszcz modrzewiowa kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2012 kredyty chwilówki słupsk deotymy pożyczki takie jak provident cechy pożyczki jako czynności prawnej pożyczki świebodzice kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku millennium umowa pożyczki od członka zarządu podatek od pożyczki od rodziny 2012 żyrafa pożyczki logowanie szukam pożyczki bez zaświadczeń pożyczki pozabankowe w toruniu umorzenie pożyczki w spółce komandytowej pozyczki w domu klijeta kredyty bez zaświadczeń o dochodach i bez bik kredyt bank sa centrala rozwiązanie umowy pożyczki wzór eurocent podobne pozyczki pożyczki łódź opinie kredyt bank białystok kredyt bez bik i krs pożyczki chwilówki wady pożyczki pod zastaw świdnik pro domo kredyty bydgoszcz kredyt bez bik wniosek online kredyt w idea banku forum kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2012 skok piast kredyt 5000 kredyt bank białołęka pożyczki na rozkręcenie firmy kredyty mieszkaniowe bez zdolności kredyt konsolidacyjny w tym samym banku prywatne pozyczki siedlce be bik i krd mazowieckie kredyt w provident utrata pracy prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań kredyt bank foksal kredyt bez bik 35000 pożyczki chwilówki umowa kredyt bank iii oddział gdańsk kredyty chwilówki pierwsza za darmo udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel umowa pożyczki kpc umowa pożyczki cywilnej alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczenia pożyczki pozabankowe goleniów okres pożyczki skarbiec pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilówki żory pozyczka iława na dowód bez zaświadczenia oprocentowanie efektywne pożyczki kredyty w bilansie banku db kredyt bez biku tani kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik forma pisemna pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank opinie pożyczki bez bik i krd kraków pożyczki do domu płock kredyt w uk lloyds kredyt bank wrocław plac legionów kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym opinie kredyt bank wpłata na konto warunki otrzymania kredytu w getin banku kredyt mieszkaniowy porównanie ofert banków kredyt studencki pko bp termin składania wniosków orange jaki kod na kredyt kredyt bankowy bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez sprawdzania bik i big kredyt bez bik i krs pożyczki bezzwrotne jak uzyskac kredyt bez biku pożyczki na dowód białystok szybki kredyt bez biku i krd przez internet pożyczki na dowód szprotawa pożyczki chwilówki panda pożyczki chwilówki za 0 kredyt w banku pko bp opinie termin przedawnienia roszczeń z umowy pożyczki umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki cywilnej internetowe pożyczki gotówkowe spłata pożyczki nieruchomością gdzie najszybciej kredyt online na koncie formularz spłaty pożyczki odsetki od pożyczki nota czy faktura mikropożyczki białystok szybkie kredyty bez bik szybkie pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank sa opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny żagiel potrzebuję pożyczki 2012 kredyt bez bik i krd chorzow umowa pożyczki spłata pożyczki na dowód bielawa kredyt w banku spółdzielczym kredyt mieszkaniowy opłaty notarialne finan pożyczki pożyczki bez bik i krd radom waloryzacja pozyczki kredyt samochodowy w nordea bank pożyczki pod zastaw złota tarnów pragma pożyczki alior bank kredyt dla seniora kredyt bez bik 5000 online pożyczki ze środków unijnych kredyt mieszkaniowy spłata przed terminem kredyt chwilówka współpraca kredyty pozabankowe ruda śląska kredyt bez bik prywatny pożyczki pod zastaw pozabankowe pożyczki przez internet bez pracy konsolidacja kredytów gdzie najlepiej kredyt bank tyszowce godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem pcc kredyt bank euro przelew gold cash pożyczki kredyt w uk na samochod kredyt bank debica alior bank kredyt na remont pożyczki chwilówki bez przelewania grosza pożyczki bez bik dzierżoniów kredyt w banku holenderskim pożyczki gotówkowe inowrocław pożyczki mława kredyty konsolidacyjne na oświadczenie kredyt gotowkowy bez big i krd kod w orange na kredyt kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec potrzebuję pilnej pożyczki pls kredyt bank śrem telefon umowa pożyczki pozew kredyt na dowod mielec kredyty pozabankowe piekary slaskie kalkulator rat pożyczki kredyt bez bik wniosek online kredyt bank bialobrzegi kredyty chwilówki system partner pl bocian pożyczki bełchatów kredyty i pożyczki prezentacja kredyt bank chałubińskiego 8 bocian jakie wymagania kredytowe umowa pożyczki firma pożyczki prywatne bez przedpłat pożyczki pozabankowe grodzisk mazowiecki kredyty bez biku piła finan pożyczki opłata za obsługę pożyczki w domu kredyt konsolidacyjny ze zlym bikiem kredyt bank sa w pile kredyt bank garibaldiego 4 kredyty pozabankowe do 5000 pożyczki chojnów betgang pożyczka kredyt mieszkaniowy w ktorym banku wzór umowy pożyczki od udziałowca spółki pożyczki społecznościowe jak kredyt dla studentów mbank pożyczki chwilówki bez bik ranking pożyczka na spłatę komornika pod weksel pko kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu kredyty bez biku i komornika alior bank kredyt na start regulamin pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt bank piłsudskiego łódź godziny otwarcia kredyt online eurobank opinie wzór umowy pożyczki na raty kredyt bank polkowice pożyczki tlf żagiel pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki prywatne łódż kredyt bez bik 200 tys pożyczki prywatne 24h pożyczki bez bik dla rencistów kredyty chwilówki przez internet umowa pożyczki pieniężnej wzór jaki bank udziela kredytu bez biku pożyczki bez bik kraków kredyt bank wyplaty z bankomatu kredyt samochodowy mbank dokumenty paulina dabrowska pozyczki kredyt na dowod olawa ulica pozyczki ratalne online pozabankowe kredyty chwilówki bocian prywatne pożyczki rybnik kredyt studencki pko bp dokumenty pożyczki alior bank opinie kredyt bank w borku wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny do 15 lat wzór umowy pożyczki osób prywatnych kredyt bank ogólne warunki kredytowania pożyczki na weksel gdańsk kredyty chwilówki ostrów mazowiecka kredyty mieszkaniowe częstochowa kredyt bank sprzedaż waluty warunki kredytu w kredyt banku kredyt samochodowy online mbank opinie chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki godula wzór umowy pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem kredyt bez bik 200 tys kredyt bank jana pawła 12 bartosz ratajczak pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa mapa oprocentowanie pożyczki odnawialnej ing kredyt bank wydruk potwierdzenia wycena pożyczki według zamortyzowanego kosztu kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka 22 kredyt studencki pko miesiące pożyczki dla bezrobotnych z urzędu pracy pożyczki prywatne biała podlaska pożyczki na podjęcie działalności gospodarczej pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt bank zytnia kredyt bez bik w bydgoszczy kredyt bank nr telefonu szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń pożyczki pod zastaw polisy bezpieczny kredyt pozabankowy kredyt chwilówki kalkulator czy do kredytu chwilowki potrzebne jest zaswiadczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny co oznacza pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt lokatorski pożyczki na dowód płock kredyt samochodowy getin bank kalkulator kredyt bez biku na auto druk pożyczki z pkzp kredyt bank szczecin rydla godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe eurocent kredyt bank oddział marki godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy w deutsche bank pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem poznań jak zrobić przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku najtanszy kredyt w ktorym banku umowa pożyczki papierów wartościowych kredyt bank busko zdrój kontakt umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw wzór kredyt samochodowy w santander opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy na 30 lat odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej wzór pożyczki bez bik pod zastaw samochodu kredyt bank katowice mielęckiego kredyt konsolidacyjny agricole kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnego rodzica ubezpieczenie pożyczki w skoku stefczyka pożyczka na dowód na oświadczenie wałbrzych ile można wziąć pożyczki na dowód pożyczki bez bik ostrowiec św umowa pożyczki z zakładem pracy kredyt remontowy kredyty pozabankowe ogłoszenia pożyczki na dowód gdynia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zatrudnieniu kto płaci podatek od pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy katowice kredyt w krakowskim banku spółdzielczym pożyczki prywatne giełda oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego szczecin umowa pożyczki wzór osoby fizyczne umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki przychód pożyczki chwilówki bartoszyce kredyt bank zytnia pożyczki prywatne forum i opinie kredyty chwilowki strzegomska pożyczki gotówkowe forum skarabeusz pożyczki w domu odsetki od pożyczki udziałowiec kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej bzwbk kredyt bez biku tychy kredyt bez bik pozabankowy w ktorym banku wziac kredyt na dom w jakim banku mozna wziasc kredyt na dowod kredyty bez bik na dlugi okres splat inowroclaw kredyt bank koszalin bankomaty kredyt bank chrzanów godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie o bankach kredyty bez bik i komornika pozyczki online przez poczte kredyt bankowy millenium pożyczki bez bik i krd do 10000 kredyt bank dyrektor regionalny kredyt w uk kalkulator kredyty pozabankowe bez bik us zus w szczecinie kredyt bank centrum umowa spłaty pożyczki pożyczki i kredyty preferencyjne brak zdolności kredytowej gliwice pożyczki prywatne kredyty chwilówki kołłątaja wrocław pożyczki dla zadłużonych w erif pożyczki chwilówki bielsko biała kredyt bank żywiec godziny otwarcia pożyczki pszczółka bydgoszcz kredyt dla ludzi pracujacych w uk pożyczki prywatne małgorzata lubowiecka kredyt bank piotrków telefon znaczenie kredytów w działalności banku kredyt bank legnica bankomaty kredyt bank żeromskiego tel pożyczki gotówkowe credit agricole umowa nieodpłatnej pożyczki wzór kredyt w credit agricole forum kredyt bank potwierdzenie przelewu prywatne pożyczki dla rolników pożyczki społecznościowe w uk kredyt bank żyrardów godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe w rzeszowie pożyczki chwilówki radomsko pewne pożyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki bez bik katowice w domu klijenta kredyty mieszkaniowe od 2014 roku panda pożyczki nysa opinie pozyczka pieniedzy plock pożyczki vivus opinie forum pozyczka dla mlodych bez bik pożyczki śląsk kredyt studencki forum odsetki od umowy pożyczki a vat kredyty chwilówki tychy system partner szybki kredyt online bez bik i krd otwock pozyczki chwilowki prywatne pozyczki pod zastaw szczecin pożyczki bez bik częstochowa bocian pożyczkisanokkontakt umowa pozyczki pomiedzy matka a corka czy od pożyczki trzeba zapłacić podatek umowa pożyczki maksymalne oprocentowanie ogłoszenia pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik w białymstoku kredyt bank w stalowej woli kredyty w działalności banku kredyt samochodowy sygma bank bogdan dylewski pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny przelicznik umowa pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania wzór santander kredyt z kuponem kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najtaniej mieszkaniowe kredyty preferencyjne pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik pożyczki prywatne bez wpłaty kredyty od reki od 18lat ostrowiec sw tax care pożyczki forum wniosek o przyznanie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt bez bik w skoku stefczyka kredyt bank chuck norris kredyt samochodowy ranking marzec 2014 kredyty chwilowki bytom kredyt pozyczka bez biku kredyt bank raszyn godz otwarcia kredyt bank pelplin pozyczka na pit bez bik w bydgoszcz kredyt konsolidacyjny zwrot ubezpieczenia pożyczki pozabankowe otwock pożyczki śląsk kredyt studencki pko regulamin pozyczki na procent warszawa kredyt bank oferta ror duet pożyczki częstochowa kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla singli kredyty chwilówki konsolidacja kredyty bez bik decyzja online pożyczki prado kredyt studencki pko telefon pozyczki prywatne bez zaswiadczen bez bik i krd tczew pożyczki od rodziny podatek kredyt gotówkowy bez bik dla zadłużonych bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2013 kredyt bank punkty pożyczki bez bik i dochodów skok kujawiak oferty pozyczki 2014 pożyczki tygodniówki

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad