kredyt bez bik stargard w jakim banku dostane kredyt na dowód nowe pozyczki pożyczki lubelskie idea bank kredyt inwestycyjny oprocentowanie kredyt w getin banku na pit kredyty bez bik żory kredyt gotówkowy przez internet bez bik bocian pożyczki chełmża jak jest kod na kredyt w orange pożyczki bezprocentowe dla nauczycieli kredyt studencki pko a urlop dziekański umowa pożyczki co to jest prywatne pożyczki dla rolników kredyt bank dział reklamacji kredyt studencki nowe zasady szybkie pożyczki online w uk czym różni się kredyt bankowy od lokaty umowa pożyczki na czas nieokreślony wzór kredyt samochodowy paribas bank kalkulator pożyczki olesnica pożyczka pod weksel poznań pko bp kredyt dla niepracujacych pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości lublin idea bank kredyt obrotowy oprocentowanie optima pożyczki numer telefonu spłata kapitału pożyczki kredyt w provident utrata pracy pożyczki z funduszy mikro pożyczki grójec bocian pożyczki praca opinie kredyt bank sa nip regon kredyt bank fundusze inwestycyjne kredyty bankowe porównanie ofert pożyczki z zakładu pracy kredyt konsolidacyjny w bgż forum pożyczki na weksel śląsk opinie o kokos pożyczki pozyczki prywatne premium i podobne wronki pożyczki ubezpieczone wycena bilansowa udzielonej pożyczki odsetki od pożyczki w deklaracji vat pożyczki chwilówki słupsk wojska polskiego udzielę pożyczki na procent kraków pozyczki publiczne zalety dobry kredyt kalisz uzasadnienie pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw dębica kredyt konsolidacyjny w pnb paribas kredyt bez bik bielsko pożyczki komercyjne pożyczki dla rencistów wrocław kredyt bank otwock kontakt kredyt orange umowa pożyczki oprocentowanie kredyt optima kontakt prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych styczeń 2014 kredyt na otwarcie firmy ze zla historia kredytowa kredyt bank zarobki 2011 pożyczki finan wrocław wiesława kredyt bank platforma walutowa umowa pożyczki z zakładem pracy umowa pożyczki między firmami a vat kredyt bank raszyn godz otwarcia umowa pożyczki druk aktywny umorzenie pożyczki darowizna pożyczki w ramach grupy kapitałowej kredyt chwilowka bydgoszcz ul gdanska pożyczki bez bik pułtusk kredyt bank w konstantynowie łódzkim pozyczki w domu klienta wloclawek pozyczka miedzylllll w jakim banku brać kredyt rodzina na swoim gdzie kredyt bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki jeremie kredyt konsolidacyjny odmowa pożyczki bez biku w starachowicach fundacja warty i kredyt banku razem możemy więcej kredyty chwilówki rzeszów plac wolności pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik wrocław jak wziasc kredyt bez bik alior bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum umowa pożyczki między udziałowcem a spółką kredyt gotówkowy w którym banku najlepiej kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza godziny otwarcia pożyczka na dowód od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny przetarg symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej ing kredyt bank numer telefonu pożyczki dla małych i średnich firm kredyt bank giżycko telefon pożyczki bez sprawdzania zdolności kredytowej niespłacone pożyczki w uk najbardziej korzystne pożyczki pekao sa kredyt studencki dokumenty alior sync kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bank augustów godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy praca za granica kredyt bank mikołów kontakt kredyt bank włochy ul popularna pożyczki w domu u klienta chorzów kredyt bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki prywatne oferty 2013 kredyt chwilówka jastrzebie kredyt bank godziny księgowania pcc od pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu umowa pożyczki pod zastaw prawo pozyczki krotko terminowe pożyczki prywatne podatki lukas bank kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego kredyt bank przelicznik rat kredyt w banku bph opinie pożyczki kętrzyn kredyt mieszkaniowy w 2014 roku odsetki od pożyczki kalkulator gofin kredyt bank bialystok zwyciestwa 15000 bezzwrotnej pożyczki idea bank alior bank kredyt online kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomosci kredyt bez bik i krd kraków w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kalkulator kredyt bank piła sikorskiego kredyt w provident utrata pracy lokaty w kredyt banku kredyty chwilówki strzegomska wrocław pożyczki dla osób ze złą historią w bik kredyt samochodowy bank pko bp pożyczki nakło pożyczki bez bik środa wlkp pozabankowy kredyt na otworzenie dzialalnosci kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wymagania jak grzecznie odmówić pożyczki kredyt bank bełchatów kredyty chwilówki kluczbork skarabeusz pożyczki krs egzekwowanie pożyczki kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2011 kredyt bank consumer finance kredyt bank oszczędnościowe kredyty i pożyczki gminy kredyt bank namysłów kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania w bik wniosek o restrukturyzację pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea banku prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe gdańsk pożyczki we frankach kredyt bez bik dabrowa gornicza eurocent pożyczki chwilówki kredyt chwilowka zielona gora kredyt bank biała podlaska praca kredyt z komornikiem bez opłat kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp sa pożyczki społecznościowe bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe 2013 umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki skutki podatkowe pozyczka na dom uk bank pko wzór umowy pożyczki do pobrania kalkulator kredytu bank pko bp kredyt bank 24 kb kredyt studencki pko bp umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a osobą fizyczną pożyczki prywatne kto udzieli kredyt bank faktoring kredyty mieszkaniowe ranking 2013 kredyt przez internet w credit agricole banki kredyty gotówkowe oprocentowanie przeniesienie pożyczki do innego banku kredyt konsolidacyjny jaka rata pożyczki pod zastaw dębica kredyt samochodowy w raiffeisen bank pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw samochodu bocian pożyczki tarnobrzeg transza pożyczki pożyczki od udziałowców księgowanie podatek od pożyczki pomiędzy firmami pożyczki od osób prywatnych wrocław kredyt bank oddział w krakowie kredyt bank wiceprezes kredyt bank 2 umowa pożyczki konsumenckiej kredyty bez zaswiadczen i bez biku w jakim banku kredyt na dowód tomasz kotłowski pożyczki kredyt dla bezrobotnych na dowód pożyczki bez dochodu toruń kredyt bank wynagrodzenie pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyty chwilówki kadry pozyczka bartek pożyczki na dowód dla zadłużonych kredyt bank wałbrzych godziny otwarcia kredyt bank pko sa kalkulator kredyt bank wrocław siedziba pożyczki z zakladowego funduszu świadczeń socjalnych kredyt konsolidacyjny skok wesola bank pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bez bik opolskie pożyczki bez dochodów kielce kredyt bank krotoszyn kredyt bank kody jednorazowe kredyt konsumpcyjny w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank sa lublin zana 39a pożyczki chwilówki jak to działa kredyt bank białą podlaska santander consumer bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bank oferty pracy warszawa pożyczka na pit 11bez bik pożyczki bez bik nowy tomyśl pożyczki pozabankowe nysa idea bank kredyt online opinie kredyt gotówkowy bez bik lublin kredyt bank polska adres umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a podatek kredyt z komornikiem piekary sl na weksel kredyt bank police godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki banki które udzielają w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty chwilówki świecie pożyczki bez bik w 15 min kredyty pozabankowe długoterminowe kredyt mieszkaniowy pko wymagania kredyt bank za granicą kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta zarobki kredyt dla studentów bzwbk pożyczki chwilówki w uk kredyty bez bik tarnowskie góry kredyt na umowę zlecenie w banku pocztowym kredyt bank ul żytnia profi kredit czy otrzymam kredyt bez bik kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik jaki bank wybrac kredyt bank w biłgoraju pożyczki na dowód śrem udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez wkładu własnego kredyt bank lokaty wrzesien 2012 kredyt samochodowy lukas bank pożyczka 20000 bez weryfikacji warszawa interpretacje podatkowe pożyczki pożyczka na dowód osobisty pożyczki bocian olsztyn kontakt optima pożyczki słupsk meritum bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny sieradz pożyczka 15000 pozyczki w domu klienta slask kredyt bank awaria systemu kredyt w nordea banku wymagania kredytowe barclays kredyt bank sa opinie pożyczki w różnych bankach pożyczki chorzów pro domo pożyczki forum kredyt bank kraków ul kalwaryjska 24 pozyczka w domu klienta bialystok kredyt bank mt940 kredyty chwilówki bytom piłsudskiego pożyczka na uwowa zlecenie czwa kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank kalkulator kredyt pozabankowy skarbiec axcess financial pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zus kredyt bank depozytariusz umowa pożyczki wzór chomikuj umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki cywilnej kredyty bez biku bydgoszcz pożyczki do 5000 zł bez bik szybki kredyt bez biku i krd przez internet pożyczki pozabankowe we wrocławiu praca w bocian pożyczki forum kredyt bez bik i krd chorzow pożyczki bez bik i krd włocławek umorzenie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank komentarze kredyty chwilówki brzeszcze kredyt bank podkarpackie ubezpieczenie zdrowy kredyt w getin banku pozyczki bez bik przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny rio prywatna umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór pożyczki na rok wzór umowy pożyczki dla syna pożyczki rodzina na swoim skok kredyty oddłużeniowe kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank pożyczki prywatne bez bik poznań ewidencja umorzenia pożyczki atiz pożyczka kredyty mieszkaniowe w norwegii praca w kredyt banku 2012 kredyt bank w zabrzu forta pożyczki opinie kredyt samochodowy dla pracujących za granicą pożyczki typu provident bocian kredyt bez zus us gdańsk kredyt samochodowy paribas bank kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kielce pożyczki bocian szczecinek pożyczki prywatne holandia kredyty chwilówki bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki w skoku forum kredyt bank kościan telefon kredyt studencki pko jakie dokumenty umowa pożyczki odsetki kwota nominalna pożyczki kredyt bank sa swift pożyczki gotówkowe lodz kredyt bank sa łódź kredyt bank warszawa adres księgowanie pożyczki otrzymanej pożyczki gotówkowe w santander kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki pożyczki kalkulator pko bp kredyt bank zarobki 2011 odmowa przyjęcia pożyczki pożyczki bocian lublin adres i nr tel kredyt preferencyjny w banku spółdzielczym activa 500 czy bez problemu daja pozyczki kredyt samochodowy na firmę odliczenia pożyczki online bez wpłaty pozyczki do domu klienta skarabeusz pożyczki w domu umowa pożyczki maksymalne odsetki kredyt bank luboń godziny otwarcia kredyt bank gdynia starowiejska getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny forum szybkie pożyczki online w uk najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa 8 c pożyczki na dowód świebodzin kredyt przez internet bez bik bez wychodzenia z domu umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki wzór jak zaksięgować pcc od umowy pożyczki kredyt bank złocieniec bocian pożyczki chełm zwrot pożyczki podstawa prawna bank pekao sa pożyczki gotówkowe asper pożyczki opinie kredyt samochodowy ranking czerwiec 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny jelenia góra kredyt bank wypowiedział ubezpieczenie na życie kredyt bank rezygnacja z karty kredytowej kredyt bank lokaty czerwiec 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy pod zastaw innego mieszkania pożyczki chwilówki ekspres kasa definicja pożyczki podporządkowanej kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik tanie pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bez biku bydgoszcz kredyt pozabankowy dla firm dobre pożyczki bez bik forum bip pożyczki zielona góra kredyt chwilówka gdansk marka pożyczki białystok kredyt bez zaświadczeń i bik warszawa bocian pożyczki opinie forum kredyt bank włocławek wolności kredyt mieszkaniowy najkorzystniejszy pozyczki na dowod wroclaw od 18 roku zycia pożyczki bez biku przez internet pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach trudne pożyczki bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy mbank kalkulator kredyt bank żeromskiego kredyt w bank of ireland kredyt bank druki kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko udzielę pożyczki prywatnej ogłoszenia kredyt bank krasnystaw cel przeznaczenia pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik kraków kredyt bankowy a pożyczka częstochowa pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank wikipedia kredyt konsolidacyjny żagiel kredyty w banku skok kredyty bez bik bielsko biala pożyczki dla osób z zajęciami komorniczymi pożyczki ostrów wlkp kredyt jako produkt bankowy profinet pożyczki opinie kredyt bank sanok kredyt bez biku ruda slaska kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej boś optima szczecin pożyczki kontakt pożyczki na mieszkania kredyt studencki pko bp 2013 atiz przykłady pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy przez internet kredyt bank w rawiczu pozyczki prywatne w bialymstoku kredyt bank jastrowie godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw opole jak zawiesić kredyt w getin banku kredyt 4 tys na dowód prowident kredyt w banku gdzie najtaniej duże pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank w lubartowie kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2013 kredyt studencki pko bp warunki kredyt bank piłsudskiego koszalin pożyczki bez bik krd erif kredyt chwilówka warunki pożyczka przez internet bez bik i krd od 18 lat kredyty i pożyczki prezentacja kredyty bankowe w przedsiębiorstwie pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców łódzkie pożyczki chwilówki lista kredyt bank bytom godziny otwarcia pożyczki roczne pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej torun pożyczki pod zastaw pozabankowe kredyt bank plac solny kredyt konsolidacyjny ze zlym bikiem kredyt w pko bp opinie 2013 kronos pożyczki warszawa kredyt bank kołłątaja szczecin kredyt w banku śmierć dłużnika szybkie pożyczki w uk idea bank kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki ratunkowe opole pożyczki na dowód w banku szybkie pożyczki bez bik opole prometeusz pożyczki kielce kredyt bank w nowej hucie kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie dokumenty jak działają pożyczki chwilówki umowa pożyczki gofin pożyczki w domu kraków pożyczki prywatne forum i opinie udzielam pożyczki pod weksel kredyt konsolidacyjny porównywarka kredyt studencki pko potrzebne dokumenty kredyt bank kedzierzyn kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pko kredyt bank kod iban kredyty konsolidacyjne bez zaświadczeń o dochodach pożyczki niskie oprocentowanie kredyt w banku żagiel kredyt bank a santander kredyt pozabankowy na start firmy kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodego małżeństwa kredyt bank ekstrakonto junior umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego a podatek pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń bik kredyty chwilówki małopolska pozyczki net zdunska wola pożyczki chwilówki bez bik kraków pożyczki pozabankowe w rzeszowie kredyt samochodowy bez bik wrocław prezentacja pożyczki w bilansie wniosek o umorzenie odsetek od kredytu pożyczki chwilówki filarum kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku spółdzielczym euro cash pozyczki szczecin pozyczki bez rejestrow poznan pożyczki bez biku wieluń kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao bp kredyty studenckie jakie banki pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wejherowo kredyt bank kłobuck kredyt bank powstanie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez wychodzenia z domu kredyt mieszkaniowy lukas bank kalkulator kredyt bank w gdańsku mikropożyczki mazowieckie pożyczki społecznościowe co to getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyty samochodowe tel kredyt bank kraków rakowicka godziny otwarcia niezgłoszenie umowy pożyczki w jakim banku kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt bank opinia wpłatomat kredyt banku warszawa kredyt studencki pko bp wniosek kredyt bank płace kredyt mieszkaniowy opłaty notarialne umowa pożyczki dla rodziny pożyczki prometeusz pożyczki na dowód numer telefonu szybkie kredyty minimum formalnosci prywatne pożyczki częstochowa kredyt samochodowy w ing bank śląski kredyt bank oddział włocławek kredyt w banku bez sprawdzania bik twój kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp pożyczki krecik umowa pożyczki dla roidziny pożyczki pod zastaw akcji jsw pilne pożyczki gotówkowe pozyczki na raty kredyt bank kielce bankomaty pożyczki na dowód kraków kredyt bank bankomaty siedlce pożyczki ze złą historią kredytową uk pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez zdolności wzór oświadczenia pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt bank ożarów pożyczki dla będących w bik kredyt bank gdańsk grunwaldzka

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad