kredyt bank 3 oddział poznań ekspres pożyczki 24 pożyczki prywatne lubliniec oprocentowanie efektywne pożyczki pożyczka od zaraz chełm kredyt w uk lloyds kredyt bank warszawa kondratowicza bocian pożyczki infolinia pożyczki prywatne na weksel gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik dla zadłużonych kredyt bank wcześniejsza spłata kredytu kredyt konsolidacyjny dla ludzi z komornikiem pożyczki online bez wychodzenia z domu kredyty bez zaświadczeń forum pożyczki z funduszu kredyt bank gdańsk wrzeszcz kredyt w fm banku opinie kredyt bank pożyczki z komornikiem prywatne pozyczki siedlce be bik i krd mazowieckie wzór umowy pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami kredyt bank warszawa książkowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik mława kredyt bank swift adres kredyty chwilówki praca katowice kredyt preferencyjny banku ochrony środowiska umowa pożyczki lombardowej wzór kredyty konsolidacyjne mbank bank pekao sa kalkulator kredytu kredyt bank w lukowie pożyczki pozabankowe radomsko kredyt studencki bank polskiej spółdzielczości pożyczki dla zadłużonych i w bik idea bank opinie kredyt obrotowy kredyty studenckie bank pko trust pożyczki kredyt bez bik i krd opinie kredyty bez bik w kielcach kredyt bank piotrkowska kredyt bank gliwice dworcowa pożyczki z poręczycielem kredyty chwilówki kraków wielopole pożyczka na rente socjalna krakow kredyt bank w świeciu pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorstw opole kredyty bez bik plock pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu kraków pożyczki inwestycyjne dla firm średnia wartość pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd reklama pożyczki pożyczki prywatne giełda kredyt w banku na firme kredyt bank telefon kontaktowy pożyczki dla zadłużonych radom banki dające kredyt studencki kredyt bank debet kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście szybkie pozyczki luban pożyczki prywatne pod weksel lublin szybkie pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń spłata pożyczki po niemiecku pożyczki bez biku ciechanów pożyczki bez bik krd online pożyczki takie jak provident kredyt bank legionowo telefon pożyczki przez internet na 60 dni kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator getin bank bank pekao sa ubezpieczenie kredytu szczecin bank bos czas oczekiwania na kredytdla singli kredyt pozabankowy skarbiec kredyt studencki pko 2012 13 alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kredyt w pko bp opinie 2013 kredyt samochodowy dla emeryta kredyt bank rabaty kredyt bank lubin kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen o dochodach kredyt bank w częstochowie kredyt bez bik kraków wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe pożyczki dla firm bez bik i krd pożyczki gotówkowe dla małych firm kredyt bank w markach kredyt bank infolinia lublin pożyczki pozabankowe koło kredyt studencki pekao pożyczka na procent pod mieszkanie kredyt gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy opinie kredyt lombardowy banku komercyjnego ewidencja odsetek od pożyczki mlc pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe w alior banku kredyt studencki warunki 2011 szybkie pożyczki na dowód łódź jak dostać kredyt w banku spółdzielczym umowa pożyczki dla pozoru kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku bph pożyczki zielona góra najgorsze pożyczki kredyt m1 kiedy umowa pożyczki jest ważna kredyt mieszkaniowy kiedy pierwsza rata w którym banku kredyt gotówkowy oprocentowanie pożyczki w bankach kredyt bez zus us kredyt na start idea bank opinie kredyty dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych forum pożyczki w domu klienta żnin kredyt bank w bzwbk kredyty konsolidacyjne mbank czarnecki pożyczki bank pekao sa kredyt studencki wniosek kredyt konsolidacyjny zestawienie banków kredyt bank kraków ul długa pożyczki z fgśp bocian pożyczki gdynia umowa pożyczki z wekslem orange kod na kredyt pozyczki bez sprawdzania w biku kredyt samochodowy jaki bank wybrać kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank oprocentowanie kredyt odnawialny bez biku kariera w kredyt banku kredyt mieszkaniowy na firme odsetki od pożyczki tłumaczenie umorzenie pożyczki w spółce kredyt bank przejęty przez santandera kredyt bank oplata za przelew kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku bgz szybki kredyt gotówkowy przez internet bez bik kredyt bank toruń telefon money time pożyczki decyzja o umorzeniu pożyczki z zfśs wzór pożyczki w ramach inicjatywy jeremie kredyt studencki pekao opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp kredyt bank chełmno kredyt konsolidacyjny doradca kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking i wasze opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny kto może dostać kredyty chwilówki fabryczna 12 kredyt konsolidacyjny db kredyty chwilówki ząbkowice śląskie kredyt bank kołobrzeska gdańsk kredyt z banku rozwoju rady europy kredyty bez bik do 10000 pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard pożyczki komercyjne spłata pożyczki podporządkowanej kredyt na 5 zl orange pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń od 18 lat kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza pożyczki prywatne ostrowiec pożyczki prywatne na procent warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny co to takiego kredyty chwilówki jaworzno pożyczki pomorskie umowa pożyczki dla urzędu skarbowego kredyt bank lokata constans pożyczki z dotacji kredyty bez sprawdzania biku kredyt bank placówki ewidencja pożyczki udzielonej kredyt bank leżajsk targowa kredyty bez bik do 5000 kredyt bank sa legnica pożyczki prywatne dolny śląsk kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej ing poszukuję pożyczki kredyt bank druki zaświadczeń kredyt bank kiedy przelewy pozyczki do reki od 18lat w lesznie szybkie pożyczki koszalin pożyczki bez bik piła pożyczki okey zwrot pożyczki pokwitowanie wzór kredyty chwilowki krakow kalwaryjska kredyt bank wpłaty umowa pożyczki jak księgować dokumentacja podatkowa pożyczki szybkie pozyczki w domu kredyt bank bez prowizji bankomaty finan pożyczki legnica kredyty bez bik stargard szczeciński kredyt bank biala podlaska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank poznań godziny otwarcia pożyczki od osób prywatnych na weksel kredyt bank białystok mickiewicz łódź pożyczki justyna ehmann finanse kredyt bank giżycko praca pożyczki dla osób pracujących za granicą pożyczki u kruka kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kalkulator getin kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt bank problem prodomo pozyczki piła kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank kalkulator pożyczki bez oprocentowania asper przyznawalnosc pozyczek kredyt bez biku do 5000 odmowa udzielenia pożyczki jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki zfśs kredyt bez bik niskie oprocentowanie kredyt banku centralnego pożyczki chwilówki na 60 dni kredyt bank ekstrakonto vip pożyczki brzeg kredyty bez bik i zus kredyt bank kontakt windykacja pożyczki na dowód bez prowizji pożyczki oddłużeniowe bez zabezpieczeń kredyt na samochod bez bik prywatny warszawa kredyt bankowy bez bik pożyczki ngo kredyty chwilówki wrocław drobnera kredyt bankowy małe i średnie przedsiębiorstwa pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik radom wycena bilansowa pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe bez biku szybki kredyt przez internet bez bik kredyt na mieszkanie w banku spółdzielczym szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd online kredyt bank żagiel adres umowa pożyczki pozew kredyty bez bik chojnice pożyczki dla zadłużonych kalisz szybkie pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet kredyty bez baz jak zaksięgować umowę pożyczki kredyt samochodowy boś bank jak dlugo sie czeka na kredyt mieszkaniowy deklaracja odsetki od pożyczki pożyczki piła oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego w deutsche bank kredyt bank warta gwarancja kredyt bank olecko kredyt konsolidacyjny bez pracy kredyty chwilówki katowice francuska kredyty chwilówki wrocław opinie kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym pożyczki pod zastaw pkd kredyt bank zmiana limitu transakcji sprzedaż kredyt banku santander 2012 kredyt bank godziny przelewów przychodzących eden pożyczki opinie kredyt studencki pko bp żyrant kredyt bank wołomin szybkie pozyczki zlotoryja bez bik data wymagalności pożyczki pożyczki prywatne pruszków umowy pożyczki a podatek kredyty bez bik bank kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki alibaba szybkie pożyczki kredyt bez bik gliwice jakie banki w poznaniu udzielaja kredytow kredyt bank w bielsku podlaskim bocian pożyczki malbork ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2012 gdzie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik optima pożyczki częstochowa kredyt bank konta credito pożyczki kredyty bankowe współpraca pożyczki pozabankowe płońsk kredyt bank centrum bankowości korporacyjnej wrocław gdzie wziąć kredyt bez biku kredyt w niemczech w jakim banku pożyczki abc all money pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych kredyt bank kartuska kredyt bank kredyty mieszkaniowe wzór umowy pożyczki między członkami rodziny kredyt studencki pko do kiedy zaświadczenia pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu rzeszów kredyt bank w chrzanowie kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kredyt bez bik alior bank pożyczki międzynarodowe alior bank kredyt 5000 pozyczka z komornikiem piekary sl tani kredyt inowroclaw pożyczki na oddłużenie szybką pożyczka do domu klienta centrala kredyt banku lublin kredyt bank wilanów pożyczki pozabankowe dąbrowa górnicza pożyczki bez bik kalkulator pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach przez internet pożyczki kodeks cywilny kredyt bank konta potrzebuje pożyczki na dowód bocian pożyczki czat infolinia pożyczki pro domo przedawnienie długu pożyczki prywatnej zwolnienia grupowe w kredyt banku 2012 pko kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód bez zaświadczeń pożyczki ekspresowe legnica udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez przedpłat kredyt bank legnica pożyczki bez biku wałbrzych kredyty gotówkowe bez bik przez internet kredyt bank w lubartowie kredyty samochodowe dla firm bez bik szybkie pożyczki grudziądz kredyty chwilówki dział kadr kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodego małżeństwa pożyczki prywatne 24h tani kredyt bez bik kredyt bank lukow pulawska kredyty chwilowki warszawa bez bik i krd pozyczki uk 24 h na dobe kod na kredyt z orange commodus pożyczki kredyt banku sa kredyt w banku forum arka pożyczki piła jak zrobić przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny dla ludzi z komornikiem pożyczki pozabankowe chełmno pożyczki chwilówki w uk pożyczka pod hipoteke w białogardzie w banku pożyczki na dowód debica kredyt konsolidacyjny który bank gdzie w rybniku dostane kredyt bez biku umorzenie umowy pożyczki pożyczki bocian polkowice kredyt bank żytnia 15 mariusz tierling pożyczki kredyt bank krasnystaw telefon pozyczki victoria kredyty chwilówki gliwice matejki pożyczki bez bik w banku pożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczki programy partnerskie kredyt bank skawina kontakt bocian pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank lipno godziny otwarcia pożyczka chwilówka prywatna wrocław umowa pożyczki ściąga ewidencja wpłat pożyczki z zfśs alior bank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank kursy walut odsetki karne pożyczki pożyczki bez bik do 10000 podobne pozyczki do vivuss kredyt bank wieluń kredyty chwilówki za darmo ing bank pozyczki na zalozenie firmy kredyty mieszkaniowe przelicznik pożyczki pozabankowe 15000 pozyczki skok bez info monitora pożyczki puławy kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż opinie pożyczki na dowód wieluń kredyt studencki pko poręczenie alior bank kredyt firmowy kredyt bank bielsko sixta kredyt mieszkaniowy mieszkanie na swoim lloyds kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania w polsce pożyczki celowe wierzyciela pożyczki pożyczki oddłużeniowe poznań marr pożyczki dla firm pożyczki społecznościowe kraków pozyczka z komornikiem lublin kredyt bank warszawa chałubińskiego pożyczki pozabankowe od 18 lat kredyt bank sa address pożyczka od ręki bez zaświadczeń białystok alior bank kredyt online kredyty chwilówki skoczów bezzwrotne pożyczki dla małych firm pkwiu pożyczki kredyty chwilówka rybnik pożyczki gotówkowe londyn kredyt zagraniczny opinie pożyczki z niskim oprocentowaniem kredyt mieszkaniowy przy zarobkach 2500 kredyt chwilowka zielona gora pożyczki wojenne pożyczki pod zastaw forum pożyczki prywatne pod weksel warszawa optima pozyczki na dowod chwilowki księgowanie pożyczki podporządkowanej pozyczyki atiz pożyczki gotówkowe 5000 szybkie pożyczki bartoszyce kredyt bank bankomaty wbk kredyty bez bik zielona gora pożyczki świdnica pożyczki chwilówki łuków pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bydgoszcz kredyt bank rawicz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank gdynia bławatna kredyt bank bielsk podlaski godziny otwarcia kredyt bank oddział w piotrkowie trybunalskim pożyczki europejskie pożyczki na dowód kwidzyn kredyt bez bik na splate komornika kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2014 pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na dowód kredyt bank zambrów telefon umowa o udzielenie pożyczki kredyt dla firm bez bik na start wzór dokumentu pożyczki kredyt bez bik braniewo kredyt bank w lubinie kredyt konsolidacyjny z gotówką kredyt bank szuwarowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank ror ekstrakonto kredyty mieszkaniowe symulacje kredyt bank w piszu kredyt online bez bik forum umorzenie pożyczki w rodzinie adam nowakowski pożyczki pożyczki giełda kredyty chwilowki ruda slaska kredyt bank wrocławska pożyczki chwilówki wałbrzych umowa pożyczki wzór wieszjak kredyty mieszkaniowe marże kredyt preferencyjny dla rolników bank spółdzielczy ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2013 wcześniejsza spłata kredytu studenckiego w pko bp kredyty bez bik dla nowych firm pożyczka bez bik przez internet w 15 minut forum pożyczki dla firm opole kredyt bez bik idea bank kredyt forum kredyty banku pko bp pożyczka z obsługą w domu warszawa wojewódzki fundusz ochrony środowiska pożyczki pozyczka bez biku na 20000 kredyt abis kredyt bank legnica godziny otwarcia najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny na rynku pożyczki chwilówki online 24h pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk kredyt bank połączenie z wbk kredyty konsolidacyjny w2014 r pozyczka bez bik pozabankowa lublin umowa pożyczki znajomemu pożyczki pozabankowe lista firm kredyt bank rekomendacje pożyczki do domu warszawa umowa pożyczki art 9 pkt 10 uzasadnienie pożyczki na remont pożyczki pozabankowe głogów kredyty mieszkaniowe toruń pożyczki bez bik i krd opinie kredyty konsolidacyjne warszawa umowa pożyczki gotówkowej druk pożyczki dla rolników bez bik eu2 pożyczki kredyt bank olesno getin bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum kredyt mieszkaniowy w zagranicznym banku pozyczka w uk na benefity kredyt pozabankowy koszty pożyczki w provident pożyczka pod zastaw samochodu warszawa ul grochowska extra kasa pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dofinansowany pożyczki chwilówki online opinie pożyczki do domu gdańsk pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń warszawa pożyczki na dowód w banku konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy księgowanie pożyczki społecznościowe portale mikserek pożyczki kredyty chwilówki opinia kredyt bez bik do 5 tys błyskawiczne pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank bogatynia kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny zestawienie banków bocian pożyczki tomaszów maz pożyczki bez bik jelenia góra kredyt samochodowy getin bank forum pożyczki online panda umowa pożyczki wzór do pobrania kredyt studencki 2013 bank spółdzielczy oświadczenie pożyczki wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2012 szybkie pożyczki elbląg kredyt bank infolinia czynna pozyczki jredyty zakopane kredyt bank zagiel warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe szybkie oświadczenie o zwrot pożyczki bocian pożyczkisanokkontakt pożyczki dla polaków w niemczech kredyt bank w radości ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych październik 2012

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad