formularz pożyczki banki ktore udzielaja kredytu przez internet bocian pożyczki jakie raty jak udzielić pożyczki pod zastaw optima sa pożyczki przeterminowany kredyt w banku pożyczki nielegalne wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki wfośigw kredyt bank rzgowska kredyt bank gdynia kredyty bez bik i krd slask kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche bank opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking banków kredyt bez bik wolny rynek pożyczki bez bik z zajęciem komorniczym kredyty chwilówki dzierżoniów pożyczki białystok pro domo pożyczki szczecin kredyt bank fuzja z bz wbk kredyt bank sprzedaż santander pożyczka bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt pozabankowy wrocław kod o kredyt w orange alior bank kredyt przez telefon pożyczki prywatne dla firm kredyt pozabankowy plock kredyt bank darłowo umowa o spłatę pożyczki pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez konta bankowego od 18lat pożyczki chwilówki w lesznie pożyczki bez bik gryfice pożyczki na firme bez bik pożyczki pomiędzy członkami rodziny pożyczki chwilówki w białymstoku kredyt bank warszawa ul żeromskiego kredyt bank lokaty jednodniowe kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank opinie kredyt bank wieluń kredyt mieszkaniowy tczew kredyt bank powstańców warszawy szybkie pożyczki 0 centrala kredyt bank warszawa kredyt bank ostrobramska kontakt profi credit wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki aktualizacja wartości pożyczki kredyt w banku ochrony środowiska pożyczki bez bik praca kredyt studencki jakie warunki kredyt konsolidacyjny w providencie koszt przelewu kredyt bank kredyty chwilowki pinczow pożyczki prywatne poznań siódemka kredyty bielsko biała opinie kredyt dla firm bez bik zus pożyczki z niskimi dochodami kredyt bank poznań adres prywatne pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki pod zastaw stalowa wola kredyt studencki pko forum kredyt bank routing number umowa pożyczki wraz z ustanowieniem zastawu kod na kredyt orange pożyczki dla zadłużonych toruń kredyty i pożyczki dla bezrobotnych ubezpieczenie pożyczki od śmierci pożyczka bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kutno pozyczki prywatne pod weksel zory i okolice pożyczki tomasz lis kredyt na oświadczenie bez bik pożyczki bez bik staszów pozyczki na dowod gubin pożyczki bogatynia oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej pekao sa pozyczki bez krs i bik na oswiadczenie kredyt studencki pko niedostarczenie zaświadczenia umowa na czas okreslony czy dostane kredyt kredyt bank godziny otwarcia radom umorzenie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca kredyt bank sa dane do przelewu kredyty konsolidacyjne wrocław kredyt bank nowy targ godziny otwarcia kredyt bank doładowanie telefonu pożyczki na dowód bydgoszcz kredyt w eurobanku a utrata pracy kredyt na mieszkanie bank millenium kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko sa umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca księgowanie kredyty pozabankowe we wrocławiu kredyty studenckie jakie banki udzielają kredyt prywatny wzór umowy cywilno prawnej pożyczki starogard gdański kredyt pozabankowy z zajęciem komorniczym pozyczka bez oplat i krs kredyt mieszkaniowy w multibanku kredyt 15tys bph chwilówki poznań pożyczki poznań chwilówki mosina konsolidacja kredytów jak to działa kredyt mieszkaniowy bank bph kredyty chwilówki ranking preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko bp pożyczka pozabankowa merritum bank pożyczki bez dochodu i bik kredyt preferencyjny banki potrzebuje pożyczki pozabankowej odsetki od pożyczki faktura czy nota kredyt bank lista bezpłatnych bankomatów termin przedawnienia roszczenia o zwrot pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw złota warszawa optima pożyczki oddziały pożyczki bez bik z obsługą w domu pożyczki bez bik firmy księgowanie odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki kredyt bank bankomaty władysławowo kredyty chwilówki strona główna pożyczki bez bik rzeszów pilne umowa pożyczki przedmiot umowy symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej ing pożyczki pozabankowe 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny po rozwodzie gwarantowana pożyczka bez bik kredyty chwilówki słupsk deotymy kredyt bank częstochowa dekabrystów kto płaci podatek od pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bank rumia janowo kredyt bank olsztyn godziny otwarcia pożyczki i poręczenia pożyczki kokos opinie kredyt bank jelenia góra kontakt pożyczki chwilówki bez pracy pozyczki konin kredyty na dowod pożyczki chwilówki pierwsza za darmo jak działają pożyczki społecznościowe kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pko sa odsetki od pożyczki od udziałowca księgowanie umowa pożyczki wzór 777 kredyt pozabankowy bez bik pożyczki przez internet ranking najnowsze pożyczki chwilówki online udziele pożyczki prywatnej szybko bez sprawdzania kredyt bank piaseczno godz otwarcia pożyczki prywatne bolesławiec pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu piła kredyt bank marketing kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe na oświadczenie o dochodach czy odsetki od pożyczki są opodatkowane w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank warszawa godziny kredyty bankowe dla msp kredyt bank wrocław strzegomska godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny dla dłużników kredyty chwilówki zaświadczenie pożyczki chwilówki spis pożyczki dla osób ze złą historią w bik kredyt bank kosztorys i harmonogram prac budowlanych kredyty chwilówki jaworzno grunwaldzka pożyczki 24 na dobe pożyczki online bez bik i big bocian pożyczki malbork jak umorzyc pozyczki pozabankowe kredyt studencki w jakim banku najlepiej placówki kredyt banku w białymstoku kredyt bank chełmno godziny otwarcia pożyczki z amber gold kredyt bank w rankingach oprocentowanie nominalne pożyczki pożyczki kwota wolna druk podatku od pożyczki wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przed terminem kredyt z przelewem na konto kredyt bank opole godziny otwarcia kredyt bez biku z komornikiem umowa pożyczki na czas nieokreślony skarabeusz pożyczki chełm kredyty chwilówki reklama kredyt na oswiadczenie w credit agricole umowa pożyczki rodzeństwo ubezpieczenie do pożyczki gotówkowej umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki co to jest umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a pit pozyczki bez bik dabrowa tarnowska bocian pożyczki kontakt kredyt w bilansie banku kredyt bank kondratowicza kontakt uczciwe pożyczki prywatne piła pożyczki prometeusz wrocław advice pożyczki opinie pożyczki na własny biznes kredyty mieszkaniowe oblicz ratę kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik pożyczki prywatne z dostawą do domu pożyczki dla zadłużonych forum kredyt bank hasło kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok piast pożyczki na dowód w poznaniu kredyt bank szczecin matejki 8 pozyczka dla zadluzonych przez łomża kruk pożyczki gotówkowe alior bank kredyty online pożyczki z bikiem bank bedzin ktory udzieli kredytu na dowod kredyt w getin banku bik szukam pożyczki na weksel pożyczki pod zastaw rumia pożyczki bez bik przemyśl kredyt bank poznan oddzialy prometeusz pozyczka gotówkowa na dowód kredyt bank zmiana pinu kredyt bank radom telefon jak wziąć kredyt 5 zł w orange chwilówki i pożyczki gotówkowe firmy eurocent kredyt studencki pko bp dokumenty pożyczki bez bik w banku umowa pożyczki kto zgłasza do urzędu skarbowego kredyt bank poznań godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki na raty pożyczki prywatne na umowę cywilno prawną kredyt na oswiadczenie w credit agricole niespłacenie pożyczki vivus kredyt w przeźmierowie umowa pożyczki a skutki podatkowe pożyczki z komornikiem katowice pożyczki pozabankowe przez telefon kredyt bez bik nowy sącz kredyt bank wpłaty gotówkowe kredyt studencki wbk 2012 kredyt bank warszawa wilanowska szukam kredytu bez biku i zaświatczeń kredyt bank sa legnica kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b kontakt kredyty chwilówka jelenia góra kredyt dla firm w credit agricole kredyt mieszkaniowy dla lekarza kredyt 20 lat oddłużeniowy ze zła historia kredytowa szybki kredyt bez zaświadczeń bez bik które banki dają kredyt w euro pożyczki gotówkowe bzwbk kredyty chwilówki rekrutacja kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego wzór wniosku o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki chwilówki trójmiasto kredyt bez biku bielsko biała getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki pożyczki pozabankowe zielona góra kredyt gotówkowy bank pekao sa pozyczka chwilowka od reki kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej bph oddziały kredyt banku w krakowie pożyczki pozabankowe lubań kredyty studenckie mieszkaniowe pożyczki na dowód kołobrzeg cienka kapitalizacja pożyczki kredyt orange numer pożyczki chwilówki vivus kredyt bank wypłata z bankomatu bez prowizji wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziców pożyczki łódź oprocentowanie w bankach pożyczki pekao bp kredyt pod zastaw samochodu w banku pożyczki na dowód tczew kredyt mieszkaniowy 250 tys jaka rata pożyczki bocian gorzów wlkp pożyczki bankowe przez internet pożyczki od rodziny pcc kredyt ge money bank kredyt bank w chełmie pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania poznań kredyt bank lubin jana pawła parabank kredyt getin bank symulacja pożyczki kredyty trudne bez biku skarabeusz pozyczki zamość pozyczka 15 tys przez internet kredyty bez bik na samochód pożyczki dla osób fizycznych pożyczki chwilówki kontakt pożyczki od ręki bez bik udzielenie pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy katowice kredyt bez biku pabianice umorzenie pożyczki powodziowej kredyty bez bik slask pozyczki chwilowki zyrafa kredyty chwilowki deblin kredyt bank nowy dwór mazowiecki godziny otwarcia pożyczki unijne dla mikroprzedsiębiorstw kredyt bez zaświadczenia o zarobkach forum kredyt bez bik w skok pozyczki bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczka na dowód od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń wzór potwierdzenia zwrotu pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki otrzymania pożyczki ngo kredyt bank olawa godziny otwarcia kredyt chwilówka pruszcz kredyt bank kod aktywacyjny meritum bank kredyt na start bez bik kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108 warszawa kredyt bez bik us i zus ewidencja pożyczki umowa pożyczki od udziałowca wzór kredyty chwilówki myslenice kredyt bank wloclawek godziny otwarcia warunki kredytu studenckiego w pko bp łatwy kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki w lombardach ustna umowa pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt bank w zawierciu instytut finansowy pożyczki opinie pożyczki od zaraz wzór umowy pożyczki finansowej wynagrodzenie w kredyt banku pożyczki online od 19 lat kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartosci odsetki ustawowe od pożyczki 2011 abis pożyczki opinie pożyczki chwilówki co to jest kredyt bank pko kalkulator bocian pożyczki wymagania kredyt bank pila kto udziela pozyczek bez bik kredyt bank w luboniu godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w polsce pożyczki prywatne szczecin umowa pożyczki termin spłaty kredyt bank łączy się druk umowy pożyczki gotówkowej wzór pożyczki długoterminowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki chwilówki co to jest kredyty bez bik szczecin kredyty pozabankowe łódź kredyt pozabankowy śląsk kredyty chwilówki łódź kredyt bank oddział białystok ul mickiewicza pożyczki chwilówki bez dochodu pozyczki od zaraz bez big i krd przez internet kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko sa skok centrum pożyczki kredyt bank w pszowie pożyczki bez bik i krd warszawa 2014 rok kredyt bank sa tel gdzie otrzymac kredyt bez bik pożyczki do 100 zł kredyt bank lwowska chełm abis szybkie pozyczki gotowkowe numer kontaktowy kto udzieli pożyczki bez bik kredyt bankowy ciekawostki kredyty chwilówki na liście knf kredyt mieszkaniowy 2013 pko kredyt bez bik i krd wrocław kredyt bez bik na zakup samochodu kredyt bank puławy godziny otwarcia opodatkowanie pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt bank lokaty marzec 2012 bezzwrotne pożyczki dla policjantów pewny kredyt pozabankowy wniosek o udzielenie kredytu studenckiego pko sa udzielam pozyczek do reki kontakt slask kredyt studencki pko bp żyrant kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki pozabankowe bez bik pożyczki 30000 kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższe oprocentowanie kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator pożyczki tarnowskie góry kredyt bank godziny otwarcia rumia mcredit pożyczki szybkie pożyczki panda nowak pożyczki głogówek umowa pożyczki jak księgować kredyty bez bik i krd kraków partner pożyczki warszawa kredyt bank choszczno kredyt bank konto walutowe umowy pożyczki po angielsku pożyczki dla zadłużonych bezrobotnych getin bank pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt preferencyjny bank kredyt bank leasing aukcje kredyt w przeźmierowie kredyt bank łomża piłsudskiego pożyczki pozabankowe trójmiasto pożyczki bez bik dla rolników pożyczki pozabankowe na rok pożyczki prywatne głogów chwilówki gliwice pożyczki gliwice chwilówki knurów kredyt bank poland pożyczki z funduszy europejskich kredyt bez bik grojec pożyczki bez bik katowice pożyczki bez zaświadczeń rzeszów kredyt bank grupa pożyczki nowy dwór mazowiecki umowa pożyczki opodatkowana vat kredyt bank opole żwirki i wigury szybkie pożyczki kłodzko pożyczki na dowód podobne do bociana pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy forum konsolidacja bez zdolności kredytowej kredyty mieszkaniowe dla samotnej matki kruk pożyczki novum kredyt na samochód w getin banku opinie w którym banku kredyt gotówkowy kredyt w credit agricole odmowa pożyczki w providencie kredyt gotówkowy bez bik warszawa kredyt bank żuromin kredyt bank legnica godz otwarcia umowa pożyczki us pożyczki i darowizny w rodzinie tukan pożyczki jaki numer na kredyt do orange kredyty bez bik i krd slask opodatkowanie otrzymanych odsetek od pożyczki 2012 kredyty konsolidacyjne na 30 lat tanie pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe pekao kredyt mieszkaniowy bez wkładu własnego forum pożyczki pod zastaw racibórz kredyt pozabankowy pod zastaw kredyty chwilówki nr tel pozyczki na dowod kredyt bank starogard gdański udzielenie pożyczki przez udziałowca kredyt na dowód bank bph ubezpieczenie pożyczki ing pożyczki bez bik lubin przez telefon zwrot pożyczki od rodziny kredyt chwilówki kalkulator konsolidacja kredytów z opóźnieniami kredyt bank powstańców warszawy kredyt bez bik pod weksel kredyt bank w brzegu kredyt bez bik w pko kredyt samochodowy oferty banków kredyt odnawialny w banku millenium pożyczki bez bik szybko i prosto kredyt bank zastrzeżenie dokumentów kredyt bank warszawa kondratowicza godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wyniki 2011 profi credit pożyczki bank pko bp kredyt samochodowy vivus kwota pożyczki została zmniejszona pożyczki rybnik bez bik pożyczki referat preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko opinie pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik łódź kredyt mieszkaniowy prowizja banku bocian pożyczki jakie raty bocian pożyczki giżycko jaki jest kredyt do orange pozyczki udzelane w domu warszawa pożyczki ze środków unijnych kredyt bank getin bank kredyty pożyczki dla bezrobotnych duomax pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez przelewu udzielenie pożyczki osobie fizycznej przeterminowanie umowy pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki zfśs a podatek pozyczki poza bankowe bez sprawdzania zdolności wyliczenie pożyczki alior bank kredyt gotówkowy warunki pożyczki w providencie kredyt bank w lęborku santander bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator umowa pożyczki za granicą umowa pożyczki wzór pdf ang pożyczki skok pozyczki bez biku pożyczki udzielone przez udziałowca chwilówki płock pożyczki płock chwilówki gąbin kredyt samochodowy dla lekarza pożyczki pozabankowe puławy umowa pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym wzór banki udzielające pozyczek bez biku w rzeszowie kredyt firmowy bez biku wysoki kredyt a wiek istota kredytu kredyt studencki lista banków kredyt bank a wbk pożyczki pod zastaw konin kredyt bank piaskowa góra wałbrzych luk pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kontakt nie oddanie pożyczki kredyt bez biku inowrocław skok kozienice pożyczki pożyczki bez bik od ręki kredyt bez bik zabrze kredyt bank w bogatyni pożyczki bez bik krd erif kredyt bez bik kłodzko kredyt bank pozew zbiorowy pożyczki w rachunkowości kredyt bez bik 6000 kredyt bank krakow godziny otwarcia kredyt bank marcinkowskiego poznań kredyt bank wyliczenie raty kredyt bank pozyczka na dowod

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad