kredyt poza bankowy bez biku kredyt kwidzyn żyrafa pożyczki logowanie kredyty prywatne pod weksel bkie pozyczki domowe kraków prezentacja pożyczki w bilansie medicover kredyt bank warszawa kredyt bank mokotowska 49 warszawa bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2013 warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki inne niż provident kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator alior bank kredyty mieszkaniowe po nowym roku kredyt bank wąwozowa 35 pożyczki wielkanocne pożyczki chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski wzór umowy o pożyczkę w zastaw wzór umorzenia pożyczki kredyt bank węgrów kredyt samochodowy sygma bank kredyt mieszkaniowy porównanie banków pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik w jakim banku opłaca się wziąć kredyt gotówkowy kredyt na firme bez biku kredyt bank lublin t zana w jakim banku macie kredyt kredyt samochodowy dla pracujących za granicą pożyczki opinie kredyt na samochód dla firm bez bik kredyt bank otwarcie kredyt samochodowy getin bank kredyt bank częstochowa piłsudskiego kontakt pożyczki bez bik do 25000 umowa pożyczki odsetki umowne pozyczki bez zaswiadczen w uk kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych forum kredyty chwilówki nobiles umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem wzór kredyt bank łódź oddziały kredyt bank 24 demo pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik gorzów kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolności kredytowej kredyt 3 tysiące bez biku warunki do spelnienia kredyt alior pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy warszawa pożyczki bez bik koło kredyt bank szczecinek godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w koszalinie pomocne pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki w ratach reklama pożyczki vivus kredyt samochodowy dla nowej firmy odsetki od pożyczki różnice kursowe kredyt bank warszawa kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i krd kredyty pozabankowe definicja kredyty chwilówki rzeszów rejtana kredyt z orange jaki numer kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz gdańska 69 szybkie pożyczki koszalin kredyt bank piaseczno warszawska kredyt bank bogatynia telefon bocian pozyczki glogow kredyt bank warszawa marki decyzja pozyczkowa na telefon lub online pożyczki pod zastaw piła kredyt bank warszawa regon kredyt bank warszawa sobota pożyczki żagań pojęcie pożyczki bankowej wzór umowy pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank wyliczenie raty umowa pożyczki pomiędzy pracownikiem a pracodawcą kredyty mieszkaniowe pko bp sa duet pożyczki przemyśl kredyt inwestycyjny idea bank opinie kredyt bank romera pożyczki oleśnica pożyczki dla osób z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki chwilówki bez bik kredyt w banku zagranicznym kredyt bank kupiony przez pożyczki do domu białystok cechy pożyczki kredyt w postbank kredyt chwilówka opole bez bik mbank pożyczki dla firm kredyt gotowkowy bez big i krd pożyczki bez bik wałbrzych czy skok udzieli kredytu jak jest windykacja 2014 umowa pożyczki powtórnej pożyczki bez zaświadczenia o zatrudnieniu kredyt bank choszczno kredyty mieszkaniowe sierpień 2012 kredyt bez bik myszkow pozyczka na dom uk bank pko kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego 14 kredyt bank mława kontakt warunki dostania pożyczki kredyt bankowy koszty kredyt w banku bez bik tarchomin kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 186 instrumenty finansowe pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy gdynia kredyt bank infolinia żagiel umowa pożyczki konsumenckiej opodatkowanie niezgłoszonej pożyczki pożyczki na długi okres kruk pożyczki kontakt dlugoterminowe pozyczki z komornikiem na slasku pożyczki chwilówki zestawienie kredyt bank zielonka kredyty gotówkowe bez bik wrocław pożyczki gotówkowe na oświadczenie o dochodach pożyczki z nfoś kredyt bank problemy akcje spółki kredyt bank sa w warszawie kredyty chwilówki soho ogłoszenia pożyczki pod zastaw kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego lukas bank umorzone odsetki od pożyczki a przychód podatkowy pożyczki chwilówki łódź narutowicza pożyczki pozabankowe bez odsetek jak wziasc kredyt do 25000 pożyczki na termomodernizację pożyczki dla firm poznań kredyt gotówkowy bez bik pożyczki prywatne gniezno kredyty chwilówki oferta czy od pożyczki płaci się pcc kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania bik forum kredyt studencki pko transze pożyczki grudziądz pozyczki w domu klienta poznan bocian pożyczki szczecin kredyt bez bik z komornikiem kredyt bank targowa warszawa pożyczki na telefon bez bik lublin kredyt bank oplata za przelew umowa pożyczki pieniędzy podatek zarabianie na pożyczkach pożyczka prywatna bez sprawdzania baz kraków kredyt bank kod iban krezus pożyczki umowy pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank pocztowy opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny na dowód kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania w biku kredyty bankowe dla przedsiębiorstw kredyt bank przelew z karty kredytowej kredyt bank kondratowicza 35 kod kredytowy do orange kredyt konsolidacyjny czas oczekiwania pożyczki gotówkowe nowy targ kredyty bez bik bez zaświadczeń pozyczki na oswiadczenie o dochodach kredyty chwilówki elbląg wzór umowy pożyczki z żyrantem kredyt gotówkowy w millenium bank kredyt samochodowy ranking wrzesień 2013 kredyt bank przeworsk kontakt kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i krd pożyczki pod kontrakt jaki jest numer do finan pozyczki kredyt bank italy kredyt bank placówka gdańsk kredyt bank lokaty terminowe pożyczki radom kredyty umowa pożyczki ojciec syn wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy najkorzystniejszy pożyczki domówki kraków szybkie pożyczki bez poręczycieli kredyt w banku spółdzielczym dla rolników pożyczki bez bik bankowe kredyty pozabankowe kutno umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a pcc pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka na podobe prowidenta gdzie otrzymac kredyt bez bik pożyczki pruszków kredyt samochodowy santander opinie pożyczki chwilówki brodnica kredyt bankowy a pożyczka pożyczki gotówkowe bezrobotnych kredyty chwilówki we wrześni pożyczki bez bik mogilno gdzie najłatwiej o kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki co to jest kredyt studencki bank pekao sa kredyt bez biku forum kredyty chwilówki tczew szybkie pożyczki bez bik warszawa kredyt bank rembertów kredyt bank cinema city kredyt bank leasing aukcje kredyty chwilówki piekary śląskie pko bp infolinia kredyt studencki jak dostać kredyt w banku spółdzielczym kredyty bez bik bank jak wziąć kredyt bez biku kredyt chwilówka 24 pożyczki w domu częstochowa umorzenie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca pożyczki prywatne pod weksel śląsk prywatne pożyczki kredyty chwilówki krosno kolejowa kredyt konsolidacyjny bez dochodów kredyt bank bic renta wojskowa a kredyt gotówkowy pko bp pożyczki prywatna getin bank kredyt samochodowy tel kredyt bez bik 2012 kredyt bank brodno kredyt bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki z bratem kredyt bank warszawa abrahama 18 kredyt bank laczy sie z wbk kredyt bez bik iz komornikiem odsetki od pożyczki kup kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bgż pozyczki gotuwkoiwe prywatne firmy mafi umowa pożyczki dla urzędu skarbowego skarabeusz pożyczki oddziały udzielenie pożyczki gofin kredyt bank dyrektor marketingu konwersja pożyczki na kapitał odsetki umowa pożyczki wzór doc pożyczki no dowód elblag pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem kredyt bez bik 3 tyś kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku 2012 pożyczki bocian kościan kredyt bank sa email kredyt bank wrocław gliniana godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw stargard kredyty konsolidacyjne bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach kredyt bank oddział warszawa kasprzaka tanie pożyczki częstochowa pożyczki ślimak umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki prywatne zamość pożyczki gotówkowe pekao kredyty mieszkaniowe październik 2013 kredyt bez bik oswiecim kredyt bank konstancińska 2 kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartości nieruchomości kredyt bez biku lodz kredyt chwilówka kwidzyn kredyt mieszkaniowy w 2014 roku kredyt bank w wieliczce kredyt bank s a i oddział w warszawie kredyt w banku bz wbk umowa pożyczki udziałowca wzór kredyty chwilówki soho kredyt z pierwsza pozyczka za darmo oprocentowanie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyty chwilówki warunki kredyt bank problemy bank pko lublin kredyt na dowod osobisty multika rzeszów kredyt bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny jst historia pożyczki pożyczki profi credit opinie spłata pożyczki walutowej w pln kredyt studencki pko bp warunki żyrafa pożyczki odmowa kredyty bez bik i zaswiadczen zabezpieczenie umowy pożyczki akt kredyt konsolidacyjny online kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe starogard gdański kredyt gotówkowy w banku wbk podatek od odsetek od pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt bank cennik usług szybkie pożyczki bochnia alior bank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń skarabeusz bank dajacy kredyt 30 tys zl na oswiadczenie pożyczki międzynarodowe kredyt mieszkaniowy dublin kredyt chwilówka warszawa grochowska spółka udziela pożyczki udziałowcowi umowa pożyczki między podatnikami vat kredyt studencki zasady przyznawania 2012 kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową prowizja pożyczki pożyczki od wspólników a pcc kredyt bank ukraina kredyt bank oplata za przelew ewidencja wpłat pożyczki z zfśs dyskonto pożyczki pożyczki bez bik łódź forum kredyt dla firm na oświadczenie bez bik mikropożyczki 2013 umowa pożyczki z siostrą pożyczki chwilówki kozienice czy umowa pożyczki musi być oprocentowana kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking lipiec 2012 szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe bez formalności bocian pożyczki zabrze pożyczki z bikiem prodomo pożyczki gdańsk pożyczka kielce online pożyczki dla zadłużonych bydgoszcz kredyty chwilówki tychy fabryczna 5 kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku bph opinie kredyt bankowy dla bezrobotnych kredyt dla studentów mbank pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych forum kredyty mieszkaniowe banki pozyczki na dowód kraków kredyty studenckie mieszkaniowe kredyt bank kartuzy mikropożyczki na otwarcie działalności pożyczki kościan oprocentowanie kredytów w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki tylko na dowód przez internet kredyt bank przelew z karty kredytowej kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator 2014 nowe lokaty w kredyt banku księgowanie pożyczki udzielonej kredyt konsolidacyjny bph opinie kredyt bez bik w banku kredyt bez biku zielona góra kredyt bank prowizja opłat pozyczki bez biku i krd pożyczki do 80 lat szybkie pożyczki online na dowód kredyt bank 1 maja płock oprocentowanie rachunku depozytowego w kredyt banku pożyczki chwilówki jak założyć kredyty pozabankowe siedlce kredyty bez bik opolskie umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs instytucje finansowe pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rencisty kredyt konsolidacyjny na 30 lat kredyty bez bik czestochowa awans pożyczki kredyt studencki banki 2012 pożyczki ślimak poznań pożyczki chwilówki elbląg kredyty chwilówki dla bezrobotnych pcc od pożyczki dla firmy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczenia o dochodach udzielę pożyczki prywatnej gdańsk wzór umowy pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank polecacie przeniesienie pożyczki na kapitał oprocentowanie kredytu idea bank kredyt bank lokaty listopad 2012 banki udzielające pozyczek bez biku w rzeszowie oferty pozyczki obsluga w domu numery tel pożyczki chwilówki stargard szczeciński gwarant pozyczki piotrkow tryb kredyt w orange na karte kod kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla forum kredyt bank łęczna pożyczki na dowód do domu kredyt bank opłata za prowadzenie konta pożyczka z obsługą w domu warszawa kredyt bank częstochowa adres pozyczki pozabankowe garbary wysokie pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmą a osobą fizyczną pod jaki numer bierze sie kredyt w orange kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko sa kredyty w jakim banku pożyczki społecznościowe wikipedia kredyt bank bankomaty włocławek kredyt bank olsztyn piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia bank pko sa kredyt studencki dokumenty kredyt bank wilanowska kredyt bank godziny przelewów kredyt bank z jakiego kraju kredyt bank opłata za przelew pożyczki domówki kraków umowa pożyczki między firmami wzór pożyczki lider pożyczki pod zastaw mińsk mazowiecki kredyt bank warszawa chałubińskiego kredyt bank ii oddział warszawa kredyt bank trojmiasto kredyty konsolidacyjne z bik marka pozyczki ketrzyn przedawnienie umowy pożyczki kredyt samochodowy raiffeisen bank kredyty bankowe i ich ewidencja kredyt bank departament centralnych operacji lublin pcc od pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu kredyt bank koszt przelewu zagranicznego pożyczki bez bik łódź pożyczki pod zastaw auta śląsk pożyczki od udziałowców księgowanie pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń kalkulator rat pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank sztabowa godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe piekary slaskie pożyczki tychy szybkie pożyczki kwidzyn pekao sa kredyt studencki wniosek umowa pożyczki a użyczenia kredyt bank 24 infolinia activia 500 pozyczki czy sa w raciborzu pożyczki dla firm 2014 kiedy przedawnia się niespłacony kredyt bankowy kredyt bez bik krosno pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń bydgoszcz pożyczki gotówkowe santander kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kalkulator kredyt bez bij do 20000 tys kredyt konsolidacyjny co to jest pożyczki chwilówki łomża kredyt studencki oferty banków pożyczki bez zaświadczeń na dowód skok pożyczki bez zaswiadczen o dochodach kredyt bank zarząd kredyt z banku na otwarcie działalności kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rolnika pożyczki gotówkowe współpraca siódemka kredyty bielsko biała opinie kredyt na dowod w niemczech umowa pożyczki członka zarządu pożyczki chwilówki forum 2013 pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik poznań pożyczki pozabankowe bez dochodu kredyt bez bik cieszyn pożyczki na mały procent kredyt studencki w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki pod zastaw gryfice kredyt bez bik kłodzko nowe pożyczki chwilówki przez internet pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic wniosek provident zwrot pożyczki pożyczki na dowód kołobrzeg kredyt na mieszkanie w banku pko bp umowa pożyczki pieniężnej podatek wzór umowy pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie wypowiedzenie umowy kredytu credit agricole oakham pożyczki kredyt bank ii oddział olsztyn kredyt bank prowizja za przelew zagraniczny kto daje pożyczki z komornikiem pożyczki bez big kraków w jakim banku wziąć kredyt obrotowy alior bank kredyty kalkulator pożyczki pracownicze oprocentowanie wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy na zarobki z zagranicy kredyt w orange na jaki numer pożyczki bez zaświadczeń warszawa przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki wonga pożyczki pod zastaw złota kredyty chwilówki w opolu pcc od pożyczki dla firmy kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao bp kredyty chwilówki dęblin pożyczki prywatne pod weksel warszawa kredyt bank emilii gierczak szczecin kredyt bank marcinkowskiego kredyty chwilówki piekary umowa pożyczki deklaracja pcc pożyczki bez bik do 10 000 kiedy kredyt bankowy ulega przedawnieniu oprocentowanie pożyczki w banku spółdzielczym kredyty samochodowe bez bik opinie pożyczki społecznościowe sekrata kredyt bank godziny otwarcia skierniewice pożyczki żyrardów rachunek depozytowy w kredyt banku kredyt chwilówka praca forum kredyty bez bik jelenia góra pożyczka z obsługą w domu pożyczki bez dochodów kielce kredyt studencki warunki 2013 kredyt bank sopot kontakt pożyczki bez bik przeworsk pożyczki kyzoo opinie pożyczki pozabankowe będzin zyrafa pozyczki prywatne pozyczki chodziez kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok piast kredyt bank krakowska pożyczki online opinie kredyt w vdwoch transzach odluzeniowy kredyt mieszkaniowy dla lekarza pożyczki dla osób z komornikiem poznań umowa pożyczki z zastawem kredyt bez bik umowa zlecenie kredyty bez zaswiadczen swiebodzin pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń bocian kredyty bez bik w banku kto brał kredyt w getin banku bank pko bp oferty kredytów kredyt bank gdynia starowiejska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank tuchola kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt bank centrala wrocław kredyt samochodowy a firma kredyt bank zaloguj

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad