pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw koszalin kredyt bank zmiana nazwy umowa pożyczki opodatkowanie wniosek kredyt samo hodowy bez bik kredyty pozyczki chwilowki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy spłata w ratach szybkie pożyczki częstochowa kredyt bank lokata roczna kredyt bank lubartów godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik i krd olsztyn wzór umowy pożyczki od rodziny kredyt na auto bez bik i krd kredyt w banku gdzie najlepiej pozyczka bez big i krs pożyczki pozabankowe krasnystaw boś bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowy przez internet kredyt pozabankowy 15000 kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki money kredyt bank kod pocztowy pozyczki dla osob w biku we wroclawiu dlugterminowa pozyczka pozabankowa online kredyt bank puls biznesu kredyt gotówkowy pekao sa opinie pożyczki provident przez internet pewny kredyt bez bik szybkie pożyczki w 15 minut pożyczki chwilówki trójmiasto czy umowa pożyczki jest opodatkowana kredyt mieszkaniowy tczew udzielenie pożyczki innej firmie księgowanie szybkie pożyczki bez dochodów kredyt studencki banki kredyt konsolidacyjny przykłady podatek od pożyczki od rodziny 2013 szybki kredyt bez bik na dowod pożyczki prywatne wzór umowy idea bank kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym opinie idea bank kredyty gotówkowe kredyt chwilówka kwidzyn kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim finan pożyczki legnica szybkie pożyczki bez bik lublin ekf pożyczki niezgłoszenie pożyczki od rodziców pożyczki pod zastaw zgierz pozyczka jak provident bez big pożyczki społecznościowe telefon ekspresowe pożyczki ełk przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku pożyczki gotówkowe w pko kredyt mieszkaniowy dla jednej osoby alior bank kredyt dla rolników kredyty mieszkaniowe 2008 kredyt bank lubin kredyt konsolidacyjny ge money bank kredyt bankowy dziedziczenie wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej pdf umowa pożyczki in blanco kredyt w uk na firme szybki kredyt bez bik kredyt bank tarnobrzeg kontakt chwilówki gliwice pożyczki gliwice chwilówki knurów opodatkowanie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej skok kozienice pożyczki pewny kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki novum kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa kalkulator pożyczki bez bik leszno kredyt na dowód bez zaświadczeń bez bik lubań kredyty pod zastaw mieszkania biznes pożyczki chwilówki kredyty chwilówki przez telefon bezzwrotne pożyczki dla bezrobotnych wzór pokwitowania spłaty pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe tuchola kredyt konsolidacyjny w norwegii jaki jest kod w orange na kredyt pożyczki bez bik świdnica kredyt bank oferty pracy warszawa pozyczki od 19 lat dla zadluzonych online kredyt bank łódź piotrkowska 212 pożyczki na dowód zakopane kredyt pozabankowy dla zadłużonych pożyczki z komornikiem nowy sącz pożyczki w domu nowe miasto lubawskie szybkie pożyczki bez bik bydgoszcz skok pszczyna wniosek o kredyt online potrzebna pozyczka opole kredyt chwilówki praca opinie pożyczki na agroturystykę kredyt mieszkaniowy obliczenia prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe szczecin wydanie przedmiotu pożyczki kredyt studencki 2013 bank spółdzielczy lokaty w kredyt banku opodatkowanie pożyczki dla firmy kredyt bank nordea szybkie pożyczki bez bik gdańsk kredyty chwilówki maluch kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie kalkulator kredyt bank toruń grudziądzka godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez weryfikacji konta bankowego pożyczki na pit zielona góra odsetki od pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki chwilówki w białymstoku kredyty bez zdolnoci kredytowej sosnowiec bocian pożyczki biała podlaska pożyczki chwilówki długoterminowe gdzie najlepiej wziasc kredyt na oswiadczenie 2014 kredyt bankowy w księgach pożyczki prywatne wałcz kredyt bank warszawa sobota pozyczka pod weksel bialystok pożyczki wspólpraca korzyści z pożyczki umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobą fizyczną a firmą pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości opinie pożyczki pod zastaw opinie pożyczka na dowód bogatynia umowa pożyczki prawo cywilne kredyt bank zana lublin rejestracja umowy pożyczki w us kredyty mieszkaniowe toruń kredyt bank w oławie partnerzy pożyczki umowa pożyczki podatek 2012 umowa pożyczki umowa wzajemna kredyt w aig bank polska kredyt bank swarzędz godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w pocztowym kredyty chwilówki inwestor opinie mini pożyczki przez internet kredyty mieszkaniowe co trzeba wiedzieć kredyt bank darmowe konto pożyczki chwilówki dąbrowa górnicza kredyt bank bz wbk santander ang pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe najtaniej lukas bank kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego kredyt samochodowy dla rencisty pożyczki pozabankowe bez dochodów udzielić pożyczki po angielsku kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji lublin kredyt bank w swarzędzu oprocentowanie pożyczki dla udziałowca kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową kredyt bank charakterystyka kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank opinie odsetki od pożyczki przychodem osoby fizycznej pożyczki bez bik zus us kod w orange na kredyt kredyt bank oprocentowanie ror kredyt bank dział windykacji lublin kontakt opodatkowanie pożyczki od wspólnika krezus pożyczki adam lorek pożyczki kredyt bank książkowa kredyty samochodowe bez bik krd kredyty bez biku gdańsk kredyt bez bik sieradz wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny na 120 miesięcy pożyczki bez bik dla rolników pozyczki na nowa firme marża banku kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bez bik brodnica kredyt studencki forum prawne kredyt studencki w banku millenium pożyczki bez bik chwilówki kredyt bank sa oddział w pile kredyty pozabankowe bez biku pożyczki chwilówki bez big optima pożyczki kraków pożyczki domowe gdynia kredyt bank warecka warszawa pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kraków spłata pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator eurobank umowa pożyczki podatek pcc ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych grudzień 2012 kod kredytowy w orange kredyty bez bik szamotuły kredyt w banku bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank gdansk chalubinskiego pożyczki bez bik i krd łódź kredyt bank góra kalwaria bocian pożyczki nidzica udzielenie pożyczki udziałowcowi przez spółkę kredyty chwilówki zakopane umowa pożyczki za granicą pcc kredyty chwilówki biała podlaska pożyczki piotrków trybunalski kredyt konsolidacyjny santander consumer bank pożyczki bez bik i krd wałbrzych kredyt bank janów pożyczki gotówkowe kielce kredyt bank kantor kredyt obrotowy dla firm w banku spółdzielczym kredyty chwilówki internetowe pożyczki bocian numer telefonu kredyt bank 1500 kredyt na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd pożyczki gliwice potrzebuję pożyczki blog 2014 pożyczki lombard poznań kredyt bank godziny umowa pożyczki druk pożyczki podobne do vivusa kredyt chwilówki zabrze kredyt bank powstanie pożyczki prywatne warszawa kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator banków bank śląski kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małych firm kredyt bank sa centrala kredyt bez bik 7 kredyt bank s a kontakt jak zaksięgować zaciągnięty kredyt bankowy kredyt bank warszawa al krakowska odmowa pożyczki w vivus kredyty chwilówki oferta pracy wzór na odsetki od pożyczki z zfśs gwarant pożyczki opinie pozyczka 2000 online kredyt samochodowy paribas bank opinie kredyt bank oddział warszawa kondratowicza kredyty na samochód bez bik spółka udziela pożyczki udziałowcowi pcc kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych olsztyn pożyczki pozabankowe kluczbork pożyczki na dowód bielawa kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank opinie pożyczki bez bik i krd pozabankowe umowa pożyczki a koszty uzyskania przychodu bank pbh kredyt kolobrzeg kredyt bank wielicka kraków godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki warszawa bitwy warszawskiej pożyczki ranking bocian pożyczki gdynia pożyczki bez bik na 2 lata kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pko bp kredyt bank sa regon nip kredyty bez bik tarnowskie góry kredyty chwilówki tarnów bema kredyt bank aukcje osoba udzielająca pożyczki nielegalne pozyczki online pożyczki pozabankowe garwolin pożyczki w jeden dzień oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku jak liczyć pożyczki pozabankowe kołobrzeg kredyt na dowod osobisty gdansk ubezpieczenie kredytu w banku millennium kredyt bez bik kłodzko pożyczki regita szybkie pożyczki bez bik rzeszów w ktorym banku najlatwiej o kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez prowizji bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2013 bocian pożyczki reklama w tv umowa pożyczki od wspólnika wzór bocian pożyczki opinie skutki kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową kalkulator alior bank kredyt jakie dokumenty pcc od pożyczki akcjonariusza wzór pisma o udzielenie pożyczki kredyt bank sa zielona góra skarabeusz pozyczki zamość kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp sa szybkie pożyczki w uk dla polaków kredyty chwilówki praca śląsk kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku opinie kredyt bank lokaty 2011 czy istnieje jeszcze mennica pozyczki w jeleniej gorze kredyt chwilowka w markach kredyt bez bik piła kredyty chwilówki system partner panel logowania warunki pożyczki w skoku stefczyka gdanskwrzeszcz pozyczki prywatne bez bik kredyty chwilówki bez prowizji pożyczki gotówkowe ing kredyt bank w pulawach udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel 2013 pożyczki z komornikiem chorzów adres pozyczki bocian w chelmie pozyczki w domu klienta na dowód warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny jak dostać kredyt bez bik śląsk wzór na odsetki od pożyczki kredyt w przeźmierowie kredyt studencki bz wbk 2013 bocian pożyczki opinie pracowników kredyt bank fundusze kredyty bez bik kalisz kredyt w danske bank kredyt konsumencki prawo bankowe kredyt bank w siedlcach kredyty chwilówki słupsk szybki kredyt bez zdolności kredytowej pożyczki panorama firm pożyczki bez bik w internecie bocian pożyczki wniosek kredyt bank zeromskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank środa śląska godziny otwarcia pożyczki w domu klienta bytom bocian pożyczki milicz kredyt samochodowy w mbank opinie kredyt bez bik krosno kredyt bank cena akcji pożyczki w domu zawiercie pożyczki na dowód bank pocztowy pozyczka na dowód w tesco finan pożyczki kalisz kredyt bank dąbrowa tarnowska godziny otwarcia pożyczki bartuś kredyty chwilówki kielce żeromskiego chwilówki i pożyczki pozabankowe w starachowicach pozabankowe pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet pożyczki na procent kielce usługi pożyczki białystok kredyty gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochód dlugoterminowe pozyczki z komornikiem na slasku pożyczki elbląg tanie pożyczki online podatek od pożyczki pomiędzy firmami kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator euro kredyt w rachunku bieżącym bank spółdzielczy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik banki udzielajace kredyt na pit krakow spłata kredytu studenckiego w pko bp kredyty chwilówki przez internet bez bik kredyt bank z bz wbk umowa pożyczki bez notariusza kredyt konsolidacyjny 8 lat termin przedawnienia spłaty pożyczki pewny kredyt bez biku kredyt orange jaki kod kredyt samochodowy otomoto forum udzielę pożyczki prywatnej kraków kredyt bank zakopane bankomat bocian pożyczki turek kredyty bez bik w plocku szybkie pożyczki gdansk w ktorym banku oplaca sie wziasc kredyt we wroclawiu kredyt chwilówka krakow kredyt bank wrocław kontakt kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator kredytowy kredyty bez bik slupsk wzory umowy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt ratalny lukas bank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny ge money bank kalkulator kredyty bez bik w gorzowie wlkp kredyt bank wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyt bank blue city kredyt bank darłowo kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator getin bank kredyt bank w łodzi pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń szczecin kredyt prostoliczony credit agricole kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny czy sie oplaca pozyczki prywatne na wysoki procent pożyczki chwilówki jastrzębie zdrój pożyczki bez bik do 2000 kredyt bank białystok radzymińska telefon zabezpieczenie pożyczki ang kredyt przez internet bez bik i krd kredyty bez bik 5000 prowizja od umowy pożyczki a vat kredyt bank warszawa wilanowska kredyt bank wolomin godziny otwarcia bank pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator jaki kredyt bez bik odsetki od pożyczki tłumaczenie kredyt w alior bank konsolidacyjny kredyt w uk na dom kredyt bank oddział lublin krakowskie przedmieście kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złym bik kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bank polski kredyty pozabankowe global pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt bank bławatna gdynia kredyt bank sa we wrocławiu w jakim banku najlatwiej dostac kredyt bez bik kredyt bank iii oddział kraków pozyczki bez biku online kredyt bank żory godziny otwarcia kredyt bank gorzów wlkp pozyczki w domu dolny ślask kredyt na mieszkanie a umowa na czas określony bank pko bp kredyt samochodowy pożyczka w domu klienta jelenia góra kredyt bankowy księgowania kredyt konsolidacyjny 20 tys pożyczka dla najbiedniejszych kredyt bank kalisz pułaskiego pożyczki bogatynia czy latwo dostac kredyt w getin banku kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibanku zawieszenie kredytu w credit agricole pożyczki na umowę cywilno prawną warszawa pożyczki dla nauczycieli w szkole pożyczki prywatne łódź kredyt bez bik podkarpacie skok pszczyna wniosek o kredyt online pcc od pożyczki wspólnika spółki osobowej kredyt bank raszyn poniatowskiego umowa pożyczki pomiędzy małżonkami pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel potrzebuje kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank wejherowo tel pożyczki na dowód krosno kredyt chwilówka na telefon kredyt bank w dąbrowie górniczej kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank ekstra pożyczki kredyt bank łomża wniosek o kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bank conrada warszawa godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki oferta pracy kredyt bank zgoda knf umowa pożyczki ze spółką cywilną kredyt bank iphone kredyt bank bielany wrocławskie kontakt kredyty niebankowe mbank bankomaty kredyt bank kredyt bank włocławek kościuszki pożyczki pozabankowe stalowa wola kredyt studencki pekao forum pożyczki międzybankowe pożyczki bez bik na telefon kredyty chwilówki bez biku pozyczka bez sprawdzania umowa pożyczki charakterystyka pożyczki pod zastaw racibórz kredyt bank biuro operacji i windykacji lublin kontakt kredyt bank opłata za sms meritum pożyczki bez bik kredyt w orange pop numer kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wymagania pożyczki pod zastaw auta gdańsk umowa pożyczki pracownik wzór pozyczki bepozyczki bez bik naklo nad notecia dom pod zastaw kredytu okres oczekiwania forum kredyt bankowy na wykup mieszkania z komornikiem pożyczki społecznościowe pit pożyczki złotów ale po za bankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy najkorzystniejszy kredyt bank warszawa wawozowa pożyczki gryf kredyt bank emilii plater kredyt bank kołobrzeska 12 gdańsk kredyt chwilówka bocian pożyczki do ręki kredyty chwilówki gniezno kredyty mieszkaniowe maciej molewski pcc od pożyczki dla udziałowca pszczółka pożyczki opinie kredyt samochodowy dla nowo powstałych firm oprocentowanie kredytu w fm bank gdzie wziac kredyt bez biku zawieszenie kredytu w credit agricole kredyt chwilówka telefon kredyty na oświadczenie bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro opinie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kielce kod na kredyt z orange kredyt bank niemcewicza kredyt bez biku zabrze kredyty gotówkowe bez bik kredyt bank swarzędz godziny otwarcia odmowa udzielenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank gorzów wlkp pożyczki bez komornika i biku na dowód w szczecinie kredyt bank poraj pożyczki chwilówki kalisz pożyczki prywatne sprawdzone forum pożyczki gotówkowe udzielę pożyczki na procent szczecin pro domo pożyczki kołobrzeg nr tel kredyty mieszkaniowe wcześniejsza spłata kredyt bank demo kb24 kredyt bank fuzja z bz wbk w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy kredyt mieszkaniowy kiedy pierwsza rata getin kredyt samochodowy forum umowa pożyczki gofin odsetki od pożyczki kiedy przychód kredyt w banku spółdzielczym prodomo pożyczki opinie pożyczki prow pożyczki pod zastaw konin kredyt bez bik millenium pożyczki w lombardzie pożyczki chwilówki poznań 23 lutego pożyczki bezzwrotne dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny bez ograniczeń wiekowych kredyty bez bik rzeszów pożyczki na dowód rzeszów

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad