pożyczki na procent wrocław kredyty na sam dowód pozabankowe racibórz kredyt bank fuzja kredyty chwilówki uk pożyczki chwilówki łódź plac wolności spłata pożyczki walutowej w pln umowa pożyczki ojciec syn umowa pożyczki walutowej kredyt studencki pko bp wymagane dokumenty pożyczki pomarańcza lublin umowa pożyczki ze wspólnikiem wzór kredyt bez bik przez internet kredyt chwilówka ostrów mazowiecka pożyczki bez pracy tanie szybkie kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki preferencyjne nfośigw kredyt bank lokaty 3 miesieczne kredyt konsolidacyjny gliwice kredyty w fm bank kredyt bank bogatynia kontakt pożyczki banki pożyczki socjalne w pracy pożyczki z najniższym oprocentowaniem umowa pożyczki wspólnika ze spółką wysokość pożyczki bez podatku repudiacja pożyczki pożyczki plus cechy pożyczki kredyty bez bik zielona gora pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet na dowód pożyczka bez bik infomonitor kredyt chwilówka bochnia kredyt kupiecki w banku pożyczki filemon pożyczki społecznościowe bez weryfikacji opłata za przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku potrzebuję pilnej pożyczki 2014 pożyczki parabank pożyczki prywatne kujawsko pomorskie bocian pożyczki jastrzębie zdrój warunki pożyczki provident kredyty mieszkaniowe na 100 wartości nieruchomości kredyt bankowy i jego rodzaje kredyt bez bik skok umowa pożyczki w transzach kredyty bez biku malbork kredyt konsolidacyjny czy gotówkowy szybkie pożyczki w domu klienta z ok wrocławia kredyt pozabankowy 10000 pożyczki chwilówki przez internet opinie pożyczki piotrków trybunalski jakie oprocentowanie pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank nowy świat 2 kredyty studenckie zasady przyznawania kredyt bank w przeworsku kredyt bank niemcy kredyt konsolidacyjny z dodatkową gotówką kredyt na oświadczenie o dochodach bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw 2012 kredyt studencki w banku pko sa kredyt bank dane getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt bank wroclaw chrobrego ikko pożyczki kredyt samochodowy ranking marzec 2014 umowa pożyczki urząd skarbowy kredyt bez biku ełk pożyczki na dowód turek potrzebuję pożyczki bez bik kredyt w lukas banku na dowód pożyczki na dowód wałbrzych pożyczki bez dochodu łódź pożyczki na dowód tylko pożyczki bez bik i dochodu kredyt na kupno samochodu bez bik pożyczki na pół roku kredyty bez bik świdnica tanie pożyczki przez internet kredyt bank opłaty umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pozyczki prywatne na procent olesnica pożyczki z providenta kredyty bez bik i krd kalisz bocian pożyczki pomorskie kredyt bank profil aktywny kredyt bank sopot kontakt kredyt bank koło tel pcc od pożyczki w koszty pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik przez internet kredyt bank konstantynów kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg 40 tys pożyczki dla nastolatków kredyt idea bank online umowa pożyczki a pcc kredyty chwilówki wrocław powstańców kredyty chwilówki numer konta pożyczki na dowód tychy pożyczki bez biku białystok szybki kredyt bez bik z komornikiem gwarant pożyczki opinie kredyt na budowe domu w banku spółdzielczym bocian pożyczki piotrków trybunalski pożyczka przez telefon na dowód umowa pożyczki a podatki kredyt mieszkaniowy najkorzystniejszy pożyczki na zakup nieruchomości kredyt bank cieszyn godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód wałbrzych pożyczki konsolidacyjnej pożyczki w domu klienta bydgoszcz kredyt studencki pko termin składania wniosków 2012 kredyt pozabankowy słupsk kredyt konsolidacyjny najkorzystniejszy pożyczki typu incredi kredyty samochodowe bez bik krd kredyt w banku jaki procent bocian pożyczki bytów pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach szybkie pożyczki gdansk pożyczki na dowód siedlce kredyt pozabankowy bez bik krd kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior banku forum kredyt bank wieluń godziny otwarcia pożyczki dorfin kredyt bank mieszkaniowy pożyczki w firmie bocian kredyty chwilówki reklama pożyczki otrzymane pożyczki dla zadłużonych olsztyn pożyczki marka bydgoszcz bank millennium kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank 3 maja lublin kredyty chwilówki katowice ligota kredyty chwilówki ostrowiec św kredyt bank wrocław sikorskiego kredyt bank jak aktywować kartę kredytową udzielenie pożyczki spółce jawnej przez wspólnika kredyt w pekao sa opinie kredyt bankowy obrotowy pożyczki lublin kredyty gdzie otrzymac kredyt bez bik pożyczki gdzie najlepiej kredyt bez bik samochodowy ubezpieczenie pożyczki od śmierci potwierdzenie salda pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki w domu wałbrzych kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa kredyt bank automatyczna spłata karty kredytowej ranking kredytów banków kredyt bank gorzów obotrycka kredyt bank pożyczka na dowód getin bank kredyt gotówkowy forum skarabeusz pożyczki ruda śląska kredyt bank sa warszawa adres kredyt dla młodych małżeństw forum kredyt bank s a centrala kontakt szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń online kredyt bank czeladź pożyczki chwilówki na dowód bez zdolności kredytowe pożyczki bez bik krd i zaświadczeń kredyt w rachunku bieżącym getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy bez małżeństwa kredyt bank lokaty kwiecień 2012 warunki kredytu w kredyt banku pożyczki w domu klienta rybnik kredyt pozabankowy szybki kredyty chwilówki radom pożyczki pomiędzy firmami kredyt konsolidacyjny paribas pożyczki starogard gdański kredyt bez bik pruszków kredyt w eurobanku przez internet kredyt w banku z bikiem kredyt samochodowy w getin noble bank pożyczka od 18 lat bez bit kredyt bez zaświadczeń forum wzór umowy pożyczki w skok stefczyka szukam pożyczki szczecin kredyt konsolidacyjny warszawa pozyczki bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód warszawa pożyczki na dowod bez sprawdzaniaw olesnie pożyczki na dowód do domu umowa pożyczki od firmy zagranicznej pożyczki pozabankowe tychy kredyt bank program partnerski alior bank kredyty studenckie kredyty samochodowe dla firm ranking kredyt studencki bank śląski kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza pożyczki chwilówki lubań pożyczka chwilówka prywatna wrocław pożyczki warrus pożyczki pomarańcza lublin pożyczki na dowód skierniewice kredyt bank lomza abis pożyczki dla każdego pożyczki a pcc kredyt w raiffeisen bank kredyt samochodowy multibank forum pożyczki bez bik gostynin tczew pożyczka z bankomatu kto udziela pozyczki w domu klienta walbrzych kredyt w lukas bank pożyczki prywatne zdunska wola pożyczki chełmno kredyt bank godziny otwarcia łomża kiedy odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem pożyczki gotówkowe na konto kredyt bank konta osobiste kredyty konsolidacyjne radom kredyty chwilówki forum praca kredyt bez bik gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny rybnik pożyczki na dowód krosno dlugoterminowe pozyczki pod zastaw pożyczki na święta bez bik pozyczki bez pracy kredyt bank bez prowizji kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania w biku wycena odsetek od pożyczki na dzień bilansowy kredyt w banku bzwbk kredyt bankowy raty pożyczki bez biku świdnica kredyt gotówkowy od osób prywatnych bez krd pożyczki dla zadłużonych mikropożyczki dla polski wschodniej pożyczki pod zastaw piła kredyty chwilówki nobiles kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych singli pożyczki dla firm jeremie kredyt bank wisła tanie pożyczki pozabankowe umowa pożyczki z zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny santander kalkulator gdzie pozyczke bez grosza kredyt w vdwoch transzach odluzeniowy pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń pozyczki bez bik do 25000 pożyczki chwilówki bez bik krd umorzenie pożyczki a kup pożyczki pod zastaw gliwice karta debetowa w kredyt banku pewny kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie pożyczki opodatkowanie placówki kredyt banku w warszawie kredyt bank wiatraczna umowa pożyczki za granicą warrus pożyczki kontakt kredyty ratalne banki pożyczki pozabankowe w kaliszu kredyty chwilówki suwałki pozyczka dla mlodych bez bik pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości opinie dobra pozyczka warszawa dla zadluzonych pożyczki kraków kredyt bank wycena nieruchomości pożyczki dla każdego bocian pożyczki pruszcz gdański mikropożyczki opinie kredyt studencki na mieszkanie lukas bank skok rafineria pożyczki pożyczki grójec spółka udziela pożyczki udziałowcowi pożyczki udziałowców dla spółki umowa pożyczki do spółki kredyt bank gniezno kontakt bocian pożyczki gryfino zasady kredytu studenckiego w pko bp amber gold pożyczki opinie 2012 kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego alior bank kredyty chwilówki nakło nad notecią kredyt bankowy kodeks cywilny pożyczki dla doktorantów nieoprocentowane pożyczki z zfśs kwituję odbiór pożyczki kredyty bez bik zagraniczne opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki od udziałowca regulamin dobrej pożyczki premium pożyczki opinie stewczyk w słupsk pozyczka na dowód pożyczki gotówkowe z bikiem kredyt bank zambrów telefon pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik i krd pożyczki lubartów kredyt konsolidacyjny chwilowki pożyczki prywatne częstochowa kredyt mieszkaniowy nadpłacanie kredyt konsolidacyjny powtórny kredyty bez biku w plocku dobry kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyt bank archiwum kursów walut kredyt bank aplikacja kredyt bez bik do 2000 umowa pożyczki pieniężnej pod zastaw pozyczki publiczne zalety pożyczki w euroexpert kalkulator pożyczki w alior banku kredyt bank krs kredyt bank jasło kontakt pożyczki bez bik pozabankowe pożyczki długoterminowe wikipedia kredyty chwilówki gorzów sikorskiego kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie warunki kredyt samochodowy mbank regulamin umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór doc kredyty chwilówki nowe kredyt bank świebodzin praca kredyt konsolidacyjny z dodatkową gotówką kredyt w banku bgż forum kredyt mieszkaniowy spłata przed terminem wzór umowy pożyczki osoba prywatna kredyt bank w mińsku maz pożyczki chwilówki bez bik poznan szybkie pożyczki współpraca pozyczkibocian dla bezrobotnych pożyczki bez bik krd pożyczki pod zastaw forum pożyczki z pracy w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt kredyty bankowe bez prowizji kredyty bez biku rzeszow gdzie można otrzymać kredyt bez bik pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu kredyt studencki getin bank kredyt bank warszawa górczewska 200 pożyczki 1000 zł obsługa pożyczki w domu pożyczki bez bik krd pożyczki na dowód eurobank pożyczki chwilówki przemyśl umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z zastawem wzór kredyty bez zaświadczeń o dochodach i bez bik kredyt bank w gdyni kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank forum kredyt studencki pko termin składania wniosków kredyt bank vii oddział warszawa pożyczki pelikan retencja pożyczki kredyt chwilówki zielona góra kredyt bank kołobrzeska 12 bnp paribas kredyt umowa zlecenie pożyczki na dowód bełchatów pożyczki chwilówki w olsztynie pożyczki chwilówki śląskie gdzie uzyskać kredyt bez bik podatek od pożyczki prywatnej 2011 kredyt samochodowy dla rencistów pcc od pożyczki termin kredyty bez bik kołobrzeg kredyt w idea bank na start forum kredyt bankowy kiedy się przedawnia kredyt bank leszno godz otwarcia bank millenium kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt samochodowy bez bik kraków umowa pożyczki między firmą a osobą fizyczną kredyt studencki pko czy pekao alior bank kredyt dla lekarzy szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik pozyczka gratka opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe przelicznik druk pożyczki pozyczki na oswiadczenie grudziadz pożyczki prywatne 2012 kredyt bank transfery kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank bogactwo metali wycena pożyczki bez big wrocław kredyt bank bielany kredyt w getin noble bank opinie pożyczki dla polaków w niemczech łatwe pożyczki online kredyt studencki w banku pko pożyczki na dowód forum kredyt w banku żagiel kredyt bank koscierzyna udzielić pożyczki angielski gdzie kredyt bez bik forum pożyczki od lat 18 kredyt bank toruń grudziądzka pożyczki całkowicie przez internet pozyczka czestochowa w 24h kredyty chwilówki praca kalisz kredyt bank mickiewicza 50 odsetki od pożyczki jak wyliczyć kredyt bank zielona góra wojska polskiego konto kredyt bankowy księgowanie kredyt bez bik forum 2012 kredyt bank ukraina pożyczki do domu kredyt konsolidacyjny i dodatkowa gotówka pożyczki za 1 gr kredyt bank krakow kapelanka kwota pożyczki netto kredyt bez biku krosno pożyczki trzebiatów kredyt konsolidacyjny wymogi kredyt bank departament centralnych operacji lublin pożyczki pozabankowe świętokrzyskie pożyczki gotówkowe włocławek kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche bank pożyczki na oświadczenie pożyczki pod zastaw kielce kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najkorzystniej prywatne pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń poznań kredyt samochodowy na firmę dokumenty pożyczki głogów kredyt bank w minsku maz odsetki od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kalkulator rat pożyczki gotówkowej umowa pożyczki a pcc kredyty bez bik jaslo pożyczki mezzanine kredyty chwilówki kielce żeromskiego kredyt samochodowy fortis bank kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108a pożyczki dla zadłużonych kraków postea pożyczki kredyt bez biku rybnik umowa pożyczki pieniężnej formularz bank pekao sa kredyt gotówkowy pieniądz kredyt bankowy i cykle koniunkturalne kredyty bez bik w szczecinie kredyt bank zytnia 15 godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne udziele pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki na dowód zabrze kredyty pozabankowe dlugoterminowe kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku zachodnim wbk kredyty chwilówki konsolidacyjny pożyczki bez dochodu na dowód kredyt pozabankowy łódź pożyczki do domu opole kredyty studenckie mieszkaniowe konwersja pożyczki na dopłaty pożyczki pod zastaw rtv częstochowa kredyt bank online 24 pożyczki piła kredyt pod zastaw działki bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe ostrołęka pozyczki pozabankowe przez internet legnica pożyczki bez biku poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator ing kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych przez internet pozyczki bez zaswiadczen w uk proste pożyczki bez bik bocian pożyczki wałbrzych wniosek kredytowy na samochod bez bik alior bank kredyt gotówkowy pozyczki dla zadluzonych w bik i krs pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz gdańska pożyczki gotówkowe wikipedia pożyczki w chf kredyt bank awaria systemu kredyt w banku w niemczech kredyty chwilówki opinie windykacja kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik i krd warszawa jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z wfośigw kredyt bank sa wrocław kredyt samochodowy ing bank śląski kredyt bank żary telefon kredyty mieszkaniowe w norwegii umowa pożyczki z poręczeniem wzór bielsko kredyty nie bankowe bogdan dylewski pożyczki kredyt bank centrala kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku bgż odsetki od pożyczki a przychód podatkowy mbank kredyt samochodowy pozyczka domowka warszawa kredyty chwilówki kraków kalwaryjska kredyt bankowy a przedawnienie umowa pożyczki właściwość sądu kredyt studencki pko wcześniejsza spłata kredyt idea bank dla firm bnp paribas kredyt umowa zlecenie kredyt bez biku z komornikiem rodzaje kredytów bankowych dla msp wzór umowy pożyczki ratalnej kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp dokumenty potrącanie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia kredyty chwilówki raty kredyt konsolidacyjny 2014 ranking pożyczki warszawa bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank aktywacja tokena kredyt samochodowy bez bik pożyczki prywatne dla osób z komornikiem fundusz pracy pożyczki windykacja pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank luboń godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne prawo pożyczki z europejskiego banku inwestycyjnego kredyt konsolidacyjny najlepsza oferta transze w kredyt banku pozyczki bez bik wloclawek kredyt bank kłodzko telefon provident pożyczki dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp oprocentowanie

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad