kredyt bank pl kursy walut pożyczki nordea oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej w ing pożyczki bez bik gorzów wlkp przelewy zagraniczne w kredyt bank kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i krd pozyczki bydgoszcz 24 kredyt bank karier abil pożyczki kredyt bank zespół zajęć egzekucyjnych kredyt bank 2013 pożyczki pod zastaw sprzętu rtv warszawa pożyczki od osób prywatnych ogłoszenia kredyty bez bik wieliczka pożyczki bez bik będzin kredyty w idea banku forum kredyty bez bik konin kredyt bez bik slask pożyczki bytom pożyczki prywatne pod weksel pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki bez zameldowania kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny 8 lat pożyczki 20 000 kredyt bankowy księgowanie kredyt bank kłodzko telefon udzielę pożyczki pod weksel kraków kalkulator pożyczki lukas bank kto daje pożyczki z komornikiem pożyczki dla firmy kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy porównanie pożyczki bez bik nysa umowa pożyczki z pracodawcą mikropożyczki ekonomia społeczna bocian pożyczki szczecin pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości bydgoszcz pożyczki prywatne na podkarpaciu pożyczki typu provident warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe chwilówki przez internet pożyczki w 15 minut przez internet kredyt w banku pko sa forum pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości z komornikiem kredyty bez bik kraków pożyczki pozabankowe wielkopolska pozyczki do reki ketrzyn kredyty bez bik koszalin alior bank sa kredyt banki kredyty gotówkowe ranking kredyt bank w kwidzynie pożyczki pozabankowe wady i zalety zabezpieczenie pożyczki ang pozyczki prywatne na procent olesnica pozyczka z pracy bezprocentowa w uk umowa pożyczki na rachunek bankowy pożyczki bez bik w toruniu kredyt bank lokaty opinie kredyt bank oprocentowanie rachunku oszczędnościowego pożyczki między firmami a pcc kredyt studencki zasady przyznawania 2012 pożyczki dla młodych firm pożyczki chwilówki przez internet kredyt dla studenta mbank rzeczywisty koszt pożyczki pożyczki od osób prywatnych siedlce banki kredyty gotówkowe oprocentowanie pożyczki do domu optima kredyt pozabankowy na samochód kredyt bank gorlice godziny kredyt bank w słubicach kredyt bez biku w jakim banku gwarantuje zwrot pożyczki krzyżówka pozyczki pila kredyt bank w olecku pożyczki profi credit opinie pożyczki dla wolnych zawodów kredyt bank wypłata gotówki kredyt bank sa warszawa kredyt bank ruda śląska marr pożyczki dla firm kredyt dla firm bez bik zielona góra pożyczki 60 dni kredyty bez bik nysa zakładowy fundusz świadczeń socjalnych pożyczki pożyczki nbp kredyt studencki pko bp wniosek w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt forum kredyt bank zamość kontakt umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie wzór fałszywe pożyczki banki udzielające pozyczek bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartosci kredyty bez biku gdansk kredyt samochodowy nowa firma pożyczki kolno umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pcc pożyczki tanie umowa pożyczki z przewłaszczeniem nieruchomości pożyczki chwilówki przez internet ranking kredyt bank kursy walut archiwum prywatne pozyczki kolobrzeg do 50000 getin bank kredyt gotowkowy na 120 miesiecy pożyczki długoterminowe uk kredyt bank opłata za sms pro domo pożyczki gdańsk pt wygodne pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez przelewu kredyt bank radom żeromskiego 41 pożyczki ekspresowe przez internet oprocentowanie pożyczki pko sa kredyty konsolidacyjne gliwice umowa pożyczki do wydruku pożyczki pod zastaw racibórz kredyt w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki na dowód chwilówki pożyczki i kredyty bez bik chorzów katowice pożyczki chwilówki w warszawie podanie o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyty chwilówki zarabiaj z nami opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny po rozwodzie w jakim banku najłatwiej kredyt kredyt bank pszczyna telefon pożyczki tomaszów mazowiecki pożyczki kielce kredyt bank moje konto kod na kredyt w sieci orange kredyty chwilówki staszów kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń pomorskie kredyt bank sa w warszawie departament windykacji ubezpieczenie pożyczki w pekao sa kapitalizacja pożyczki pożyczki olecko kredyt bez bik bank spółdzielczy kredyt bez bik pozabankowe ing bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko wzór umowy pożyczki w ratach dobrej pożyczki kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym opinie kredyt bank kielce kontakt jak wziasc kredyt telefonicznie w wbk rzeszów grunwaldzka 42 czy warto wziąźć kredyt tanie pożyczki gotówkowe opinie bank pekao kredyt online bez zaświadczeń kredyty chwilówki praca ulotki pożyczki inwestorskie kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pko bp pozyczkibez weryfikacji bz optima pożyczki program partnerski umowa pożyczki druk pcc pozyczka na dowod bez biku rzeszów kredyty bez bik ostroleka optima pożyczki tczew pożyczki chwilówki elbląg kredyt mieszkaniowy spłata przed terminem szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd przez internet kredyty pozabankowe konin kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych z komornikiem bank pko sa kredyt na samochód kredyt na dowód bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firmy kredyt bezzwrotny idea bank opinie wzór umowy pożyczki z zfron getin noble bank centrum kredytów samochodowych oszuści pożyczki prywatne kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie zarobki kod na kredyt w orange na karte umowa pożyczki zastaw kredyt bank siedlce godz otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy mój dom kredyt samochodowy w mbanku opinie kredyt bank warta gdzie daja kredyt bez biku pożyczki wąbrzeźno kredyt w banku przez internet bank pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie kredyt w banku na biznes kredyt bank dywidenda kredyt pozabankowy w banku pożyczki bez bik bank dwie pożyczki w provident pożyczki ostatnia deska ratunku kredyty bez bik suwałki w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń jakie banki w stargardzie udzielaja kredyty pożyczki z tygodniowa rata kredyty chwilówki łódź rzgowska pożyczki dla zadłużonych gdańsk pożyczki pod zastaw przepisy wniosek o preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt bank popularna jak zgłosić umowę pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego kredyt chwilówka andrychów ing bank kredyt dla noeo otwartych furm pozyczki bez biku slupsk numer kontaktowy krus pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem wysokie pożyczki gotówkowe wartość bilansowa pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych konsolidacyjne pożyczki prywatne łowicz pożyczki chwilówki pleszew w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa pożyczki dla spółki od wspólnika wzór umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt bez bik na weksel pożyczki bez bik pierwsza za darmo kredyt konsolidacyjny w lloyds umowa pożyczki odsetki karne kredyt bank linia kredytowa pożyczki gumtree kredyt bank warszawa żeromskiego 77 kredyt bank pelplin kredyt online idea bank udzielenie pożyczki firmie bezpieczne pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp sa kredyt bank fiz ii kredyty mieszkaniowe pdf kredyt bank maestro pożyczki bez bik w domu klienta warszawa pożyczki chwilówki w gdyni umowa pożyczki zfron pożyczki z małym oprocentowaniem kredyt pozabankowy w banku umowa pożyczki pod zastaw prawo pożyczki z tygodniową spłatą ing pożyczka samochodowa pożyczki i poręczenia kredyt bank płock ul wyszogrodzka optima pożyczki chojnice kredyt bank radom kontakt neobank kredyt pod zastaw gruntow rolnych kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie warunki pożyczki bez bik ostrów wlkp oprocentowanie kredytu w banku bgż kredyty bez biku kraków kredyt w uk na dom pożyczki chwilówki najnowsze pożyczki chwilówki na rok kredyty chwilówki panel logowania kredyt bank lokaty 2012 mikrokasa pożyczki pożyczki prywatne weksel pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik krd big kredyt bank jana pawła gdańsk godziny otwarcia szybki kredyt bez bik rzeszów pieniądze do domu pożyczki kredyt bank oddział łódź kościuszki pożyczki pod zastaw telefonów warszawa maksymalne koszty pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości bydgoszcz kredyt pozabankowy katowice kredyty chwilówki opole książąt opolskich kredyt bank godziny otwarcia czestochowa pożyczki od ręki bez biku kredyty chwilówki oleśnica pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen godziny przelewow kredyt banku forum dobrej pożyczki najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy kredyty na samochod bez biku ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych październik 2012 kredyt bank lebork godziny otwarcia pożyczki społecznościowe co to jest gdzie najlatwiej o pozyczke pod zastaw domu kredyt na dom pozabankowy kredyt bank rating kredyty chwilowki klodzko kredyt wspólnoty mieszkaniowe pozyczki w mielcu bocian kredyt gotówkowy z bik pożyczki pozabankowe uk pożyczki pod zastaw zbąszyń pożyczki online w 15 minut kredyt bank rumia kontakt bocian pożyczki łódź kredyty chwilówki panel logowania vivus przedłużenie pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny zabrze kredyty bez bik ostrow wlkp kredyt bank warszawa centrala pożyczki społecznościowe porównanie pożyczki pod zastaw bochnia kredyty chwilówki grudziądz pożyczki pod zastaw maszyn rolniczych pozyczka bez oplat i krs najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy pod zastaw mieszkania rodziców kredyt bank wycena nieruchomości kredyt bankowy na spłatę komornika kredyty chwilówki katowice ligota kredyty chwilówki tvn kredyt konsolidacyjny kudoz kredyt bank nr telefonu pożyczki bez bik współpraca kredyt gotówkowy bank pekao sa kredyt bank starogard gdański godziny otwarcia jacek pilka pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rolnika kredyt bank pszczyna kontakt pożyczki bez bik i dochodów pożyczki prywatne wzór umowy kredyt gotówkowy pekao sa kalkulator bip pożyczki forum kredyt bank rada nadzorcza prywatny kredyt bez bik z komornikiem kasomat pożyczki opinie kredyt chwilówki starachowice pozyczki krotoszyn pożyczki od ręki przez internet udzielenie pożyczki przez udziałowca pożyczki gotówkowe bez dochodu slwstrzymanie splaty kredytu pożyczki prywatne chwilówki kredyty bez bik slaskie kredyt studencki pko bp do kiedy kredyt bank 9 oddział warszawa kredyt bank sa rybnik kredyt w przeźmierowie kredyt bankowy ustawa kredyt bank w zorach szybki kredyt w banku pocztowym umowa cesji pożyczki preferencyjne pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców pożyczki dla firm katowice kredyt bank s a iv oddział w warszawie pko bp kredyt studencki zaświadczenie kredyt bank infolinia kredyt studencki w pekao kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator rat regulamin pożyczki ze środków obrotowych pożyczki pod zastaw legionowo kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik ciechanow kredyt bank w starachowicach kredyty bez bik opinie pożyczki pozabankowe cała polska pożyczki prywatne tarnobrzeg kredyty chwilówki ełk pewny kredyt onlain pożyczki bez bik i krd opole kredyt konsolidacyjny w sygma banku bocian ełk pozyczki kontakt pożyczki 10000 bez bik katowice umowa pożyczki wzór pdf pożyczki unijne na otwarcie działalności pożyczki natychmiastowe bez biku kredyt bank likwidacja pożyczki online darmowe pożyczki bez poręczeń kredyty pozabankowe olkusz kredyty chwilówki w katowicach kredyt bank opłata za kartę pożyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej 24h kredyt w eurobanku na pit kredyt bank dusznicki pożyczki bez bik 24 kredyt bank bez prowizji kredyt bank nidzica kontakt getin bank kredyt samochodowy dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlatwiej dostac optima pożyczki katowice bocian pożyczki myślibórz kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pko kredyt bank sopot kontakt kredyty w lukas bank pożyczki wałcz kredyt gotówkowy w banku millenium numer kredyt do orange pożyczki prywatne dla nowych firm pożyczki olesnica pożyczka bez infomonitora umowa pożyczki dla osób fizycznych pozyczki online przez poczte pożyczki katowice ul moniuszki 7 kredyt bank prowizja za granicą prolongata pożyczki pekao sa kredyt bank krapkowice kontakt polecane pożyczki prywatne potrącanie pożyczki z zasiłku kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko pożyczki bez bik i krd na dowód kredyty bez bik w lesznie getin bank pożyczki chwilówki kalkulator rat pożyczki ing kredyty pozabankowe na oświadczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator paribas niepodpisana umowa pożyczki pożyczki bez bik długoterminowe kredyt bank sa centrala warszawa getin bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum kredyt bank pekao sa polecane pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bankowy źródło finansowania szybkie pożyczki inowrocław kredyt bez bik zabrze do 30 tys bank pko sa kredyt studencki dokumenty pożyczki dla osób ze złą historią w bik bank pekao sa ubezpieczenie kredytu kredyt pozabankowy na kupno domu kiedy umowa pożyczki nie podlega pcc pozyczki bez bik boleslawiec pożyczki bocian nowy tomyśl w jakim banku wziąć kredyt forum pożyczki w domu klienta warszawa umowa pożyczki podatek od czynności cywilnoprawnych kredyty bez bik i zus kredyty przez internet bez biku kredyt bankowy wady i zalety kredyt bez bik 70000 kredyty chwilówki bielsko biała bocian pożyczki kutno windykator kredyty chwilówki odznaka pożyczki narodowej 1933 pożyczki pozabankowe jelenia góra szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa kredyty od reki od 18lat ostrowiec sw oświadczenie o otrzymaniu pożyczki fines pożyczki opinie pożyczki jeremie mazowieckie kredyt sms orange pop kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy bip pożyczki forum pożyczki chwilówki jastrzębie zdrój getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy forum pożyczki bez bik małopolska kredyt w bos bank kredyt bank gdańsk wrzeszcz kredyty mieszkaniowe dla osob pracujacych w uk bocian pożyczki mława kredyt bank sa zarząd kredyt konsolidacyjny w millenium bank wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki z zfśs restrukturyzacja pożyczki w skok pożyczki argentyńskie kredyt studencki w pko opinie pożyczki chwilówki franczyza bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy forum pożyczki społecznościowe a podatek kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą 2013 kredyt bez bik lublin umorzenie pożyczki ze środków obrotowych kredyty bez bik szybkie pożyczki bez biku poznań gdzie najłatwiej dostać kredyt bez bik pożyczki everest pożyczki krótkoterminowe bilans kredyty pozabankowe krakow bez posrednikow kredyt bank bogatynia kontakt kredyty chwilówki warszawa grochowska uokik pożyczki pożyczki miechów kredyt bank oprocentowanie kart kredytowych pożyczki w domu myszkow pożyczki kórnik pożyczki pozabankowe gorzów wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior bank opinie santander kredyt na samochod w uk pożyczki chrobry umowa pożyczki kwoty kredyt bank maestro umowa pozyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank sa łomża kredyt konsolidacyjny w millenium ewidencja odsetek od pożyczki prywatne pożyczki bez zastawu ogłoszenia zaświadczenie o zarobkach pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najkorzystniej kalkulator pożyczki money pożyczki w bilansie pożyczki pieniężne w rodzinie pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy symulacja pozyczki pozabankowe atiz krotoszyn w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank działdowo pożyczki uk kredyt bank sa iii oddział w warszawie pożyczki na dowód bytom pozyczki dla zadłuzonych kredyt bank katowice godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe sgb w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy 2012 kredyt bank rondo onz godziny otwarcia kredyty bez biku jaworzno kredyty chwilówki kutno szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez bik krd umorzenie pożyczki koszt podatkowy najtańsze pożyczki na rynku kredyt bank oddział marki godziny otwarcia kredyt bank żyrardów pożyczki ratalne bez bik kredyt bank tomaszów maz umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne pożyczki pozabankowe na pit kredyt bez biku na auto kredyt dla firm bez bik i zaswiadczen wzór umowy pożyczki pienieżnej druk umowy pożyczki pieniędzy bank pko sa kredyt obrotowy praca pożyczki łódź kredyty chwilowki bez bik

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad