ostatnie dni pozyczki pko bp zawieszenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego pożyczki w domu wałbrzych kredyt w skoku rafineria z komornikiem pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bankowy na dowód pożyczka z komornikiem w mysłowicach kredyt bank sa warszawa kontakt regulamin udzielania pożyczki dla firm w mbanku szybkie pożyczki pleszew pożyczki gotówkowe definicja kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej mbank kredyt ratalny a umowa na czas określony kredyty bez bik czestochowa kredyt bankowy statystyki pożyczki alternatywne kredyt konsolidacyjny w lukas banku ślimak pożyczki kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe piła kredyty bez bik na oświadczenie kredyt bez bik 2012 pożyczki pozabankowe w anglii pożyczki pozabankowe w kaliszu kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór umowy umowa pożyczki profi credit kredyt w banku rodzina na swoim kredyt bank luboń nieoprocentowane pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank konferencje kredyt w banku potrzebne dokumenty kredyt bez biku w banku kredyt bank obsługa kredyty chwilówki stalowa wola okulickiego alior bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator pozyczki pozabankowe plock na dowod korzystne pożyczki pożyczki bez bik wrocław forum bocian pożyczki szczecin kredyt bank kto go kupi pożyczki bez zgody współmałżonka kredyt bank bok kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa 8 c najtańsze pożyczki w bankach kredyt bank powstanie pożyczki chwilówki swarzędz kredyt bank w jastrowiu kredyt na mieszkanie w banku pko pożyczki prometeusz bocian skarabeusz provident kredyt bank paypal anulowanie umowy pożyczki gros pożyczki włocławek kredyt bankowy pdf pożyczki prywatne lębork konwersja pożyczki kapitał zapasowy konsolidacja kredytów wbk kredyty chwilówki opinie gowork pozabankowe kredyty wnioski pożyczki all money umowa pożyczki druk pcc kredyt bank wrocław godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki kościuszki kredyt bank departament centralnych operacji lublin meritum bank kredyt online kredyty dla małych firm 2014 jelenia góra kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza tel kredyt bank kto go kupi kredyt bank lokaty styczeń 2013 globals pożyczki umowy pożyczki wzór pożyczki prywatne września kredyt bank w pelplinie godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki myszków bank pko kredyt kredyt bank człuchów skarabeusz pożyczki oświęcim kredyty mieszkaniowe pułapki kredyt samochodowy ing bank deutsche bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum pożyczki darowizny szybko i bez umowy pożyczki kredyt bank bfg kredyt bank gold profit bocian pożyczki kielce forum kredyt bez umowy o prace bez bik pożyczki z funduszu efs pożyczki pozabankowe dąbrowa górnicza umowa pożyczki pieniężnej między firmami kredyt bez bik zawiercie pożyczki pozabankowe wejherowo kredyty chwilówki nowy targ warta pożyczki kredyt bank sa lublin zana 39a aneks do umowy kredyt studencki pko bp pożyczki pozabankowe takto kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg 40 tys kredyt online bez bik kredyt bank kwidzyn godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku czeskim optima pożyczki jelenia góra kredyty chwilówki tarnów bema pożyczki pod zastaw sulejówek odsetki od pożyczki kosztem uzyskania przychodu kredyt dla firm bez zus radom pożyczki charakterystyka kredyt bank waluty pożyczki ciechanów kredyt bank gotówka jak udzielić pożyczki pracownikowi pcc umowa pożyczki od udziałowca pozyczka na konto bez przelewania grosza umowa pożyczki gotówkowej od osoby fizycznej pożyczki na dowód katowice kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat umowa pożyczki rodzina wzór jakie sa pozyczki w domu na oswiadczenie szukam pożyczki prywatnej 2012 arleg pożyczki pożyczki prywatne wałbrzych szybkie pożyczki anglia opodatkowanie pożyczki od rodziców pożyczki na 24 miesiące pożyczki najtaniej szybkie pożyczki w olsztynie kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku kalkulator pozyczki w nowym saczu przelew zagraniczny do kredyt banku kredyt bank kupon 5 pozyczki na umowe zlecenie pruszcz gdanski pożyczka na rente socjalna krakow restrukturyzację pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w londynie szybkie pożyczki bez bik włocławek kredyt firmowy idea bank opinie pożyczki prywatne chwilówki pożyczki niebankowe kredyt bank efs pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na dowód pożyczki w amber gold opinie kredyty bez bik będzin prywatne pożyczki dla rolników kredyty konsolidacyjne oblicz rate kredyt bank cz pożyczki pozabankowe śląsk kredyty chwilówki katowice panewnicka kredyt bank linia kredytowa kredyty konsolidacyjne lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp sa kredyt bank warszawa godz otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny wikipedia pożyczki typu bocian wzory dokumentów pożyczki pożyczki bez bik jasło pożyczka prywatna białystok ogłoszenia pożyczki chwilówki skawina odsetki karne w pożyczkach kiedy nota pozyczki bez rejestrow poznan kredyty mieszkaniowe 2013 pko bp pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez konta w banku kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy kredyty chwilówki ełk pożyczki pod zastaw świdnica kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wymagania kredyt bank góra kalwaria kalkulator kosztów pożyczki alior bank kredyt obrotowy kredyt bank wałbrzych kredyt konsolidacyjny jestem w bik kredyt bank marki godziny otwarcia wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie fundusze pożyczki admin pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp 2013 kredyt bank łódź bednarska pożyczki zamiast dotacji firma udzielająca pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe zagiel kredyt chwilówka andrychów kredyt bank dabrowa górnicza bank pko bp kredyt studencki kredyt bank wypłata gotówki ducato pożyczki pożyczki oddłużeniowe na dowód historia umowy pożyczki mikropożyczki toruń benefit pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt bank debica pożyczki z nfoś pożyczki pod zastaw złota kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny w lloyds umowa pożyczki kto płaci pcc kredyt na start w idea banku forum kredyt bank druk zaświadczenia o zarobkach kredyty bez bik września kredyt bank sa siedziba kredyt bank fuzja pracownicy kredyt bank wroclaw gliniana szukam kredytu bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki ze spółką zależną kredyt bank zmienia nazwe eden pożyczki opinie skarabeusz pozyczki pozabankowe dolnyslsask bank pko bp kredyt studencki dokumenty optima pożyczki praca opinie atiz przykłady pożyczki pożyczki bez bik na święta kredyt bank w gizycku kredyt bank fundusz jumper ing czy dają pożyczki młodym ludziom kredyt mieszkaniowy oblicz raty kredyt bank mielżyńskiego toyota bank kredyt samochodowy opinie szukam taniej pożyczki warunki kredytu w banku spółdzielczym kredyt w postbank kredyt bez biku z komornikiem pozyczki zyrafa aleksandrow lodzki kredyt samochodowy a firma usługi pożyczki lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny bz wbk opinie przedłużenie pożyczki w vivus kredyt samochodowy dla studenta wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez pożyczkobiorcę pożyczki pod weksel kraków kredyt bank żniwna poznań wniosek o kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp szybkie mikropożyczki umowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą wzór pożyczki podobne do bociana pożyczki prywatne podatki kredyty chwilówki poznań praca pożyczki bez bik ciechanów kredyt bank godziny otwarcia poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki na dowód bydgoszcz przeterminowanie pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór weksla pożyczki pozabankowe ruda śląska kredyt na mieszkanie bez banku eures pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku pko bp pożyczki katowice pożyczki olecko alior bank kredyt dla emeryta kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander kredyt bank reklamy pozyczki dla zadluzonych bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki faktura księgowanie pożyczki udzielonej pożyczki przez internet na 60 dni kredyt studencki pko dyplom pożyczki bez biku słupsk pozyczki z funduszu dla zadluzonych wzór umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem pożyczki bez bik przez internet w 15 minut szukam ekspresowej pozyczki tarnow zwrot pożyczki angielski w jakim banku najlepiej brać kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki na dowód krasnystaw prywatne pożyczki bez zastawu ogłoszenia pożyczki chwilówki rybnik kredyt bez bik opole pożyczki warszawa szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń warszawa idea bank pożyczki dla firm mikropożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank w jarocinie pożyczki cywilne wrocław pożyczki kodeks cywilny pożyczka prywatna elbląg tel kredyt bank galibardiego pożyczki tygodniówki alior bank kredyt gotówkowy forum pożyczki pozabankowe prudnik kredyty bez bik i komornika kredyty banku pko bp umorzenie pożyczki w spółce alior bank pozyczka jaki procent numer finan pozyczki kredyt bank oddział w dębicy kredyty chwilówki jak to działa druk umowa pożyczki kredyt bank przelicznik walut pożyczki oddłużeniowe łódź kredyty chwilówki czy sprawdzają bik kredyt bez bik świdnica kredyty chwilówki swietochlowice reklama pożyczki piosenka niskoprocentowe kredyty uk pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk grunwaldzka odsetki od pożyczki od osoby prywatnej umowa pozyczki a smierc pozyczkodawcy partner pozyczki naklo nad notecia pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe zfśs kredyty bank pko sa kredyty chwilówki bez bik kraków kredyt bank wypłaty za granicą pożyczki na dowód ekspres kasa kredyt bank ząbkowice śląskie umowa pożyczki z zfśs wzór pożyczki złotów ale pozabankowe cesja pożyczki księgowanie umowa pożyczki a pcc kredyt bank warszawa komisji edukacji narodowej kredyt bank komornik oświadczenie pożyczki pieniędzy pożyczki inwestycyjne dla firm pozyczki do domu w pabianicach kredyt w pekao sa opinie w jakim banku wziasc kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank olecko udzielę pożyczki na procent pożyczki preferencyjne śląsk kredyt w ge money bank pozyczkh chwilowki lodz w domu kliemta pożyczki chwilówki ogłoszenia omyła pożyczki nowosc pozyczki do donu pożyczki pod zastaw szczecin 24h szybkie pożyczki bytom pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych na dowód kredyt konsolidacyjny alior praca za granica pożyczki starogard gdański prywatna szybka pozyczka zywiec bocian pożyczki częstochowa optima pożyczki tczew idea bank kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym forum chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki śląskie kredyty chwilówki na sms kredyty chwilówki jędrzejów pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulator kredyt bank ul mickiewicza białystok umowa do pożyczki kredyt samochodowy mbank forum kredyt bank różana kontakt kredyt pozabankowy kontakt kredyt mikro bik umowa na czas określony kredyt mieszkaniowy forum skarabeusz pożyczki kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe pozabankowe kredyty bez bik radomsko umowa pożyczki kodeks cywilny bocian pożyczki pomorskie kredyty chwilówki system partner panel logowania kredyty pozabankowe slask pożyczki w 15 min bez bik pożyczki chwilówki kościan wzór umowy pożyczki osobie prywatnej pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyt studencki forum opinie pożyczki finansowo kredyt mieszkaniowy wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki pozabankowe dębica kredyt według prawa bankowego kredyt chwilówka rawicz pożyczki dla widniejących w krd kredyt samochod irlandii konwersja pożyczki na kapitał rezerwowy a pcc kredyt bank leszno pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel pożyczka bez bik przez internet w 15 minut forum kredyt bank grodzisk wielkopolski kredyt mieszkaniowy w multibanku kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osob pracujacych w uk podrobiona umowa pożyczki pożyczki bez big kredyt konsolidacyjny zdunska wola kredyt bank pekao sa kredyt bank w głogowie pożyczki z obsługą domową pożyczki chwilówki tomaszów maz kredyt studencki bank polskiej spółdzielczości sprzedaż kredyt banku santander 2012 akropol pożyczki kredyt bank końskie kontakt kredyt chwilówki wałbrzych jaki jest kod na kredyt w orange one pożyczki prywatne olsztyn umorzenie pożyczki a pit pożyczki przez internet getin bank pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik kraków umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kapitałowymi kredyt samochodowy bank millennium umowa pożyczki od rodziców wzór pożyczki gotówkowe przelicznik kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnej matki 2013 pożyczki chwilówki poznań getin noble bank oprocentowanie kredytów pożyczki dla zadłużonych pod zastaw kredyt bez biku płock kredyt bank warszawa śródmieście kredyty typu chwilówka nowa sól pożyczki najtańsze w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy forum księgowanie pożyczki w stowarzyszeniu lichwiarskie pożyczki gotówkowe czestochowa kredyt bank reklama mafia umowa umorzenia pożyczki wzór rzeczywisty koszt pożyczki meritum bank kredyty online kredyty chwilówki bez bik białystok kredyt przez internet bez zadnych zaswiadczen pożyczki bez zaświadczeń inowrocław kredyty chwilowki poznan glogowska spłata pożyczki przychód pozyczka na wysoki procent na dowod nowy sacz kredyt bank sa chełm pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy katowice kredyt studencki pko bp warunki kredyt na dowód mbank prawo cywilne wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki pożyczki bez bik wrocław kapitalizacja odsetek pożyczki pozyczka bez biku na 20000 cechy pożyczki bankowej rzeszów kasa stefczyka kredyt na umowie zagranicznej umowy kredytowe w spółce komandytowej pozyczka bez bik pod zabezpieczenie boleslawiec umowa udzielenia pożyczki przez gminę pożyczki pod zastaw pożyczki dla firm warszawa szybkie pozyczki na dowod pożyczki bez bik na telefon szukam pożyczki prywatnej pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki przez internet bez bik pożyczki pruszków pożyczki bocian gorzow wlkp kredyt bank białołęka bez bik umorzenie pożyczki pozew przykładowa umowa pożyczki kredyt bank płock kolegialna godziny otwarcia pokwitowanie pożyczki wzór idea bank kredyt inwestycyjny oprocentowanie kredyty bankowe dla firm pożyczki bez bik rypin kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator alior kredyt bez biku zachodniopomorskie kokos pożyczki prywatne bocian pożyczki gryfice pożyczki prywatnie poznań szybki kredyt bez bik wrocław optima pozyczki kredyty grudziadz kredyt bank warszawa ursynów pożyczki oddłużające kredyt bank pomorskie kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank opinie kredyt w banku norweskim umowa pożyczki podpisana za granicą kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny w boś banku kredyty bez biku jelenia góra pożyczki dla organizacji pozarządowej kredyty pozabankowe krakow kredyt na mieszkanie w banku pko kredyt w orange jaki kod oprocentowanie w bankach pożyczki pekao bp pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik gorzów odmowa zwrotu pożyczki pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości warszawa pożyczki dla bezrobotnych nr telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bgż kredyt w ulster banku uk pożyczki od udziałowców a pcc pożyczki prywatne tarnowskie góry kredyt mieszkaniowy pko oprocentowanie jaki kod na kredyt w orange umowa pożyczki nieważność pozyczki dla zadluzonych w bik big krd i erif euro cash pozyczki szczecin mikropożyczki w indiach tarnów pożyczki bez bik kredyty chwilówki bez opłat kredyty bankowe bibliografia odmowa umorzenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bankowy a pożyczka pieniężna konwertowanie pożyczki kod kredytowy orange jakie kredyty sa bezpieczne pozabankowe kredyt bank świecie pożyczki akcess kredyt konsolidacyjny z dodatkowa gotowka kredyt bank przejęty kredyt pozabankowy sosnowiec umowa pożyczki stawka podatku kredyt bank trzebinia kredyt bank sa biuro operacji i windykacji lublin kredyt bank kamienna prywatne pozyczki chwilowki w domu klienta łodz kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe oprocentowanie 2013 kredyt bank cennik przelewów kredyt bank w czestochowie eurolan pozyczki pożyczki gotówkowe dla pracujących za granicą pko bp lublin kredyt studencki kredyt bank mikołajki przelicznik pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki pko sa kredyt bank olawa prywatna umowa pożyczki pieniędzy

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad