kredyt bez bik raty pożyczki profi credit alior bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń pożyczki do domu kraków pożyczki pod zastaw swarzędz kredyty w santander bank najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pko umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie wzór kredyt bank żagiel tel kredyt bank polna 11 pozyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet uk umowa pożyczki od osób fizycznych pożyczki ekstra kasa pożyczki dla nowej firmy pożyczki idea bank kredyt bank bankomaty za darmo kredyt na start w fm banku kredyt bank ostatnie księgowanie pożyczki bez bik i krd radom jak dostac kredyt w uk na dom pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej torun kredyt bez bik leszno ing bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pożyczki gogolin kredyty pozabankowe slask pożyczki chwilówka na dowód szybkie pożyczki w domu klienta warszawa pożyczki do domu opole pozyczka na rok bez bik dla bezrobotnych prywatne pożyczki na procent slupsk prometeusz pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt bank rezygnacja z karty kredytowej pożyczki ebc pożyczki chwilówki bez big kredyt na mieszkanie w getin banku kredyt bez bik gdańsk kredyt bank warszawska kielce kredyt kielce kredyty konsolidacyjne wbk kredyt bank ciechanów godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe forum 2013 kredyty chwilówki świdnik wniosek o kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny w jst pożyczki kredyty pożyczki bez dochodu łódź kredyty chwilówki kondratowicza pozyczka na dom uk bank pko kredyt bankowy księgowania pożyczka tygodniowka elbląg kredyt bank susz godziny otwarcia pożyczki udzielone przez udziałowca kredyt bank nowy sacz kontakt kredyty bez bik mielec kredyt dla spółki zoo bez bik pożyczki bez bik krosno pożyczki bankowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kredyt w multibanku umowa pożyczki zwrot kredyty mieszkaniowe luty 2013 kredyt bank money kredyt bez bik samochodowy umowy pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego getin zawiesić na rok kredyt wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw samochodu pożyczki przez internet kraków udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez wkładu własnego pożyczki dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych helios pożyczki kredyty chwilówki bez opłat pożyczki bez bik sieradz pożyczki limanowa kredyt studencki bank pko bp kredyt bank platforma wymiany walut kredyt bankowy źródło finansowania kredyty dla studentów wbk mcredit oferuje pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik podatek od pożyczki kto płaci kredyt na pit bez biku getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego kredyt bank janów lubelski godziny otwarcia kredyt w anglii dla polaków forum umowa pożyczki gotówka pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania poznań kredyt bank bierz co chcesz pożyczki chwilówki zawiercie pożyczki bez rejestrów pożyczki prywatne dla osób z komornikiem kredyt bank elixir pożyczki z komornikiem pożyczki w poznaniu kredyt bez bik na juz kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla forum kredyty chwilówki nr konta santander bank pożyczka na dowód katowice kredyt mieszkaniowy w uk forum kredyt w orange pop numer pożyczki gotówkowe artykuł kredyt bank praca zarobki kredyty bez bik zaświadczeń kredyt bank olsztynek godziny otwarcia podatek od pożyczki od wspólnika umowa pożyczki finansowej bank pko sa kredyt studencki dokumenty kredyt konsolidacyjny w wbk pożyczki pod zastaw rtv warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kalkulator kredyt bank grochowska abis pożyczki kredyt bank profil ambitny pewne pożyczki prywatne kredyt chwilówka wieliczka pożyczki bez bik poznań pożyczki ekonomia społeczna umowa do pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki na 60 dni pożyczki z funduszu fundacji wspomagania wsi umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs księgowanie certus pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny na wyciąg z konta kredyt bank kalisz kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe ogłoszenia kredyty dla firm bez bik i krd kredyt bez bik podkarpacie pożyczki bez bik w brodnicy kredyt bank sa w lublinie pożyczki ślimak oddziały kredyt banku w polsce kredyt samochodowy dla bezrobotnych udziele prywatna pozyczka śląsk kredyt samochodowy dla firmy kalkulator pko bp kredyt studencki druki umowa pożyczki zawarta przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny zagiel fałszywa umowa pożyczki kredyt bank chełmno godziny otwarcia pożyczki od prywatnych ludzi gdzie uzyskac kredyt bez bik pozyczki na oswiadczenie grudziadz kredyt bez bik dla nowych firm bocian pożyczki gotówkowe legnica kredyt bank wrocławska warszawa gdzie najlepiej wziasc kredyt na oswiadczenie 2014 optima pożyczki wrocław kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko kredyt bank warszawa wąwozowa szybki kredyt bez zdolności kredytowej odsetki od pożyczki podatek u źródła pszczółka pożyczki kredyty chwilówki puławska 71 kredyt bank bilgoraj meritum bank kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki oprocentowanie porównanie kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz fordon pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów tarnów pożyczki dobre miasto kalkulator pożyczki polbank pożyczki bez bik zachodniopomorskie kredyt bank lokaty 6 5 kredyty mieszkaniowe tanie kwota pożyczki a pcc kredyt bank lubicz pozyczki online przez poczte pożyczki w bedford optima pożyczki jakie dokumenty umowa pożyczki dla udziałowca kredyt mieszkaniowy ile wkladu wlasnego pko bp kredyt studencki aneks kredyt bank platnosc karta za granica pożyczki chwilówki będzin kredyt bank działdowo pożyczki internautów umowa pożyczki między ojcem a synem pożyczki od osób prywatnych śląskie pożyczki w chf kredyt bank praca białystok nbp kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki cywilno prawna pożyczki dla emerytów bez bik pożyczki kalkulator ing bank pekao sa kredyt studencki kredyt gotówkowy eurobank kredyt bank bankomaty mielec kredyt bank 4 oddział gdańsk pożyczki dla bezrobotnych włocławek pożyczki bez bik w białej podlaskiej kredyt bank bankomaty bez opłat kredyt bank warszawa godz otwarcia kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche banku kredyt na orange jaki numer pożyczki na dowód bez bik poznań pożyczki pozabankowe provident pożyczki bez biku na oświadczenie kredyt bank łomża kontakt formularz spłaty pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne dla zadłużonych bez bik skok wybrzeże pożyczki kredyt bank królewska 55 opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank prabuty godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec blachnickiego pcc od pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki pożyczki od ludzi pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu koszalin kredyt bank rozmowa kredyty bez bik z zajęciami komorniczymi pożyczki bez biku i zaświadczeń kredyt bank polska 2012 pozyczki pozabankowe atiz krotoszyn pożyczki bez bik zus czy umowa pożyczki podlega vat pozyczka na weksel zgorzelec kredyty bez bik lomza kredyt bank założyciele pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik szybko i prosto kredyty chwilówki kraków wielopole amortyzacja pożyczki excel kredyt konsolidacyjny najtańszy pożyczki prywatne wielkopolska skarabeusz pożyczki ruda śląska kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zielona góra numery tel pozyczki gliwice szybkie pozyczki Żory bez krd kredyt bank warszawa powstańców śląskich pozyczki pozabankowe na kazdy dochod siedlce pożyczki dla pracowników księgowanie kontrakt pożyczki w prawie rzymskim kredyt bank przemyśl godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez pcc umorzenie pożyczki a koszt podatkowy pożyczki ślimak poznań alior bank kredyt w rachunku bieżącym kredyt bank gdańsk telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny na 25 lat kredyty chwilówki dla osób z komornikiem pan kowalski otrzymał kredyt w banku które banki udzielają kredytu bez bik assa pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe konin pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pod jaki numer wysyła się kredyt w orange umowa pożyczki spółce przez wspólnika jaki jest kod do kredytu w orange kredyt konsolidacyjny dla kazdego mariusz tierling poznań pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania baz udzielę pożyczki bez przedpłat przedawnienie odsetek od pożyczki pozyczki zyrafa aleksandrow lodzki pożyczki bez bik gdańsk kredyt pozabankowy słupsk pozyczki uk 24 h na dobe kredyt w postbank kredyt banku sa kredyty bez bik konstantynów pożyczki partycypacyjne umowa pożyczki umowa wzajemna najnowsze kredyty chwilówki pożyczki społecznościowe uk konwersja pożyczki na kapitał a odsetki kredyt bank powstańców wrocław kredyty bez bik i krd rybnik kredyt bank strzelce opolskie godziny otwarcia pożyczki konsolidacyjne w skok stefczyka kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank pożyczki marka kredyty bez bik lębork kredyt bank ochrony środowiska pożyczki bez bik głogów kredyt bank żagiel kontakt księgowanie pożyczki w stowarzyszeniu kredyt bank moje konto pozabankowe kredyty na mieszkanie kredyty chwilówki opinie windykacja pożyczki na oświadczenie o dochodach bez bik pożyczki online w 15 minut umowa cywilno prawna pożyczki wzór kredyty bez biku i komornika kredyty chwilówki leszno pożyczki wewnątrzgrupowe pożyczki w domu klienta lublin kredyt bank sa poznań kredyt bez bik bgż kredyt pozabankowy 20000 pożyczki duże kwoty pożyczki prywatnej udzielę kredyt chwilówka wrocław jedności narodowej pożyczki łuków pożyczki dla windykowanych zgłoszenie pożyczki recyklerów ogame zajęcie komornicze pożyczki z zfśs umowa pożyczki wikipedia monetto pożyczki umowa pożyczki pomiedzy firmami pożyczki prywatne forum i opinie pko kredyt studencki kiedy wypłata kredyt bank kasprzaka warszawa pożyczki na pesel kredyt bank druk zaświadczenia o zarobkach infolinia pożyczki pro domo kredyt bank legionowo godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w kościanie potrzebuję pożyczki pożyczki w ramach bgk santander consumer bank kredyty samochodowe kredyt orange 5 zł pożyczki pozabankowe wawa szybki kredyt konsolidacyjny przez internet kredyt bank oddzialy w krakowie kredyt bank sa w białymstoku kredyt w eurobanku na pit pożyczki a pcc credit agricole kredyt w rachunku kredyty bez bik pozabankowe pożyczki niskooprocentowane dla firm kredyt bank rybnik plac wolności księgowanie pożyczki dla pracownika odsetki od pożyczki obowiązek vat przedawnienie pożyczki pracowniczej opodatkowanie pożyczki podatkiem dochodowym marka pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bank siedlce kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób po 50 kredyt samochodowy dla rencistów kredyt na start w fm banku pożyczki na uruchomienie firmy pożyczki pozabankowe w piotrkowie trybunalskim kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank piła szybki kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń podatek pcc od pożyczki udziałowca pożyczki prywatne wągrowiec pozyczka dla zadluzonych przez łomża kredyt bank pabianice godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm zadłużonych pcc od pożyczki a koszt podatkowy kredyty mieszkaniowe symulator kredyty bankowe konto kredyt bank popularna telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż kalkulator pożyczki polbank kredyty bez bik sieradz toyota bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt na dowód kredyt bank bemowo pożyczki bez bik kutno kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli dofinansowanie kredyt mieszkaniowy tczew kredyt getin bank oprocentowanie alior bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator odsetki od pożyczki koszty uzyskania przychodu cechy pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy do spółki pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet wzory umowy pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bank warszawa v oddział biz pożyczki pożyczki głubczyce kredyt gotówkowy w bos bank kredyt studencki pko bp wniosek kredyt bankowy na działalność gospodarczą deklaracja wekslowa do pożyczki orange pop kredyt kod kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlepiej forum kredyty chwilówki wrocław kołłątaja pożyczki mieszkaniowe pko bikuś pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny oferty alior bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator kredyt bank w malborku żyrafa pożyczki opinie kredyt gotówkowy w raiffeisen bank pożyczki dla młodych kredyty niebankowe alior bank kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet forum kredyt bank lipowa 4 pożyczki profi credit kalkulator pożyczki bez bik i krd z zajęciem komorniczym podatek od pożyczki od rodziny gdzie najlepiej wziasc kredyt na oswiadczenie 2014 scarabeusz pozyczki piotrkow kredyty mieszkaniowe wcześniejsza spłata pro domo pożyczki kontakt nowe miasto lubawskie pożyczki zła historia kredytowa kredyt bank oddział kondratowicza pożyczki na umowę cywilno prawną kredyty chwilówki kamienna góra kredyt konsolidacyjny wrocław pożyczki na dowód zielona góra idea bank kredyt bezzwrotny opinie kredyty bez bik erif krd finan pożyczki do domu kredyt studencki bz wbk 2012 kalkulator wierzytelności kredytu kredyty chwilówki biznes kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach 15000 bezzwrotnej pożyczki idea bank kredyt bankowy na rachunku bieżącym kredyt dla nowych firm bez biku szybkie pożyczki firmy umowa pożyczki bankowej wzór opłaty manipulacyjne kredyt studencki pko bp symulacja kredytu na kamienice kredyty mieszkaniowe pko bp forum kredyty chwilówki windykacja praca kredyt w banku pbs kredyt studencki pko do kiedy zaświadczenia pożyczki chwilówki krosno kredyty bez bik bocian kredyt konsolidacyjny do 30 lat kredyt bank ruczaj szybkie pożyczki bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy oblicz raty wysokie pożyczki bez bik pożyczki społecznościowe bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny credit pożyczki udzielone przez polske pożyczki przez internet 30000 kredyt bank białystok kredyt bank lomza pilsudskiego kredyt bank lomianki pożyczki na lichwe preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko spłata kredyt w pekao sa forum najnowsze pożyczki chwilowki kredyt bank główny oddział kredyt konsolidacyjny czym jest pożyczki na dowód krasnystaw najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej 2014 kredyty bez bik w warszawie kredyty pozabankowe zielona góra mikro pożyczki zamiast dotacji niezgłoszona umowa pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kraków kredyt samochodowy bank śląski kredyt bank ropczyce pożyczki bez bik mogilno pożyczki 1000 zł kredyt bank w siedlcach pożyczki bocian w ostrowcu godz pracy banki udzielające pożyczki kredyt bez biku kontakt pożyczki bez bik ranking kredyt pozabankowy z tanimi odsetkami getin bank kredyt samochodowy telefon pożyczki długoterminowe w uk pozyczki bocian dla zadluzonych i w bik błyskawiczne pożyczki bez bik pożyczki bez bik pomorskie euroefekt pożyczki kredyt bank częstochowa godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator 2013 zarobki kredyt bank forum kredyt bez bik w bph pożyczki prywatne rybnik pożyczki prywatne sandomierz oprocentowanie pożyczki dla firmy kredyt bank zarobki 2011 chwilówki bez zdolności kredytowej symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki bezzwrotne dla nauczycieli kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe oprocentowanie kredyt na 15 lat odsetki karne kredyt mieszkaniowy banki kredyt pozabankowy na firmę sms365 przedłużenie pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu katowice kredyt w uk na samochod getin bank warunki udzielenia kredytu kredyt bank toruń fosa kredyt w banku online kredyt bez bik 20 000 kredyt w credit agricole opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla emerytów kredyt mieszkaniowy plus remont kredyt bank łódź zgierska pożyczki nigeryjskie cz bank pocztowy daje kredyty mdm beata burzyńska pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw dębica kredyt bank chałubińskiego gdańsk kredyt bank aktywacja listy haseł kredyt bez bik pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki z sektora pozabankowego msp pożyczki aviva pożyczki bezzwrotne na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank raport roczny 2009 dobry kredyt pozabankowy umowa pożyczki z bankiem a pcc kredyt bez bik wadowice w jakim banku wziac kredyt studencki konwersja pożyczki na kapitał a pcc kredyty w uk dla polakow wycena pożyczki od udziałowca na dzień bilansowy kredyt samochodowy ranking czerwiec 2012 kredyt bank bankomaty siedlce bocian pożyczki wałbrzych

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad