kredyty bankowe definicja kredyt konsumpcyjny w alior banku pozyczka bez wykazywania dochodów pożyczki przez internet bez biku i krd kredyt bez bik zielona gora wbk bank zachodni leszno kredyt porzyczka kredyt konsolidacyjny dla bezrobotnych pozyczka bez bik w getin banku pożyczki tomaszów maz podatek od umowy pożyczki pieniędzy 2012 pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet bez bik kredyty pozabankowe sosnowiec doradcy24 pożyczki kredyty chwilówki impreza firmowa 2013 pożyczki bocian gorzów wlkp pożyczki chwilówki bez przelewania grosza szybkie pożyczki bochnia kredyt bank poznan morawskiego idea bank pożyczki dla firm kredyt bank w brodnicy kredyty chwilówki brzeg kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank opinie pożyczki prywatne na terenie gostynia pożyczki na święta kredyt bank zgierz kontakt kredyty bez bik i zaswiadczen o zarobkach darboux pożyczki kredyt bank 2 oddział wrocław pożyczki do 3000 zł umowa pożyczki kiedy pcc pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank wniosek kredyt w koncie credit agricole pożyczki bez bik wawa pozyczki w domu klienta wloclawek kredyt w idea bank kredyt bank warszawa komisji edukacji narodowej oprocentowanie pożyczki w getin banku kredyt bez bik zgorzelec najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kredyt konsolidacyjny odstąpienie umowa pożyczki od rodziców a pcc kredyt bank jelcz laskowice kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciami komorniczymi pożyczki bez bik stalowa wola pożyczka zdunska wola bez bik do 6000 umowa pożyczki profi credit kredyt bank zgorzelec godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki sokołów podlaski pożyczki na dowód gorzów kredyt bank zablokowanie konta wonga pożyczki reklama kredyt bank owf kredyt bank oddział w toruniu bkie pozyczki domowe kraków kredyt prawo bankowe definicja postea pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa giełdowa kredyty chwilówki praca windykacja bank pko kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki prywatne krosno pożyczki ekstra kasa kredyt chwilówki toruń pożyczki na świeta pożyczki w getin banku opinie pożyczki z komornikiem pod weksel pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank windykacja kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2006 udzielenie pożyczki spółce cywilnej przez wspólnika warszawa arkadia kredyty otrzymanie pożyczki w walucie obcej pożyczki bez zaświadczeń wrocław kredyt studencki pko dyplom kredyt bank pozyczka kredyty chwilówki żary pewne pożyczki online bez biku pożyczki chwilówki pomorskie kredyt bank lukow godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z wekslem kredyt bank gorczewska 200 umowa pożyczki miedzy członkami rodziny pożyczki jelenia góra umowa pożyczki z zfśs wzór pożyczki długoterminowe bez zaświadczeń oddziały kredyt banku w białymstoku druk pcc umowa pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe prywatne kredyt walutowy deutsche bank udzielenie pożyczki udziałowcowi najkorzystniejsze pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank konta walutowe prodomo pożyczki starogard udzielenie pożyczki a podatek pcc kredyty bez bik na oswiadczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny z zadłużeniem kredyt bank rzeszów godz otwarcia szybki kredyt bez bik rzeszów kredyt na samochód a umowa na czas określony wzory umów pożyczki gotówkowej finan pożyczki do domu pozyczki udzelane w domu warszawa warunki pożyczki w skoku stefczyka kredyt kupiecki w banku lokata rentierska kredyt bank opinie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw wzór neobank pożyczka bez bik kredyt studencki banki 2012 pożyczki bez bik na umowe zlecenie pożyczki na dowód w poznaniu kredyt bank w zielonce godziny otwarcia kto udzieli pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt na mieszkanie ranking banków kredyt samochodowy alior bank forum kredyty konsolidacyjne bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach pożyczki prywatne ostrów wielkopolski kredyt bank w luboniu godziny otwarcia pożyczki niebankowe szczecin kredyty w alior bank forum umorzenie pożyczki z zfss fundusze inwestycyjne pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe lubin pozyczki szczecin na zaswiadczenie o zarobkach finan pożyczki legnica kredyt bank gdańsk ul noskowskiego godziny otwarcia pod jaki numer bierze sie kredyt w orange pożyczki barlinek pożyczki money now pożyczki dla zakładu budżetowego tarnobrzegocian pożyczki kredyt bank szuwarowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla firm pod zastaw kredyt na mieszkanie bez banku premium pożyczki spółka akcyjna kredyty bez bik i krd rybnik kredyty bez bik zielona góra kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank kalkulator koszty umowy pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny zabezpieczenie pożyczki akcess kredyty bez bik w lesznie kredyt bank sa z siedzibą w warszawie santander bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator pożyczki bez bik w warszawie kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik warszawa kredyt bank awaria systemu tanie pożyczki bez bik umowa zawarcia pożyczki kredyt bez bik na rok kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp opinie kredyt w getin noble bank opinie pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu pożyczki w domu częstochowa chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki godula bankomat kredyt bank lubin kredyty chwilówki warszawa jana pawła oddział kredyt bank warszawa mokotów kredyt konsolidacyjny znaczenie optima pożyczki konin pożyczki na weksel poznań kredyt bez bik i krd warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe częstochowa pozyczka na konto bez przelewania grosza bank pko sa kredyt samochodowy kredyty w uk po polsku kredyty mieszkaniowe knf pożyczki bez banku bez bik i krd kredyty gotówkowe bez bik wrocław kredyt bank kondratowicza 35 kredyt bank nr kontaktowy pożyczki od ręki przez internet kredyt bank katowice uniwersytecka godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw płock kredyty konsolidacyjne jakie oprocentowanie kod na kredyt 1 zł w orange kalkulator rat kredytu pożyczki oferia pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa tarchomin kredyt bank w raszynie godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator 2014 pożyczki pozabankowe 15000 santander kupuje kredyt bank 2012 kredyty bez bik od zaraz pożyczki chwilówki suwałki kredyty mieszkaniowe nowe zasady 2013 pożyczki gotówkowe dla młodych pozyczka iława na dowód bez zaświadczenia konsolidacja kredytu w wbk kredyty bez biku w rzeszowie część pożyczki państwowej puszczona w obieg kredyt konsolidacyjny na działalność gospodarczą kredyty bez bik rzeszów pożyczki białogard pożyczki gotówkowe firmy ekspert pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok piast kredyt samochodowy ranking banków kredyt w banku na oświadczenie euroloan pożyczki opinie kredyt bank w walbrzychu pożyczki śląskie pożyczki bezzwrotne z urzędu pracy konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pcc pozyczki na oswiadczenie o dochodach kredyty chwilówki będzin kredyt bank bogatynia godziny otwarcia refinansowanie pożyczki kredyt bez bik 24 kredyt bank zachodniopomorskie bank ing czynny udzielanie kredytu kredyt studencki w banku polskiej spółdzielczości pożyczki chwilówki bez bik olsztyn bankomaty kredyt banku rzeszów pożyczki gotówkowe dla emerytów kredyt studencki bzwbk 2011 kredyt pozabankowy bytom pożyczki prywatne wołomin kredyt w ikano bank kredyty konsolidacyjne forum kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik dla zadłużonych pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych online pożyczki pozabankowe opole plus cash pożyczki kredyt bank piaseczno tel pożyczki na start dla firm oferteo pożyczki kredyt bank natolin umowa pożyczki i pcc pożyczka bez bik i krd konin tel bocian pożyczki gdańsk kredyty bez bik na dowód poszukuję pożyczki prywatnej kredyt pozabankowy do 50 tys kredyt bez bik 35000 eurocent pożyczki darmowe pożyczki przez internet kredyty chwilówki bieruń pożyczki pozabankowe we wrocławiu kto daje pożyczki z komornikiem pożyczki na dowód wonga giżycko kredyt konsolidacyjny paribas kredyt bank łódź godziny otwarcia idea bank kredyt na start opinie pieniądz kredyt bankowy i cykle koniunkturalne kasa pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt bank kod iban pożyczki chwilówki brodnica pożyczki bank bgż pozyczka sms dla zadluzonych jestem w bik kredyt bank sa w ostrołęce mennica pożyczki jelenia góra zabezpieczenie pożyczki po angielsku rejestracja umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym pozyczka 15 tys przez internet kredyty w eurobanku opinie kredyt bank pulawy kredyt bank łódź piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia cash machine pożyczki obliczenie raty pożyczki gotówkowej lendon pożyczka bez bik warszawa kredyt bank sanok telefon pożyczki chwilówki zduńska wola pozyczki w domu slimak i inne bydgoszcz pożyczki z funduszu europejskiego pożyczki pozabankowe na rok wyłudzenie pożyczki provident pozyczki ostrow wlkp nie bocian gros i prowident pożyczki łatwe pożyczki bez dochodów i bik pożyczki podobne do kokos kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg pożyczki przez internet 15 minut kredyt konsolidacyjny 20 lat podatek od pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej pożyczki konsolidacyjne w skok stefczyka ewidencja otrzymanej pożyczki kredyt bez bik z poręczycielem funkcje pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zyrantow kiedy przedawnia sie kredyt w banku wniosek o kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór kredyty chwilówki bez prowizji odsetki od pożyczki a koszt uzyskania przychodu pożyczki chwilówki od zaraz pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych lublin ewidencja kredytów w banku komercyjnym abis pożyczki kontakt pożyczki chwilówki bocian kredyt bank sa kursy walut wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego optima kredyty warszawa kredyt samochodowy bez bik i big kredyt studencki pko umorzenie kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kalkulator rat umowa pożyczki miedzy firmami wzór kredyt bank oddział w sieradzu oprocentowanie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs pożyczki na dowód bez bik online pozyczki żary na dowod w jakim banku najszybciej kredyt kredyt bank w policach pożyczki dla osób z zajęciami komorniczymi umowa pożyczki udziałowca wzór pożyczki bez kosztów pożyczki warka umowa pożyczki matka córka kredyt w banku warunki udzielenie pożyczki spółce cywilnej przez wspólnika kredyt konsolidacyjny 50000 pożyczki hajnówka fundacja warty i kredyt banku razem możemy więcej krs kredyt studencki forum kredyt studencki na mieszkanie lukas bank pożyczki dla policjantów udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel pożyczki na dowód jastrzębie zdrój pożyczki społecznościowe telefon kredyty chwilówki złotoryja pozbankowa pożyczka 10000 długoterminową kredyt bank chojnice godziny otwarcia jak wziasc kredyt w orange na 5 zł kredyt na koniec dnia w banku centralnym praca dodatkowa pożyczki kredyty chwilówki spółka z oo kredyt bank bankomaty lublin fundusz mikro – pożyczki dla małych firm kredyt bank karty visa bocian pożyczki śrem praca definicja pożyczki pieniężnej pożyczki między ludźmi konwersja pożyczki na kapitał wzór dułet pożyczki rzeszów szybki kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank radzymińska godziny otwarcia wniosek o kredyt bez biku ubezpieczenie pożyczki w pekao kredyty bez bik chojnice kredyty bez bik miedzyrzecz bocian pożyczki złóż wniosek bocian pożyczki mława kredyty chwilówki szkolenie kredyt bank kontakt wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez pożyczkobiorcę kredyt dla pracujących za granica forum kredyt studencki na mieszkanie lukas bank kredyt bank myślenice kontakt umowa pożyczki podatek zwolnienie kredyt bank w elku pożyczki z komornikiem warszawa pożyczki chwilówki grodzisk mazowiecki pożyczki żuromin kredyt w credit agricole kalkulator kredyt bez biku bielsko biała kredyt chwilówki legnica przywłaszczenie pożyczki pożyczki bez bik wronki pożyczki dla małych przedsiębiorstw kredyt bank siedziba adres polecane pożyczki opinie kredyt bank godziny otwarcia wrocław wyrok umowa pożyczki kredyt bank poczta elektroniczna kredyt bank w jarocinie kredyt bankowy na oświadczenie szybkie kredyty minimum formalnosci pożyczki bez bik 10 000 oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w banku pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny w credit agricole umowa pożyczki pod zastaw pdf kredyt bank bankomat ustka pożyczki dla bezrobotnych włocławek pożyczki mysłowice kredyt konsolidacyjny jest to kredyty bez dochodow kielce kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki godziny otwarcia kredyt pozabankowy na dowód centrala kredyt banku lublin kredyty chwilówki opinie gowork kredyt bank klienci pożyczki pod zastaw dąbrowa górnicza umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą serwis finansowy dobrej pożyczki pożyczki bocian lubelskie kredyt bank kolegialna płock kredyt samochodowy fortis bank opinie kredyt bankowy przeterminowany pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik krd big kredyt bank oferta lokat kredyty i pożyczki w uk kredyt bank lokaty opinie umowa pożyczki provident pdf kredyt bank olsztynek kontakt kredyt bank decyzja kredytowa kredyt bank warszawa krucza pożyczki do 5000 zł pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy umowa pożyczki pieniędzy spłata w ratach kredyty samochodowe getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyt bank lodz piotrkowska refinansowanie pożyczki pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy dokumenty pozyczka na umowe cywilno prawna czestochowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bez bik wejherowo kredyty chwilówki na firme pożyczki gotówkowe legnica pożyczki access bocian pozyczki dla zadluzonych ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych kwiecień 2012 pko bp kredyt studencki zaświadczenie pozyczki dla polakow w anglii skarabeusz pożyczki bytom kredyt w pko sa forum kredyty bez bik dla zadłuzonych kredyt na zakup ziemi w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki na rente pożyczki chwilówki poznań głogowska kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank trójmiasto pożyczki gotówkowe gdzie najlepiej kredyt na oświadczenie w credit agricole kredyty chwilówki łódź piotrkowska pożyczki dla zadłużonych online kredyt bank w kraśniku kredyt bank kupił santander pożyczki społecznościowe inwestowanie bank bph kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla studenta 2012 kredyt konsumpcyjny bank kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw forum pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zatrudnieniu umowa pożyczki a podatek pcc najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń optima szybkie pożyczki pożyczki duże kwoty kredyt bank legnica godziny otwarcia nadpłata pożyczki ing pożyczki gotówkowe banki kredyty bez bik w lodzi umowa pożyczki w walucie santander consumer kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt bez bik w bytomiu kredyt bez bik do 50 tys kredyt gotówkowy santander kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy z komornikiem umorzenie pożyczki w wpf kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108a pożyczki pod weksel gdańsk pożyczki chwilówki będzin pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości umowa pożyczki odstąpienie getin bank kredyty bez zaswiadczen kredyt gotowkowy bez big i krd kredyt w credit agricole dokumenty mbank bankomaty kredyt bank umowa pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem jaki kredyt bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe prywatne kredyt gotówkowy bez bik dla firm pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wrocław kredyt bank nostro kredyty mieszkaniowe oblicz ratę mikropożyczki dla małych firm na czym polega kredyt prostoliczony w credit agricole umowa pożyczki od kolegi pożyczka przez internet bez bik i zaświadczeń praca w kredyty chwilówki opinie kredyt preferencyjny dla rolników bank spółdzielczy historia pożyczki pożyczki bez granic siemianowice kredyt mieszkaniowy wypowiedzenie umowy kredyty bez bik gorzów kredyt bank białystok lipowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe radomsko pożyczki w jeden dzień pożyczki pod zastaw mińsk mazowiecki bocian pożyczki jakie dokumenty pożyczki dla nauczycieli kredyt bank zamość godziny pracy kredyt bank program dla wybranych firm kredyt konsolidacyjny najlepsza oferta preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko regulamin pożyczki prometeusz olsztyn kto udzieli pożyczki bez bik pozyczki z komornikiem i windykacja szczecin umowa pożyczki wspólnika do spółki kredyty chwilówki garwolin szybkie pozyczki w domu prodomo pożyczki od osób prywatnych kielce umowa pożyczki między pracownikiem a pracodawcą kredyt bez bik jarocin kredyt bez bik zus i us kredyt w getin banku bik kredyt bank biala podlaska kredyt w banku bph pożyczki finanse kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bgż opinie

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad