provident zwrot pożyczki kredyt inwestycyjny w credit agricole kredyt bank rakowicka kraków pożyczki od osób prywatnych bez bik pożyczki udzielane przez gminy kredyt bank bankomaty zielona góra kredyt bank warta getin bank kalkulator zdolności kredytowej konwersja pożyczki na kapitał 2012 kredyt bank investor relations kredyt bank infolinia z zagranicy kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior bank pożyczki dfg kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rozwodnika umowa pożyczki wyłudzenie kredyt bank sa investor relations banki udzielające kredytu bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniędzy na raty sprzedaż kredyt banku santander korzystny kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank plac powstańców warszawy 2 wyliczenie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt bez bik na pit kredyty chwilówki partner logowanie kredyt bank pracownicy kredyty chwilówki w słupsku pożyczki lombardowe oprocentowanie pro domo toruń pożyczki szybkie pożyczki dla rolników kredyt konsolidacyjny rata kredyt bank iv oddział warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki otrzymania pożyczki chwilówki w lublinie umowa o kredyt prosty wzór usługa udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank oleśnica godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik wolny rynek kredyt bank rachunek walutowy pożyczki dla osób z zajęciem komorniczym w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt 2013 kredyt bank karta concerto formularz pożyczki bank pekao sa departament kredytów trudnych kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp forum kredyt bank lokata 10 w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt inwestycyjny pożyczki bez granic siemianowice pożyczki bez formalności kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp pożyczki bez bik chorzów kredyt bank lublin tomasza zana druk umowy pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank luboń telefon kredyt bez biku 50000 kredyt bank otwock karczewska wycena nieruchomości w kredyt banku kredyt bez bik oświęcim kredyt bez bik w koninie kredyty banku pocztowego szukam pożyczki prywatnej 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny na budowe domu cesja umowy pożyczki a pcc kredyty chwilówki malbork pożyczki bocian lublin adres i nr tel kredyt bank sprzedaż dewiz spłata pożyczki pismo kredyt z komornikiem prywatny inwestor pożyczki pod zastaw mosina kredyt bank zmienia nazwe umowa pożyczki pomiędzy rodzeństwem odpowiedzialność poręczyciela pożyczki kredyty pod zastaw mieszkania lubań pożyczki ostrołęka szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach kredyt bank warszawa al krakowska kredyt banku centralnego pożyczki internetowe pierwsza za darmo kredyt bank w tomaszowie mazowieckim pożyczki gdynia kredyt bank raporty bieżące kredyt bank ubezpieczenie mieszkania pożyczki pozabankowe we włocławku pkf skarbiec tanie pożyczki dla ciebie ing bank śląski kredyt samochodowy kredyt konsolidacyjny w ge money bank kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp bocian pożyczki grodzisk wlkp wierzyciel pozyczki bez bik kredyt bez historii bik kredyty internetowe bez bik kredyt bank sa lokaty kredyt w alior banku kalkulator umowa pożyczki w walucie obcej a pcc umowa pożyczki wzór gofin pożyczki bez bik do 20000 pożyczki chwilówki bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt 15000 w jakim banku kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bank kredyt bank lipno getin noble bank kredyt na samochod kredyty chwilówki białystok lipowa 45 kronos pożyczki kraków kredyt bank niepołomice pożyczki ze środków obrotowych pożyczki na oświadczenie poznań pożyczki chwilówki uk kredyt bank warszawa infolinia kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż opinie kredyt bank jelenia góra godziny otwarcia pożyczki bankowe oprocentowanie kredyt w banku za granica kredyt bankowy na rozpoczecie dzialalnosci gospodarczej kredyt orange 5 zl kredyt konsolidacyjny firma kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole opinie optima pożyczki leszno potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki pożyczki dla młodych małżeństw pożyczki chwilówki piotrków trybunalski udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę udziałowcowi pożyczki całodobowe kraków pożyczki udzielane przez gminy kredyt bankowy i jego cechy kredyt na mieszkanie bank spółdzielczy kredyt mieszkaniowy podczas rozwodu kredyt bez bik elbląg pożyczki pod weksel śląsk pożyczki bez bik chwilówki kredyt bank w polkowicach kredyt bank sa jelenia góra kompensata pożyczki z należnościami kredyt bank warszawa abrahama umowa pożyczki wzór przelew kredyt bank wykupiony czy umowa pożyczki podlega opodatkowaniu kredyt bank godziny otwarcia pewne pożyczki prywatne pożyczki dla firm z sektora pozabankowego kredyt bank wroclaw gliniana pożyczki prywatne pomorskie kredyty mieszkaniowe wiek bocian pożyczki włocławek pożyczki bez zaświadczeń online kredyt bank gdańsk grunwaldzka godziny otwarcia pożyczki dukat szukam pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt bank mokotowska 49 warszawa gdzie dostane kredyt bez biku oprocentowanie pożyczki lombardowej kredyt konsolidacyjny czy warto forum kredyt bank sa warszawa centrala dorota król pożyczki kredyt bank regulamin ekstrakonto kredyt bank mielec kontakt kredyt bank zory godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe w gorzowie wlkp pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank ogólne warunki kredytowania kredyty chwilówki żory ogloszenia prywatnych pozyczek zywiec ewidencja księgowa umowy pożyczki umowa pożyczki druk do pobrania bocian pożyczki bez zaświadczeń oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego dla firm pożyczki w domu klienta żnin lukas bank kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego kredyt bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator kredytowy kredyt gotówkowy pko bp rzeszów pożyczki prywatne pożyczki pozabankowe w kaliszu kredyt bank światowida pożyczki bez krd olsztyn kredyt bank w pszowie pożyczki bez biku wieluń kredyty gotówkowe bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki sms bez bik opinie pożyczki na dowód krasnystaw bank pekao sa ubezpieczenie kredytu pożyczki dla urzędników kredyt konsolidacyjny we frankach szwajcarskich pożyczki unia europejska kredyt bank legionowo kontakt auto kredyt bez biku kredyty chwilówki opinie gowork kredyty chwilówki oleśnica kredyt bank dluga kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin bank pożyczki dla początkujących firm kredyty bez biku w rzeszowie kredyt samochodowy w santander consumer księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki z wfośigw kredyty bankowe gdzie w bilansie kredyt bank sa oddział w sieradzu decyzja kredytowa w kredyt banku kredyt bank poznan godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik pożyczki chwilówki zestawienie kredyt bez biku tychy pożyczki na dowód kościerzyna kredyt gotówkowy ranking banków wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przed terminem kredyty chwilówki płock opinie kredyt w banku dla zadłużonych kredyt banki tarnów kredyty w banku millenium renta wojskowa a kredyt gotówkowy pko bp gdzie szybki kredyt bez bik konsekwencje podatkowe pożyczki kredyt w banku lloyds kredyt odnawialny w credit agricole kredyt gotówkowy bez biku i zaświadczeń oprocentowanie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca kredyt chwilówki wałbrzych lokata z premią kredyt bank opinie kredyty chwilówki białystok lipowa 45 kredyt bank głogów godziny otwarcia żyrafa pożyczki logowanie pożyczki pod zastaw działki budowlanej kredyt chwilówki kalkulator kredyty bez bik konin kredyt mieszkaniowy w ktorym banku najkorzystniej kredyt bank jachowicza płock pożyczki dla odrzuconych przez bank kredyt bank gdynia świętojańska godziny otwarcia pożyczki do 100 zł gdzie szybki kredyt bez bik kronos pożyczki warszawa umowa pożyczki kto płaci podatek pożyczki prywatne pod weksel warszawa kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania wrocław kredyt bank racibórz telefon uczciwe pożyczki pozabankowe forum pożyczki nordea kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator ing pożyczki bez bik sopot pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kielce kredyt bank kraków kapelanka kontakt pożyczki chwilówki promocje kredyt bank wschowa pożyczki 3000 zł pozyczka bez zdolnosci kredytowej pożyczki z ratami tygodniowymi kredyty chwilówki we wrześni quick cash pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe oświęcim kredyt bank starogard gdański tel bank zachodni kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank czeladź skarabeusz pożyczki bełchatów kredyt bank olsztyn kontakt prestige pozyczki czestochowa kredyt konsolidacyjny bankier kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche banku opinie kredyt w banku pekao sa kredyty pozabankowe i prywatne firmy splacajace pozyczki niebankowe jastrzebie zdroj oświadczenie o umorzeniu pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku millennium kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i zabezpieczeń kredyty chwilowki klobuck kredyt bank pensja pożyczki na rok przez internet trusty pożyczki kredyt bankowy jako źródło finansowania msp kredyt w bilansie banku kredyt bank warszawa ostrobramska odsetki od pożyczki różnice kursowe kredyt bank warszawa abrahama 18 umowa pożyczki wraz z poręczeniem kredyt bank jasło kredyt bez bik w 5 minut tanie pożyczki bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kalkulator kredyt bank przez internet kredyt chwilówka uk kto daje pożyczki z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny do jakiego wieku pan stanisław wziął kredyt w banku kredyty konsolidacyjne uk pożyczki pod zastaw gorlice kredyty dla nowych firm bez bik kredyt bank warecka warszawa umowa pożyczki między vatowcami kredyt gotowkowy chwilowka tczew druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pożyczki do domu piła kredyt bank oplata za prowadzenie konta firma pro domo łomż pożyczki kredyt bankowy pasywa kredyt bank swift adres kredyt na auto bez biku kredyt bank międzyrzec kredyt bank gostyń wlkp adler pożyczki kredyt bank walcz umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw samochodu pozyczka od reki na dowod plock pożyczki na dowód przasnysz kredyt bank wniosek o zamknięcie konta kredyt bank poznań kontakt alior bank kredyt obrotowy pożyczki chwilówki tablica kredyt bank w zielonce plus kasa pożyczki kredyt bank radzymin kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku slaskim pozyczk tygodniowki elbląg lombard pożyczki pod zastaw poznań kredyty santander consumer bank pismo o umorzenie kredytu z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank produkty kredyt studencki oprocentowanie 2011 pożyczki chwilówki w pile kredyt bank regon jaki jest kod na kredyt do orange umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie formularz spłaty pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw gniezno kredyt studencki warunki 2012 provident pożyczki dla firm umowa pożyczki co musi zawierać opodatkowanie otrzymanej pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki tygodniowki elbląg kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim forum kredyt konsolidacyjny na co uważać pożyczki prywatne tablica pożyczki od prywatnych inwestorów pod weksel kredyt bankowy warunki kredyt dla firm w mbanku konsolidacja zabezpieczona pożyczki pozabankowe typu provident pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kraków dialog pożyczki kredyt bank gdańsk telefon kredyt studencki jakie jest oprocentowanie kredyt bank wołomin praca pożyczki pozabankowe rumia odsetki od pożyczki kalkulator gofin kredyty konsolidacyjne na oświadczenie kredyty chwilówki warszawa puławska szybkie pożyczki bez bik elbląg pożyczki chwilówki zielona góra mbank pożyczki dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kalkulator pożyczki ze złą historią w biku kredyt bank przewalutowanie office pożyczki kredyt bez bik na zakup samochodu kredyt bank bankomaty zielona góra pożyczki przez internet lista firm szybkie pożyczki bez bik forum umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi pożyczki w domu klienta dzierżoniów kredyty chwilówki bocian kredyt studencki na mieszkanie opinie wniosek o kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp pożyczki chwilówki długoterminowe kredyt z banku rozwoju rady europy pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych bydgoszcz kredyt bank placenie karta za granica pożyczki poznań gumtree pożyczki w domu klienta dzierżoniów umowa pożyczki oprocentowanej kredyt bank rawa mazowiecka godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik oświęcim pożyczki na sfinansowanie kosztów szkolenia kredyt w ktorym banku kredyt bank piaseczno tel pożyczki całkowicie przez internet picasso pożyczki najnowsze pożyczki bez bik i krd wyludzenie pozyczki ekspresowej pozyczka z pracy przedawnienie pożyczki udziałowców dla spółki rozdzielność majątkowa a kredyt w banku księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki kredyt bankowy a śmierć kredytobiorcy kredyt w getin banku bez bik kruk pożyczki opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce praca za granica kredyt bank nowa nazwa kredyt bez biku w stalowej woli kredyty bez bik skarzysko pcc od pożyczki a koszt podatkowy pożyczki bez bik opole korzystne pożyczki pozyczki chwilowki pozabankowa pszczyna tubielewicz pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne kielce kredyt konsolidacyjny dla polakow w uk prometeusz pożyczki kielce kalkulator pożyczki lukas bank kredyt bank warszawa wilanów odsetki od pożyczki gofin kredyt konsolidacyjny dla nowych firm pożyczki bez bik big pożyczki pozabankowe świnoujście kredyt bank wielkokacka pozyczki bez konta kredyt bank grupa pożyczki społecznościowe kraków aconto pożyczki pożyczki prywatne rybnik pożyczki łódź opinie kredyt bank gdańsk grunwaldzka godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik i krd forum kredyty pozabankowe dlugoterminowe pożyczki na dowód szybko kredyt technologiczny banki kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku kalkulator globals pożyczki umowa pożyczki do spółki z oo umowa pożyczki na przelew kredyt samochodowy bez bik na firme kredyt bank giżycko tel pożyczki novum kruk s a ogłoszenia pożyczki prywatne pod weksel pożyczki prywatne pod weksel rzeszów kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób samotnych pozyczka online w niedziele kredyt samochodowy dla pracujących za granicą kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank kredyt bank włocławek promienna kredyt bank wsparcie techniczne pożyczki bez bik w toruniu kredyt bank wrzeszcz pożyczki na dowód słupsk kredyty chwilówki bez krd kredyt bank limit przelewu umowa pożyczki firmie orange kod kredyt kredyt bank kontakt białystok kredyt konsolidacyjny w instytucjach pozabankowych lokaty w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny get in bank kredyty chwilówki pośrednictwo umowa pożyczki z rodzicami warunki uzyskania kredytu w getin banku umowa pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie kredyt bank starachowice godziny otwarcia kredyty gotówkowe bez bik rzeszów w ktorym banku brac kredyt kredyty chwilówki uwaga jak wziąć kredyt bez biku pożyczki ratalne online kredyt bank certyfikaty inwestycyjne kredyt bez bik na start pożyczki chwilówki ostrowiec pożyczki chwilówki gliwice kredyt w uk na firme pożyczki na zakup towaru umowa pożyczki dla spółki od wspólnika wzór pożyczki pod zastaw bielsko kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank kalkulator umowa pożyczki a podatek dochodowy gros pożyczki inowrocław kredyt samochodowy w alior banku pożyczki tlf kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie kalkulator pożyczki w banku ing pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik bydgoszcz my banq pożyczki umowa udzielenia pożyczki pieniężnej pozyczka z up dla pracujacych pozyczki pozabankowe mieszkaniowe bez zaswiadczen pozyczki na procent pila kredyt bank złotów umowa pożyczki pieniędzy bez odsetek bocian pożyczki chojnice spłata pożyczki proz kredyty pozyczki bez biku kredyt bank gdańsk godziny otwarcia sobota kredyt mieszkaniowy jaka pensja pf kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki wolna od podatku kredyt pozabankowy dla zadłużonych kredyt mieszkaniowy harmonogram spłat potrącanie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia pożyczki od osób prywatnych nowy dwór mazowiecki kredyt bez bik 40000 kredyt bank warszawa ul popularna kredyt bank warszawa ciołka 10 kredyt bank płock kredyt bank ciechanów telefon pożyczki chwilówki przez internet opinie chwilówki bez zdolności kredytowej kiedy kredyt bankowy jest przedawniony kredyty bez bik gdansk marka pożyczki praca prywatny kredyt na dowod bez dochody online pozyczka dla mlodych bez bik kredyt bank reda bocian pożyczki bełchatów pożyczki panorama firm banki kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki bez bik nowości kredyty chwilówki dąbrowa górnicza bilans pożyczki udzielone kredyt bank lokata negocjowana

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad