capital pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki od znajomych prywatne pozyczki na procent dublin w ktorym banku najtanszy kredyt kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik i krd finan pożyczki kłodzko wzór wniosku o umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej monetia pożyczki pozyczka sms dla zadluzonych jestem w bik tempo finanse pożyczki opinie oddzialy kredyt banku w warszawie axcess financial pożyczki umowa pożyczki między vatowcami kredyt bank ełk słowackiego konto księgowe pożyczki pożyczki online bez bik zaświadczeń mikropożyczki lubuskie pożyczki społecznościowe abis umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej byłemu pracownikowi pożyczki prometeusz bocian skarabeusz provident kredyt bez bik do 60000 kredyt bank bogatynia kontakt kredyty mieszkaniowe we frankach szwajcarskich kredyty bez bik wierzyciel umowa pożyczki a podatek vat pożyczki bez wykazywania dochodu bank pko bp oferty kredytów kredyt samochodowy kalkulator bank kredyt bankowy a pożyczka pieniężna pożyczki z windykacją kredyt bank radosc pan kowalski zaciagnal kredyt w banku w wysokosci 40000 pozyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania bik i krd kredyty bez biku świdnica umowa pożyczki druk darmowy kredyty chwilówki inwestor pożyczki gdzie najtaniej kredyty chwilówki lubliniec bezzwrotne pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych kredyt gotówkowy w santander bank opinie pożyczki z komornikiem chorzów cel pożyczki pozyczka dla mlodych bez bik alior bank kredyt dla rolników skarabeusz pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank sa legnica umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi zus kredyt mieszkaniowy walutowy kalkulator kredyt w banku szwajcarskim kredyt bez bik konsolidacja ranking pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank produkty strukturyzowane kredyt bank opole krakowska godziny otwarcia forum pożyczki chwilówki umowa pożyczki a pcc getin noble bank kredyt dla firm kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank kredyt bank wzór zaświadczenia kredyt bank jelenia góra wolności pożyczki od osób prywatnych warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny multibank kalkulator meritum bank kredyty online opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki 2012 kredyt na otwarcie firmy bez bik oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej w pko sa pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi rolnej kredyt bank rakowicka godziny otwarcia jak wziasc kredyt w orange na 5 zl kredyt na wyciag bankowy kredyt w banku najniższe oprocentowanie kredyt bank inowrocław kredyt w banku dla zadłużonych pożyczki na pierwszy biznes kredyt bank niskie oprocentowanie kredyty bank wbk wałbrzych pozyczki przy umowie kredyt bank warszawa centrala kredyt konsolidacyjny a krd umowa pożyczki wibor w jakim banku macie kredyt pożyczki w domu klienta pożyczki na dowód krasnystaw kredyty chwilówki spółka z oo pozyczki z komornikiem krd bik lublin 2014 forum kredyt bank koscierzyna kredyt studencki bzwbk 2011 pożyczka zdunska wola bez bik do 6000 pożyczki na dowód kontakt kredyt bez bik na samochód kredyt bank oddział warszawa kasprzaka pożyczki bez bik jarocin kredyt w alior banku oprocentowanie pożyczki lublin kredyt bank sa oddziały pożyczki bez bik us i zus eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pożyczki chwilówki windykacja pożyczki dla mikro i małych firm wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki kodeks cywilny kurs euro wg kredyt bank sa pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach na dowód kredyt bank jasło godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe udzielane w domu kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kredytowa kalkulator kredyt studencki spłata forum pożyczki prywatne w bogatyni oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku jak liczyć kredyt w banku na biznes pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez bik kredyty chwilówki giszowiec kredyt dla firm bez bik zielona góra pożyczki chwilówki online nowe kredyt w allianz bank kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank kredyt bank 2001 udzielanie pożyczki kredyt bankowy chomikuj szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe online kredyt gotówkowy bez bik szczecin kredyt bank wyciągi kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kredyt bank kozienice pokl pożyczki kredyt samochodowy w banku millenium kredyty chwilówki przemyśl pko bank polski wniosek o kredyt studencki pożyczki opolskie pożyczki długoterminowe w bilansie polecane pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank altus kredyt bankowy to aktywa czy pasywa umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki przychód santander bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt kredyty pozabankowe z bik pożyczki chwilówki online getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy jastrzębie zdrój cetelem bank kredyt przez internet kredyt bank warszawa ul różana umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór kredyt samochodowy dla firm oprocentowanie kredyty chwilówki w warszawie kredyt w banku pko sa forum pożyczki tak to pożyczki pod zastaw wszystkiego pozyczki dla mlodych prywatne bialystok kredyt bank zabrze kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator eurobank kredyt alior bank pan kowalski zaciagnal kredyt w banku w wysokosci 40000 optima pożyczki online kredyt bank olsztyn aura kredyt chwilówka jastrzębie zdrój umowa pożyczki według kodeksu cywilnego kredyt bank warszawska kielce pożyczki pozabankowe do 20000 na jaki numer kredyt orange nowe pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w poznaniu pożyczki profi credit opinie kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus forum kod na kredyt w sieci orange pożyczki bez bik w kielcach umowa pożyczki fiskus kredyt bankowy jest kredyt bank warszawa godziny otwarcia sobota kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej getin bank pracownik pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki bez komornika i biku na dowód w szczecinie kredyt bank przejęty umowa udzielenia pożyczki pieniężnej umowa pożyczki bez potwierdzenia odbioru kwoty pożyczki bez dochodów kielce pożyczki w domu łódź kredyt bank bic code pożyczki anonse kredyty chwilówki na spłatę komornika kredyt bank w aleksandrowie kujawskim pożyczki społecznościowe dla zadłużonych ewidencja odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bank polski ile można wziąć pożyczki na dowód kredyt chwilówka 2000 pożyczki rybnik pożyczki pieniężne poza systemem bankowym wzór umowy pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia czy można umorzyć pożyczkę cywilną pożyczki pozabankowe piła kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik jaka deklaracja od umowy pożyczki pożyczki bocian cieszyn numer kredyty chwilówki bez prowizji skarabeusz pozyczka do jakiej kwoty kredyt chwilówka bocian na jaki numer kredyt orange kredyt na samochód w getin banku opinie pożyczki stefczyka bożena molenda wniosek o udzielenie kredytu studenckiego pekao sa umorzenie pożyczki powodziowej marr pożyczki dla firm kredyt orange 2zl pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości śląskie pozyczka bez bik kraków nh pożyczki na dowód przez internet pożyczki bgż kredyt gotówkowy bez bik na dowód kredyt konsolidacyjny millennium bank umowa pożyczki poręczyciel bocian pożyczki kielce forum bezzwrotne pożyczki z up kredyty na oświadczenie bez bik w jakim banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt samochodowy umowy pożyczki wzór praktyka w kredyt banku opinie kredyty bez bik łódź odmowa udzielenia pożyczki pożyczki argentyńskie pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa gumtree kronos pożyczki tychy kontakt pcc od umowy pożyczki a vat pożyczki międzychód umowa pożyczki osobie prywatnej oprocentowanie rynkowe pożyczki kompensata odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bank otwock andriollego pożyczki bez bik w siedlcach kredyt studencki pko zaświadczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik białystok przelew w kredyt banku kredyt bez bik zachodniopomorskie wzór umowy pożyczki w skok stefczyka kredyt bez bik sanok oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej w pko sa kredyt pozyczka bez biku kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy kredyty chwilówki jak założyć pozyczki na doeod bez biku na dowod telefon zary kredyt bank lublin jutrzenki godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki pomysł na biznes wycena bilansowa pożyczki w walucie kredyt bank wpłaty gotówkowe kredyt praca licencjacka kredyt 150tys bez bik mariusz lipiński pożyczki bankomaty euronet pozyczka pożyczki na dowód konin kredyt bank w białej podlaskiej pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez bik odpracowanie pożyczki kredyt bank w stargardzie szczecińskim pożyczki społecznościowe wrocław umowa pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank w uk kredyt bank złodzieje pożyczki społecznościowe zopa pożyczki pozabankowa kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową dla singli pożyczki na dowód braniewo kredyt bank warszawa ul kasprzaka kredyt bank oddział w zamościu kredyt bank home banking pożyczki bocian szczecinek kredyt bank fundacja warty kredyt samochodowy w fiat bank pożyczki pierwsza za darmo kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowy kredyt bank centrum bankowości korporacyjnej wrocław kredyt bankowy pdf chomikuj kredyt bank dom maklerski kredyt bank sa w warszawie kredyt bank w suszu pożyczki novum kruk s a kredyt w którym banku kredyt bank w konstantynowie pożyczki bez bik inowrocław formularz pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank wawelska najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking kredyt bez bik kalisz pozyczki z dowozem do domu bez zaswiadczen warszawa nowe pozyczki udzielane w domu lublin pożyczki pozabankowe rybnik pożyczki z funduszu pracy dla bezrobotnych kredyt w ulster bank ie wzory umowy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt chwilowka bydgoszcz ul gdanska kredyt konsolidacyjny bank preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko forum kredyt dla zor w banku pocztowym pozyczki bez umowy o prace na dowod kredyt bank krs kalkulator zdolności kredytowej 2012 kredyt gotówkowy bankowy kredyt samochodowy pożyczki publiczne w jakim banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt samochodowy umorzenie pożyczki w walucie obcej kredyt bank plac solny kredyt studencki pko ile kredyt bank spółka akcyjna z siedzibą w warszawie kredyt bank opole sosnkowskiego godziny otwarcia lista firm pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą pożyczki lidzbark warmiński kredyt bank sa rzeszów kredyt studencki pko umowa pożyczki dla zadłużonych kielce kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki eurobank kredyt pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości białystok umowa pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych idea bank kredyt obrotowy oprocentowanie kredyt bank łuków kontakt getin bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie kredyt bank sa inowrocław polska pozyczka dla bedacych w uk umowa pożyczki wymagania dobre pożyczki alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny forum pożyczki pod zastaw kęty kredyt bank iban bic global pożyczki bydgoszcz vivus pożyczki rejestracja umowa pożyczki między matką a synem pożyczki na dowód bochnia bocian pożyczki opinie pracowników najnowsze pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit 2013 adres kredyt bank warszawa pro domo kredyty bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki provident wzór pożyczki pozabankowe grudziądz kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlepiej forum kredyt bank kosztorys i harmonogram prac budowlanych kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie pożyczki pod zastaw głogów pożyczki domówki kraków kredyty dla firm bez biku wycena pożyczki w walucie prywatne pożyczki pod weksel katowice pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny zwrot ubezpieczenia kredyt bank nowa europa notowania kredyt samochodowy bank pekao sa optima pożyczki koszalin bocian pożyczki numer tel kredyt bez bik pod weksel kredyt bank konstancin godziny otwarcia kredyt bank rachunek spłat kredyty prawo bankowe pożyczki bez bik bełchatów kredyt bank piła sikorskiego potrącenia pożyczki mieszkaniowej getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik krd pożyczki bez bik online kredyt samochodowy oprocentowanie forum kredyt pod zastaw auta bez bik wierzyciel pożyczki forum kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście kredyt samochodowy bez sprawdzania w bik prywatne pożyczki na procent slupsk kredyt chwilówka opole pożyczki ferratum umowa pożyczki bez terminu spłaty kredyt alior bank pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bocian pożyczki żywiec pożyczki chwilówki na dowód forum kredyt bank wcześniejsza spłata kredytu kredyt bez bik 3 tyś stewczyk w słupsk pozyczka na dowód oprocentowanie pożyczki dla firm bocian pozyczki zywiec kontakt kredyty bez bik gorzów wlkp kredyt bank s a centrala kontakt kredyt bankowy i jego funkcje pożyczki konsumenckie kredyt bez biku żywiec kredyt bank lodz ketlinga bocian pożyczki zarobki kredyt bank plac zbawiciela warszawa kredyt bank wizja lokalna kredyt bez bik lublin pożyczka kredyt mieszkaniowy oplaty kredyty bez biku łódź kredyt bank reklama mafia kalkulator kredytowy kredyt gotówkowy pko bp umowa pożyczki na zabezpieczenie bez bankowe pozyczki bydgoszcz 20000zl pożyczki pozabankowe kościerzyna pożyczki pod zastaw gryfice pożyczki prywatnie wrocław pożyczki chwilówki wrocław kredyty chwilówki rekrutacja koszt ubezpieczenia pożyczki wycena pożyczki od udziałowca na dzień bilansowy pożyczki mokotowska kredyt bank fiz umowa pożyczki od osoby fizycznej alegratka pożyczki oddziały kredyt banku w polsce nowe pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bocian pożyczki lublin kredyt bank tomaszów mazowiecki telefon kredyt bank windykacja nr telefonu zabezpieczenie pożyczki wfośigw przedawnienie pożyczki gotówkowej cesja wierzytelności pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa chełmska 9 pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych lublin kredyt bez bik myszkow kredyty chwilówki czy sprawdzają bik banki udzielajace kredytu wspolnotom kredyty pozabankowe ruda śląska kredyt gotówkowy w banku bph pożyczki w domu wałbrzych umowa pożyczki do spółki wzór wymagania kredytowe barclays pożyczki bez bik dla rolników umowa pożyczki notariusz cena kredyt bank grudziądz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank numer konta kredyt bank łuków telefon kredyt bez bik getin bank pożyczki na rok pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen przez internet bocian pożyczki przemyśl kredyt bank wychodzące kredyt bank oprocentowanie ror kredyty chwilówki pit kredyt bank strzegomska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank pierwsze logowanie czy odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem optima pożyczki malbork kredyt bank olsztyn wojska polskiego kontakt nowe miasto lubawskie pożyczka na dowód umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a urząd skarbowy prywatne pożyczki kościan kredyt bank sa lublin żagiel kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli pko bp kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaswiadczen umowa pożyczki pcc zwolnienie kredyty mieszkaniowe 2010 vivus pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank iii oddział warszawa kredyt gotowkowy bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczki proszowice kredyt bank godziny otwarcia rumia kredyt bank częstochowa adres szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez prowizji pożyczki gotówkowe vivus kredyt bank bialystok kredyty chwilówki suwałki kredyt bank wyrobienie nowej karty uzasadnienie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp oprocentowanie kredyt bank gdańsk kołobrzeska pożyczki dla policjantów alior bank pozyczka jaki procent kredyt bank ustka transakcja pożyczki równoległej pożyczki bez bik big krd w jakim banku można wziąć kredyt studencki płock pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank łódź piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank walcz kredyt bank tygrysy europy szybkie kredyty przez internet bez bik kredyt bank w wbk bartuś pożyczki rumia kredyt bez biku na samochod kredyt bank w grodzisku maz tanie pożyczki gotówkowe opinie kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i zaświadczeń ogłoszenia pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki dla nowo otwartych firm kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej mbank pozyczkh chwilowki lodz w domu kliemta preferencyjne pożyczki dla firm pożyczki online bez bik i big umowa pożyczki formularz pcc pożyczki dla firm pozabankowe kredyty bez bik chorzów pożyczki rodzina na swoim pożyczki udzielane z budżetu państwa kredyt bank logo pko bp rzeszów kredyt studencki pożyczki prywatne w domu klienta dobry kredyt bez biku szybkie pożyczki ełk rafał kuryłowicz pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank kosiarzy kredyt bank token zmiana telefonu kredyt w banku pocztowym dla policjantów kredyt studencki wbk warunki kredyt taki jak provident kredyt bank radom ul żeromskiego pożyczki opole umowa pożyczki na czas nieokreślony wzór

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad