karencja w spłacie pożyczki co to jest pozyczkipod zastaw auta minsk maz kredyt bank lublin t zana pożyczki 4000 kredyt prostoliczony credit agricole kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki nowy sącz abis pożyczki telefon kredyt bank busko zdrój godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe leszno mikropożyczki z ue skarabeusz pożyczki opole kredyty bez bik erif krd kredyt bank w piasecznie umowa o kredyt wypełniony wzór kredyt bankowy chomikuj pozyczki prywatne kielce kredyt samochodowy w mbanku forum kredyt bank wojska polskiego szczecin pozyczki z dowozem do domu bez zaswiadczen warszawa oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp pożyczki chwilówki radomsko kredyt w banku jakie dokumenty pożyczki na dowód gdynia udzielę pożyczki pod weksel 2012 pozyczki bez baz gdansk pożyczki pozabankowe brodnica kredyt bank oddział konstancin pożyczki pozabankowe 2000 kredyt dla zadluzonych milleniumbank kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank opinie kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole opinie kredyt bank wolska pożyczki do domu płock uzyczę pożyczki na procent bocian pożyczki iława kredyt bez biku dla firmy pożyczki od ręki bez bik kredyt bank oddział łódź kościuszki umowa pożyczki oświadczenie o poddaniu się egzekucji gdzie mozna uzyskac kredyt bez bik kredyt w niemczech w jakim banku pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi rolnej kredyt bank chełm tel pożyczki porównywarka kredyt konsolidacyjny a gotówkowy pożyczki chwilówki na raty pożyczki chwilówki za darmo wzór na obliczanie rat pożyczki kredyt studencki pko na rok kredyt bankowy na działalność gospodarczą pożyczki bez bik nysa kredyt bank wypłata gotówki za granicą rozwiązanie umowy pożyczki wzór pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt samochodowy bez bik rzeszów kredyty dla zadłużonych w uk pożyczka chwilówka konin kredyt bank sa email tanie kredyty gotówkowe pozabankowe kredyt bez bik i krd bolesławiec pożyczki ekspresowe przez internet pożyczki chwilówki płock kredyt 15tys bph kredyt bank grudziądz kontakt kredyt pozabankowy naczym polega pożyczki bez bik skarbiec kredyt bank iii oddział poznań kredyt bez bik na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank tomaszów maz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w sokołowie podlaskim pożyczki kwota wolna od podatku kredyt bank grybów jak wziąć kredyt w orange 5 zł kredyt samochodowy bez bik na oświadczenie pożyczki bez bik warszawa wzór umowy pożyczki dla syna małe pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatów bez prowizji kredyt w niemczech w jakim banku kredyt bank w krotoszynie kredyty banków komercyjnych kredyt bank godziny księgowania kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatów za granicą pożyczka kielce online bank światowy pożyczki dla polski kredyt bank sa katowice kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlatwiej dostac kredyt bankowy a pożyczka pieniężna pożyczki lublin kredyty premium pożyczki opinie umowa pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp lokata strukturyzowana kredyt bank opinie kredyt dla nowych firm bez bik kredyt chwilowka pruszcz gdanski pozyczka onlaine 24 godziny z bik umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank w rawie mazowieckiej kredyt bank sanok szopena pożyczki gotówkowe świdnica pożyczki od inwestorów kredyt bank bezprowizyjne bankomaty pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt bank wałbrzych piaskowa góra pożyczki bez bik warszawa pożyczki chwilówki na dowód białystok pożyczki pozabankowe w koszalinie kredyt samochodowy w credit agricole bocian pożyczki krosno pożyczki bez dochodów i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny bez dochodów kredyt bank wieliczka telefon kredyt konsumencki banki policyjne pożyczki pożyczki bez bik łuków opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej kredyt bez bik kłodzko ewidencja księgowa pożyczki od udziałowca pozyczki prywatne pod weksel zory i okolice kredyt lombardowy w banku kredyty bez bik bytom kapitalizacja odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bank ożarów reklama pożyczki piosenka kredyt konsolidacyjny opłaca się kredyty chwilówki ząbkowice śląskie provident symulacja pożyczki obliczanie procentów pożyczki pożyczki prywatne katowice kredyt bank grojec pożyczki chwilówki bez odsetek kredyt bank warszawa ul żeromskiego pozyczki na procent dublin kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie porównanie pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk podwale kredyt bank police kredyt bank żwirki i wigury opole kredyt odnawialny w banku pekao sa kredyt bank biskupiec bank pko bp kredyt samochodowy szybkie pozyczki Żory bez krd warunki przyznania kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat pko konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pcc kredyt bank aukcje eden pozyczki zielona gora pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie pożyczki w czechach umowa pożyczki wzory w jakim banku kredyt na otwarcie firmy pożyczki prywatne oszuści kredyt bank kraków oddziały pożyczki na dowód krasnystaw oferta pożyczki pko bp umowa pożyczki podatek 2012 kredyt bank hasło pożyczki dla pracujących na czarno przedawnienie roszczeń z umowy pożyczki bankowej szukam szybkiej pożyczki umowa na czas określony kredyt mieszkaniowy forum kredyt studencki pko do kiedy zaświadczenie wzór umowy pożyczki od brata tylko dobre kredyty bez biku prywatne pozyczki na weksel kredyt bez umowy o prace bez bik kredyt orange kod alior bank kredyt gotówkowy ubezpieczenie kredyty bez bik i krd tychy umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs zmarłemu pracownikowi pożyczki na dowód szybko kredyt na otwarcie firmy bez bik kredyt bank ken 57 kredyty chwilówki tarnów kredyt mieszkaniowy prowizja banku umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z zastawem wzór kredyt bank godziny otwarcia łódź pożyczki bez bik w zduńskiej woli pożyczki na dowód żywiec pożyczki gotówkowe w skoku kredyty spolecznosciowe lodz kredyt bank historia rachunku wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej wzór firmy kredytowe pozabankowe w katowicach pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów wrocław pożyczki pod kontrakt pożyczki dla osób z zajęciem komorniczym alior bank kredyt dla pracujacych za granica umowa pożyczki 2012 pożyczki dom finansowy umorzenie pożyczki kredyt bank tarnobrzeg telefon alior bank kredyt technologiczny kredyty chwilówki dęblin kredyty konsolidacyjne w uk betgang pożyczka kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na zastępstwo kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator zdolności kredytowej getin bank pożyczki chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank zgorzelec godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa tel jaki druk pcc od umowy pożyczki pozyczki bez bik praga południe kredyt samochodowy lukas bank wzór oświadczenia o zwrocie pożyczki pożyczki od osób prywatnych leszno kredyt bez bik i komornika pożyczki decyzja online lubin pozyczki bocian pożyczki bez bik i krd bialystok na jaki numer wziasc kredyt w orange atiz przykłady pożyczki kredyty chwilówki rybnik kredyt bank sprzedaż dewiz koszty pożyczki provident kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank pożyczki bez biku w bydgoszczy kredyt bank zduńska wola kontakt pożyczki prywatne 24h kredyty bez bik ranking pozyczki u klienta gdzie daja kredyt bez biku pożyczki bez bik krd kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacja pożyczki bocian września pożyczki chwilówki sanok kredyt w euro banki kredyty i gwarancje bankowe zbigniew dobosiewicz pdf kredyt bankowy a pożyczka różnice kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorstw zagraniczny inwestor pozyczki pożyczki golden nowacja pożyczki pożyczki dla widniejących w krd kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego kontakt kredyt bank giełdowa pożyczki prywatne lublin kredyt bank kto go kupi kredyt mieszkaniowy w ing forum kredyt bez bik szczecinek chorobowe a pozyczka w providencie umowa pożyczki prywatnej kredyty pozabankowe bielsko prodomo pożyczki opinie pozyczki bez bik i krd numerz tel waloryzacja kwoty pożyczki kredyt bank kraków os kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia pożyczki krasnystaw kredyt odnawialny w banku pko sa pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych pożyczki internet szybkie kredyty bez bik jak wziasc kredyt w orange na 5 zl pożyczki kaska kredyty chwilówki swietochlowice pożyczki akces kredyt w idea bank forum kredyt bank ul kasprzaka kredyty bankowe w przedsiębiorstwie pożyczki od osób prywatnych lods kredyt bank tychy pozyczka bez biku Środa wlkp getin bank kredyt bez biku wzór umowy pożyczki między członkami rodziny kredyt bank grudziądzka 93 pożyczki ostatnia deska ratunku tanie pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik w jakim banku kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt bank łódź zgierska godziny otwarcia odsetki od pożyczki w skali roku pożyczki bez zaświadczeń gliwice najnowsze pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki dla rodziny wzór kredyt prostoliczony w credit agricole pożyczki w bankach na dowód dokument pożyczki kredyt w m bank kredyty chwilówki spółka z oo kredyt refinansowy w alior banku kredyt bank w krakowie ul kalwaryjska kredyt bank w poznaniu kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny ulga odsetkowa pożyczki prywatne w płocku pozyczki na dowod ketrzyn kredyt bank ul długa kraków godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne dąbrowa górnicza ewidencja pożyczki pożyczki z sektora pozabankowego pożyczki najtańsze bank pko bp kredyt studencki dokumenty pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat na dowód umowa pożyczki między najbliższymi pożyczki prywatne września kredyt bez bik do 10000 kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń wzór umowy o pożyczkę w zastaw pożyczki społecznościowe wiki kredyty chwilówki wrocław praca pożyczki prywatne bez baz kraków kredyt bank zastrzeżenie dokumentów pożyczki bez bik zaświadczeń kredyty chwilówki warszawa jana pawła ing bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki pcc czy vat trusty pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomosci pożyczki ngo pożyczki radziejów kredyt gotówkowy w eurobank kredyt bank jastarnia kwituję odbiór pożyczki kredyt bank krosno odrzańskie pożyczki bez bik od 19 lat pożyczki w skoku forum odsetki od pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki daiglob finance pożyczki typu bocian kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank opinie bank alior formalnosci do kredytu pozyczki bez zaswiadczen chrzanow kredyt bank w świdniku kredyt w banku pko sa opinie kredyt bank karta kredytowa opłata mikropożyczki na start pożyczki z zakladowego funduszu świadczeń socjalnych kredyty bankowe dla przedsiębiorstw kredyty chwilówki limanowa kredyty chwilówki w łodzi bocian pożyczki wniosek online udzielę pożyczki pod weksel 2013 pożyczki chwilówki bez bik olsztyn umowa o spłatę pożyczki kredyt od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń online umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi prawo kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta zarobki kredyt samochodowy w banku bgż kredyt bank bankomaty siedlce kredyty pozabankowe dlugoterminowe kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku kalkulator kredyt bank bydgoszcz gdańska 42 godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki z zfss kredyt bank 24 infolinia w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank lomianki godziny otwarcia kredyt bank piekary śląskie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank poznan godziny otwarcia pożyczki bankowe kalkulator pożyczki bez dochodu toruń kredyt bank zagiel koszt całkowity pożyczki pozyczki poznan gros capital,tempo pożyczka od osoby fizycznej turek santander consumer bank kredyt bez bik kompensata pożyczki z należnościami bank bph kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bez bik bez zabezpieczeń umowa pożyczki pieniężnej z zabezpieczeniem kredyt na mieszkanie bank pekao kokos pożyczki pożyczki bez bik zgorzelec pożyczki gotówkowe najtaniej kredyt bank włodawa tel kredyty chwilówki wrocław powstańców kredyt w banku czy u doradcy jak zdobyc pozyczke bez bik i komornika kredyt bez bik 10 000 w bielsku białej kredyt bank zana lublin godziny otwarcia lokaty w kredyt banku opinie ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt getin bank kredyt bez biku kredyty chwilówki opinie windykacja pożyczki bez bik i krd kraków kredyt bank plock 1 maja pożyczki ebroker kredyt konsolidacyjny czy warto forum refinansowanie pożyczki warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp pożyczki bez zaświadczeń wrocław kredyt bank łeba pożyczki dąbrowa górnicza kredyt bank kasprzaka godziny otwarcia pożyczki mieszkaniowe w oświacie kredyt bank warta gwarancja kredyt mieszkaniowy harmonogram spłat ślimak pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyty pozabankowe i rozne zrudla dochodow mazowieckie kredyty w krakowie bez zaswiadczen odsetki od pożyczki udziałowców kredyt bank kraków długa 4 godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki jaki pit eurocent podobne pozyczki pożyczki konsorcjalne pożyczki providus mcredit oferuje pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik kredyt pozabankowy bez krd getin noble bank ubezpieczenie kredytu kredyty w meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny ing instytucje finansowe pożyczki pożyczki na dowód debica kredyt bank w mikołowie umowa pożyczki w fundacji kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pocztowy pożyczki na założenie działalności gospodarczej pożyczki pod zastaw gliwice kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millennium kredyty chwilówki oferta pracy tomek zaciągnął w banku omb kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny 5000 kredyt w banku pko bp umowa pożyczki z udziałowcem kredyt bank piotrkowska kredyt bank bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne piotrków trybunalski kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp opinie pożyczki pod zastaw gruntu kredyt samochodowy dla firmy kalkulator kredyt bank kanały dystrybucji odpłatność pożyczki odsetki od pożyczki ceny transferowe getin noble bank kredyt konsumpcyjny kredyt w banku eurobank raty pożyczki przedawnienie kredyt w banku bez biku pożyczki prywatne chwilówki getin bank oferta pożyczki getin noble bank kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczka pod zastaw samochodu gdańsk kredyt bank międzyrzecz pożyczki od osób prywatnych w uk kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw pko udzielić pożyczki ang pożyczki notarialne pożyczki bez bik 50000 kto udzieli pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki mieszkaniowe pko pożyczki na start dla firm pożyczki prywatne ełk kredyt w paribas bank opinie oprocentowanie pożyczki w pko sa pożyczki konsolidacyjne bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank ekstralokum kredyt eurobank forum szukam pożyczki prywatnej 2012 pożyczki na dowód śrem pożyczki za 0 zł pożyczki na dowód tylko kredyt bank dss kredyty chwilówki gliwice piwna pożyczki rodzaje kredyt bank wyniki finansowe kredyt przez telefon bez peselu kredyt studencki pko powtarzanie roku kredyt pozabankowy rzeszów alior bank kredyt kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy deutsche bank opinie 2012 kredyt kupiecki w banku kredyt mieszkaniowy program kredyty pozabankowe bez bik i krd przez internet kredyt gotówkowy w meritum bank kredyt bez biku w rybniku kredyt bank jakie bankomaty za darmo sprawdzone pozyczki prywatne pod weksel kredyt bank przelew z karty kredytowej kredyt bank home banking kredyt studencki pko dyplom kredyty bez biku jelenia góra umowy pożyczki podatek kredyt bank kondycja pożyczki w domu klienta legnica kredyt bank poznan dabrowskiego podatek od umorzonej pożyczki z zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking banków provident pożyczki dla firm pożyczki w wałbrzychu pożyczki online w 15 minut kalisz kredyt bank piła adres do ilu kredyt santander kredyty chwilówki impreza firmowa w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy forum pożyczki krótkoterminowe bez dochodów szukam kredytu bez bik i krd pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu warszawa pożyczki na projekty unijne kredyty dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych forum kredyt bank lublin głęboka godziny otwarcia fundusz pożyczki sprzedaż kredyt banku santander 2012 pożyczki na świeta pożyczki bez bik tarnów kredyt bank lokata internetowa umowa pożyczki bankowej przedawnienie spłata pożyczki w amber gold kredyt bank warszawa ul abrahama kredyt studencki w pko sa kredyt pozabankowy opinie pożyczki na dowód w 15 minut kredyt tarnobrzeg umorzenie pożyczki a kup

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad