optima pożyczki włocławek cesja praw z umowy pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny na 15 lat bez zabezpieczeń bankomaty kredyt bank w krakowie pożyczki pozabankowe z komornikiem szybki kredyt bez bik przez internet pożyczki w domu klienta optima pożyczki dla firm online kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pekao sa pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez zaświadczeń symulacja kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy pozyczki online przez poczte pożyczki przez internet na dowód bez zaswiadczen pożyczki dla windykowanych pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach olsztyn kredyty wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kredyt bank jana pawła pożyczki chwilówki bez bik kredyty w uk po polsku pożyczki chwilówki będzin pożyczki bez bik krd big pożyczki gotówkowe krd turbo pożyczki kredyt bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt konsolidacyjny pułapki kredyt konsolidacyjny na oświadczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny citibank kredyty bez bik tarnowskie góry jaki jest kod do kredytu w orange kredyt ratalny przez internet bez bik bankomaty kredyt banku w lodzi getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczeń kredyt za kredyt w getin banku pożyczki bez zaświadczeń szczecin bank udzielajacy pozyczki z dochodami z zagranicy kredyt studencki forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobanku alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie pozyczka dla pracujących na czarno bez bik wawa pożyczki bez pcc kredyt samochodowy w raiffeisen bank wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt ustawa prawo bankowe pożyczki pod zastaw głogów pożyczki pod zastaw wszystkiego wrocław pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach przez internet kredyt bank międzyrzec forma przekazania pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe getin bank oprocentowanie kredytów w banku pko bp bocian pozyczki tomaszów maz pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej szczecin umowa pożyczki raty wzór bocian pożyczki tczew kredyt bank ikze kredyt bank lokata z bonusem kredyt bank wypłata z bankomatu bez prowizji kredyty gotówkowe banku alior kredyt bank piotrków telefon kalkulator pożyczki provident pronus pożyczki pożyczki bez podatku podatek kredyt bank misja szybkie pożyczki na dowód warszawa kredyt prostoliczony lukas bank kalkulator okres pożyczki kredyty bez bik elblag pożyczki z up kredyty chwilówki włocławek kościuszki kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim ranking mikropożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności 2014 kredyt bankowy pdf kredyty i pozyczki bez biku kredyt bank lokata z premią umowa kredytu bankowego kodeks cywilny beata burzyńska pożyczki kredyty bez bik od 4000 pożyczki lublin kredyty jak księgować pożyczki udzielone kredyt bank lipowa 4 białystok kredyt studencki czy warto forum kredyty pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik kredyt bank bankomat ustka skarabeusz pożyczki tomaszów maz kredyt mieszkaniowy na oświadczenie o dochodach pożyczki ratalne bez bik pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy symulacja kredyt w orange kod szukam ekspresowej pozyczki tarnow kredyt w banku nordea opinie pożyczki częstochowa kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym pożyczki lombard potrzebuję pilnej pożyczki pls kredyt bank problemy z logowaniem pozyczki na procent pila kredyt studencki jakie jest oprocentowanie kredyt bank tarnów lwowska telefon pożyczki pod zastaw międzyzdroje kredyt bank ogólne warunki kredytowania w ktorym banku najlatwiej o kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku pożyczki bez zaświadczeń koszalin umowa pożyczki oprocentowanie zwrot pożyczki bez umowy pożyczki bez zaświadczeń provident kredyt bez bik kościan plus prowidus pozyczki umowa pożyczki aneks kredyt chwilówka 5000 kredyt konsolidacyjny pod nieruchomość kredyty bez biku gorzow wlkp kredyt bank wypłata gotówki za granicą kredyt mieszkaniowy 2013 pko wycena pożyczki kredyty chwilówki będzin kredyt bank adekwatność kapitałowa kredyt bank dabie pozyczka jak provident bez big umowa pożyczki cechy kredyty pozabankowe ruda śląska pożyczki dla zadłużonych bezrobotnych kredyt mieszkaniowy walutowy kredyty przez internet bez biku umowa pożyczki oszustwo kredyt konsolidacyjny santander consumer bank umowa pożyczki postępowanie upominawcze kredyt konsolidacyjny w nordea kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa o pracę na czas określony pożyczki pozabankowe łódź kościuszki pożyczki z anglii kredyt bankowy na rozpoczęcie działalności pożyczki na dowód w pko szybkie pożyczki w uk dla polaków kredyt bez bik i krd z komornikiem koszty pozwu o zwrot pożyczki czy alior bank daje kredyt pracujacym w czechach pożyczki bez bik pułtusk pożyczki społecznościowe portale kredyty dla zadluzonych białogard kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz fordon pozyczki bez krd i bik tczew zabezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki gotówkowe dla rencistów pożyczki pod zastaw przemyśl kredyty chwilówki os teatralne kredyty chwilówki uk wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki z zfśs niskoprocentowe pozyczki uk umowa pożyczki podatek 2011 szybkie pożyczki kościan lokata rentierska kredyt bank opinie pożyczki obliczanie rat pożyczki na telefon bez bik pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt bank kraków ul długa udzielenie pożyczki innej firmie księgowanie przepisy regulujące pożyczki pożyczki bankowe trusty pożyczki idea bank kredyt na start opinie 2012 kredyt bank ustka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank junior tanie kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator walbrzych pozyczka w domu udzielenie pożyczki nierezydentowi pożyczki pod zastaw auta śląsk pożyczki prywatne wyszków kredyt bank ostroda umorzenie pożyczki dla spółki kredyt w orange 5 zł feniks pozyczki kredyt bank w grudziądzu leasing czy kredyt samochodowy dla firm pożyczki kalkulator ing pożyczki na sfinansowanie kosztów szkolenia pozyczki dla zadluzonych od lat 19 przez internet kwoty pożyczki zwolnione od podatku bankowy kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator umorzenie pożyczki jaki pit kredyt bank niepodległości 54 pozyczki milenium szamotuly kredyty bankowe konto bilansowe kredyty pozabankowe atiz daily pożyczki kredyt bank łódź zgierska godziny otwarcia opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki osoby fizycznej kredyt bank sa oddział w sieradzu pożyczki na procent pożyczki oprogramowanie pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciami komorniczymi kredyt konsolidacyjny zielona góra kredyt konsolidacyjny w deutsche banku umowa pożyczki od wspólnika spółki cywilnej kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik jaki bank wybrac pożyczki sezam wieluń najtańsze pożyczki na rynku getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pożyczki prywatne pod weksel 2012 jak księgować odsetki od udzielonej pożyczki kredyt bank zielona góra wojska polskiego kredyt bank gniezno kontakt kredyt bank chmielna kredyt chwilówka starogard gdański charakter prawny umowy pożyczki kredyt w banku opinie kredyt bank gocław kredyt getin noble bank umorzenie pożyczki z wfośigw udzielenie pożyczki bratu kredyt bank kraków kalwaryjska godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu śląsk kredyty pod zastaw mieszkania lubań pożyczki gotówkowe millenium kredyt bank w ząbkach umowa pożyczki odsetki mikropożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności 2014 umowa pożyczki z firmą kredyt bank 3 marca 2001 pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód kredyt pozabankowy online pożyczki partycypacyjne pożyczki prywatne dolny śląsk warunki kredytu w banku wbk kredyt na mieszkanie w alior bank pożyczki prywatnie poznań pożyczki na dowód lębork kredyt dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt bank sa oddzial lublin pożyczki bez bik i bez zaświadczeń atrakcyjne kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej getin bank kredyt w banku na oswiadczenie kredyt bankowy sciaga pożyczki bez bik przez internet adresy kredyt banku w warszawie kredyt studencki w banku wbk pożyczki ratunkowe wrocław pożyczki pozabankowe głogów kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg pożyczki chwilówki przez internet pozabankowe umorzenie pożyczki u pożyczkodawcy umowa pożyczki pracodawca pracownik wzory pism umowa pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bez biku w rybniku kredyty pozabankowe slask kredyt bank debet na koncie tani kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik pozyczki 18lat bialystok czy mozna wziasc kredyt na dowod w uk kredyty chwilówki kutno kredyt bank sa numer swift oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki wzór pożyczki tarnowskie góry najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku kredyty chwilówki szczecin umowa do pożyczki mirosław czyżykowski pożyczki kredyt w orange na jaki numer kredyt bank w bogatyni nowe pożyczki online część pożyczki umowa pożyczki dla pozoru pożyczki pozabankowe w płocku kredyty bez bik i zaswiadczen o zarobkach kredyty pozabankowe przez internet szybkie pożyczki na umowe zlecenie kredyty bez bik big i krd podatek od pożyczki kara kredyty chwilówki opoczno kredyty chwilówki kędzierzyn kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank kalkulator kredyt bank pełnomocnictwo kredyt bank wymagane dokumenty kredyt bank program dla wybranych firm sprzedaż wierzytelności z tytułu pożyczki pożyczki od inwestorów pożyczki forum kredyt bank w malborku bank spółdzielczy kredyt mieszkaniowy forum kredyt w idea banku opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny wniosek on line kredyt na start firmy idea bank opinie kredyty studenckie oprocentowanie kredyty bez bik gorzow wlkp wzór na odsetki od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pko bp kamień pomorski kredyt odnawialny eurolan pozyczki kredyt samochodowy vw bank opinie pożyczki w 15 min bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank kalkulator kredyt chwilówka prudnik pożyczki zfśs w bilansie szybkie pożyczki we wrocławiu kredyt na mieszkanie w banku millenium kredyt bez bik lębork pożyczki chwilówki na dowód przez internet kredyt bank w gostyniu kredyt bank ul kasprzaka warszawa kredyt bank zolnierska olsztyn maksymalne oprocentowanie umów pożyczek kredyty chwilowki wodzislaw slaski żyrafa pożyczki logowanie w ktorym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotowkowy pcc od pożyczki dla firmy kredyty chwilówki brodnica kredyt bez biku bielsko pożyczki bez biku poznań eu2 pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki od 18 lat banki udzielajace kredyt na pit krakow kredyt bank bankomaty kredyt studencki pko bp do kiedy kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej wbk kredyt pozabankowy 5000 na 2 lata prywatna pożyczka komornik warszawa kredyt samochodowy w getin noble bank kredyt bez bik co to znaczy pożyczki pozabankowe biała podlaska skarbiec pożyczki opinie nazwa pożyczki udzielonej przez bank potrzebny szybki kredyt bez bik udzielę pożyczki na procent kraków cechy pożyczki i kredytu przedmiot umowy kredyt konsolidacyjny bnp paribas opinie abis szybkie pozyczki niedzielne pożyczki prywatne umowa pożyczki dla osób fizycznych kredyt bank rrso pożyczki prywatne na działalność gospodarczą kredyty pozabankowe do 5000 regulamin pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyty chwilówki dla bezrobotnych zabezpieczenie pożyczki na nieruchomości umowa o kredyt studencki pko bp kredyty chwilówki porównanie kredyt bank koszt przelewu zagranicznego kredyt studencki pko bp odroczenie spłaty kredyt bez biku online kredyt bank jak aktywować kartę kredytową kredyty chwilówki zabrze opolska 2 deutsche bank kredyt bez zatrudnienia pożyczki społecznościowe pit kredyt bank lokata przez internet mieszkaniowe kredyty preferencyjne centrala kredyt banku warszawa kredyt bez bik pszczyna kredyt bez bik w lublinie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pdf gros kapitał pożyczki opinie kredyt w eurobanku opinie 2013 pożyczki bez bik kościan oprocentowanie kredytu w nordea bank oddziały kredyt banku szczecin pożyczki w lombardzie pożyczki pod zastaw łomża pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt chwilówka kwidzyn pożyczki online od 19 lat gdzie najlepiej wziąć kredyt bez biku kredyt samochodowy santander consumer bank kredyt bank średni kurs walut kredyt bez bik na juz kredyt bank lubartów kredyty bez bik września kredyt bank świdnica godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe konin pożyczki z dostawą do domu warszawa kredyt bank w zyrardowie kredyt bank wiarygodność kredyt bez biku 10 tys boleslawiec umorzenie pożyczki walutowej umowa pożyczki z zastawem rejestrowym kredyt bank dzienny limit operacji na rachunku podatek od pożyczki kto płaci szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank ustka pożyczki chwilówki słupca pożyczki bez weryfikacji oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku mcredit pożyczki wniosek o udzielenie kredytu studenckiego pekao sa kredyt bank 245 umowa pożyczki zgoda małżonka kredyt bank produkty strukturyzowane pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń kłodzko kredyt bank conrada warszawa godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki z klauzulą wykonalności kredyt bank najgorszy kredyt bank mafia pożyczki chwilówki tarnowskie góry pożyczki w domu wałbrzych lokaty w kredyt banku 2013 oprocentowanie depozytów w kredyt banku bankomat kredyt banku warszawa pożyczki prometeusz olsztyn kredyt bank nowa lista haseł wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przed terminem pożyczki chwilówki oprocentowanie szybkie pożyczki bez bik wrocław chojnice pozyczki bocian pożyczki adres kredyt studencki pko oprocentowanie kredyt pozabankowy rzeszów kredyt bez zus us kredyty chwilówki żary getin bank kredyt gotówkowy oprocentowanie szybki kredyt w jakim banku umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami pcc pożyczki europejskiego banku inwestycyjnego lukas bank kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego kredyt bank olkusz kontakt kalkulator odsetkowy pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe dla zadłużonych kredyt mieszkaniowy tczew pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wrocław kredyt pozabankowy rzeszów umowa pożyczki bez oprocentowania wzór bocian pożyczki kwidzyn kredyt samochodowy mbank opinie pożyczki na dowód prywatne kredyt bank numer kontaktowy pożyczki na własny biznes kredyt bank akcjonariusze umowa pożyczki na raty bank pekao sa kredyt gotówkowy maestro kontakt kredyt bank kredyty chwilowki laziska gorne bik pożyczka w placówce warszawa financial pożyczki pożyczki prywatne mielec afera o kredyt pożyczki chwilówki sieradz pożyczki chwilówki pko pożyczki do domu optima kredyt bank włocławek promienna pożyczki do 50000 kredyt konsolidacyjny z dodatkowa gotowka pożyczki prywatne bocian pożyczki tygodniówki trudne pożyczki konsolidacyjne kredyty w pko bp sa kredyt bank zgierz godziny otwarcia kredyt chwilówki płock alior bank kredyt dla rolników ppozyczka na sam dowod osobisty zabrze pożyczki klon kredyt bank nfc kredyt bez weryfikacji w bik kredyt bank międzychód pożyczki dla zadłużonych bezrobotnych kredyt bank szczecin dąbie godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne brzeg pożyczki bez banku bez bik i krd kredyt bank milanówek udzielenie pożyczki nierezydentowi pożyczki bocian kościan kredyt bank godziny otwarcia włocławek pożyczki oprogramowanie pożyczki 15 minut kredyt bank mikołów kontakt kredyt bank piekary kredyt bank warszawa ciołka kredyt gotowkowy w getin banku opinie kredyt bank marki telefon bankowy kredyt samochodowy kredyt refinansowy w banku pocztowym kredyt bank żeromskiego pożyczki na dowód przez internet pożyczki pracownicze kredyty studenckie bank pko kredyt bez bik do 30000 kredyt bez bik na zakup samochodu kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiana kredytobiorcy pożyczki olesnica kredyty chwilówki dla osób z komornikiem pozyczki prywatne kredyty chwilówki tczew pożyczki bez bik w głogowie kredyt bank wejherowo godz otwarcia cesja umowy pożyczki a pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie kredyty pozabankowe dla zadluzonych pszczółka pożyczki opinie slimak pozyczki pożyczki na dowód kraków pożyczki bez stałych dochodów pozyczki od prywatnych osob pożyczki na dowód sandomierz kredyt pozabankowy pod weksel umowa pożyczki komentarz kredyt bez biku na auto kredyt bank wrocław plac solny godziny otwarcia pożyczki online nowe w jakim banku wziac kredyt studencki spłata kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyt bez bik piotrków tryb

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad