banki kredyt bez bik multibank kredyt samochodowy opinie forum kredyt bank kod bic pożyczki chwilówki mińsk mazowiecki kredyt studencki banki które udzielają kredyt pozabankowy długoterminowy fundacja warty i kredyt banku razem możemy więcej konto młodzieżowe w kredyt banku pożyczki żyrafa forum pożyczki dla zadłużonych skarabeusz pożyczki kontakt regulamin pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs santander bank kalkulator kredytu samochodowego pożyczki żuromin kredyt bank wypowiedzenie ubezpieczenia na życie kredyty banku sgb euro providus pożyczki kredyt bez bik nowa sól pożyczki na dowód wągrowiec kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 rok kredyt bankowy dla nowych firm pożyczki bocian w kaliszu szybkie i tanie pożyczki przez internet pożyczki na dowód żywiec pozyczka z obsluga w domu umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a firmą gros pozyczki pleszew bez bica mcredit oferuje pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik pożyczki online w 15 minut nieznane pożyczki kredyt w bank of ireland pożyczki pod weksel wrocław kredyt bez biku zielona góra kredyt bank godziny otwarcia siedlce kredyt odnawialny bez biku kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pożyczki bezpośrednie odsetki od pożyczki kiedy przychód krezus pożyczki formularz umowy pożyczki kredyt bez bik kutno pozyczki bez meldunku warszawa kredyt studencki banki udzielające ewidencja księgowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny w mbanku opinie warunki pracy w kredyt banku podatek od pożyczki cywilnej kredyty bez biku katowice kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp forum kredyt studencki pko bp opinie kredyty konsolidacyjne rybnik kredyt bank w garwolinie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych włocławek unilink cash pożyczki bez bik oferta pożyczki od wspólników a pcc kredyt studencki pko rezygnacja pożyczki z funduszu europejskiego kredyt bank kupon 6 kredyt bank sa warszawa oddziały pożyczki pod weksel gdańsk pożyczki pod zastaw srem umowa pożyczki z przeniesieniem własności kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe ostrołęka kredyty chwilówki roznoszenie ulotek kredyt bank nazwa kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus opłaty getin bank kredyty mieszkaniowe opinie kredyt gotówkowy dla firm bez bik kredyt bank siedziba adres banki udzielajace kredyt na pit krakow pożyczki gdańsk eurobank ubezpieczenie pożyczki pożyczki prywatne chełm fundusz mikro – pożyczki dla małych firm pożyczki gotówkowe chwilówka kredyty chwilówki na dowód szczecin oferty pożyczki gotówkowej najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2011 kredyt bez bik do 150 tys pożyczki od ręki warszawa czy kredyt bank ma problemy kredyt gotówkowy santander oprocentowanie kredyt z komornikiem piekary sl sezam pożyczki kępno kredyt konsolidacyjny inteligo firc pożyczki przeniesienie pożyczki do innego banku kredyt na dowod od reki pożyczka prywatna dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych kredyt bank chrzanów godziny otwarcia koszt przelewu z karty kredytowej pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny pułapki szybkie pożyczki przez internet na raty kredyt bank gwarancje bankowe kasa jowisz pożyczki pożyczki lukas kredyt bank i oddział warszawa kredyt w bank of ireland kredyt bank gdańsk słowackiego kredyty chwilówki toruń jamontta mikropożyczki dla firm kredyt bank osiedle polan poznań kredyt bank marza pożyczki ustka kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlepiej forum kredyt odnawialny w ing bank śląski usługi pożyczki białystok kredyt w banku credit agricole przedmiot pożyczki fig pożyczki kredyty na samochod bez biku kredyt bank lublin godz otwarcia getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu potrącenie z wynagrodzenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank wolontariat udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi a pcc kredyt bank mann i materna poręczenie pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez bik przez internet udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez opłat wstępnych przelewy zagraniczne w kredyt banku pożyczki z funduszu efs kredyt konsolidacyjny bez umowy o prace umowa pożyczki do pobrania kredyt bank sa katowice kredyt bezzwrotny idea bank opinie bocian pożyczki praca łódź pszczółka pożyczki opinie pożyczki gotówkowe bez zdolności kredytowej pożyczki bez bik krd pożyczki unijne na otwarcie działalności czy umowa pożyczki podlega opodatkowaniu kredyt wspólnota mieszkaniowa odpowiedzialność kredyt bez bik ciechanów kredyt samochodowy getin kalkulator awaria systemu w kredyt banku kredyty bez sprawdzania bik kredyt bank adres e mail kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking 2012 kredyty chwilówki bytom kredyt bank warszawa v oddział kredyt orange jaki nr pozycki bez zaswiadczeń bez bik 50000 pożyczki podobne do providenta płock kredyty bankowe gus prodomo pożyczki gdańsk kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator banków jacek cybulski pożyczki prometeusz pożyczki bydgoszcz alior bank kredyt w rachunku bieżącym udziele pożyczki prywatnie gdansk pożyczki porównanie kredyt konsolidacyjny na budowe domu alior bank kredyt 5000 pożyczki pod zastaw szczecin 24h kredyt konsolidacyjny w getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osoby niepełnosprawnej dobre pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt konsolidacyjny wągrowiec pożyczki w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank łódź godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sprzedaż santander kredyt chwilówka opinia kredyt 4000 bez bik online kredyt bez biku na telefon bocian pożyczki tarnów kredyt bank pilsudskiego koszalin kredyt w banku arabskim poszukuję pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank białystok radzymińska pożyczki udzielone i należności własne przykłady kredyty chwilówki dział windykacji pożyczki bez bik ranking pożyczki na dowód szczecinek pożyczki filemon kredyt bankowy online wroclaw profi kredyt przedstawiciel pani bozena kredyt na start w getin banku pożyczki dla małych firm bez bik kredyt walutowy deutsche bank pożyczki gotówkowe pko bp kredyt bank lębork godziny otwarcia kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny nordea bank kredyty pozabankowe współpraca kredyt bank wałbrzych kredyt bank toruń kredyt mieszkaniowy obliczenia pożyczki prywatne 10000 ewidencja wpłat pożyczki z zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny okres kredytowania pożyczki gotówkowe udzielane w domu pożyczki brzeg picasso pożyczki kredyty chwilówki złotów kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2012 kredyt bankowy a pożyczka udzielam pożyczki pożyczki internetowe chwilówki potwierdzenie salda pożyczki wzór pożyczki pod zastaw nidzica bank bgż kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki nau pożyczki gotówkowe wiki pożyczki do 30 dni umorzenie pożyczki koszt podatkowy udzielę pożyczki prywatnej warszawa profi credit pożyczki przez internet pożyczki lublin kredyty ola uzyskała kredyt w banku w wysokości 2000 zł banki kredyty gotówkowe ranking umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki a pcc pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań pożyczki od ręki warszawa kredyt bank dalekowschodni kod kredytu do orange kredyty bez bik chwilówki pożyczki białogard umowa pożyczki jako umowa wzajemna kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń pomorskie w jakim banku najkorzystniej wziąć kredyt restrukturyzacja pożyczki w skok pożyczki opole godziny otwarcia kredyty helios kredyt bank pelplin tel pożyczki przez internet bez bik krd pożyczki bez bik i krd i big kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pko gdzie daja kredyt bez biku kredyty bocian zywiec umowa pożyczki kodeks cywilny kredyt bank lokaty 2013 pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klijenta swidnica refinansowanie pożyczki wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki wzór turbo expres pożyczki kredyt bank oddział w zamościu pożyczki gotówkowe bez zabezpieczeń kredyty chwilówki pińczów pożyczki chwilówki w kielcach pożyczki multibank pożyczki bez bik przez telefon kredyt bank augustów godziny otwarcia pożyczki rzeszów broker pożyczki prywatne bez dochodów kredyt studencki zasady udzielania pożyczki ząbkowice śląskie bezzwrotne pożyczki z up bocian pożyczki opinie pracowników podatek od pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty chwilówki dłużnicy kredyt w banku bph kalkulator tęcza pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe od 18 lat gros pożyczki inowrocław dobosiewicz kredyty i gwarancje bankowe pdf pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości idea bank kredyt obrotowy oprocentowanie kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową kredyt mieszkaniowy stałe oprocentowanie obliczenie raty kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim umowa ramowa pożyczki kredito24 kredyt mieszkaniowy dla jednej osoby kredyty chwilowki warszawa ul grochowska kredyt bez bik bank warszawa kredyt bank marcinkowskiego poznań jak wziąć kredyt w banku kredyt bank warszawa oddzialy pozyczka w domu bialystok pożyczki bez dochodów warszawa kredyt orange pod numer pożyczki dla firm poznań kredyt bank w mławie kredyt bank dm kredyty chwilówki infolinia umowa pożyczki od wspólnika spółki cywilnej wrocław pożyczki prywatne bank pekao sa kredyt opinie kredyt bank toruń kontakt prodomo pożyczki starogard polecane pożyczki prywatne pozyczka krakow na weksel pożyczki pozabankowe chwilówki przez internet kredyt bank żuromin pożyczki chwilówki poznań głogowska pożyczki bez dochodów umowa pożyczki druk pcc umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie do urzędu skarbowego pożyczki między podmiotami powiązanymi kredyt w fm banku opinie kredyt studencki porównanie banków kredyty chwilówki kraków librowszczyzna 1 kredyt pozabankowy na mieszkanie szczecin pożyczki chwilówki kłodzko kredyt bank polkowice praca jak księgować pożyczki z zfśs kredyt z komornikiem prywatny inwestor pożyczki między firmami a pcc pozyczki n dowod elblag bez krd i bik provident pożyczki praca pożyczki w bankach porównanie jak zaksięgować kredyt w rachunku bankowym maksymalny koszt pożyczki kredyt bank leasing aukcje kredyty bez bik legionowo odsetki od pożyczki a koszt uzyskania przychodu kredyt bank fundusze kredyt bank warszawa iv oddział pozyczki od ręki mława pożyczki polskiej kredyt bank sa oddzial lublin rodzaje kredytów w banku pko bp placówki kredyt banku poznań kruk kredyty w puławach pożyczki międzybankowe alior bank kredyt gotówkowy konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie pożyczki pko sa kredyt bank gwarancje skarbu państwa pozyczki dla zadłuzonych w banku pko finanse pożyczki bielsko biała pożyczki gwarant pozyczka na dlugi pod weksel betgang pożyczka pożyczki na dowód siedlce tanie pożyczki gotówkowe opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy można odliczyć od podatku kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp pożyczki do 10tys pozyczki z komornikiem z dostawa do domu kredyt bank kredyty mieszkaniowe obliczanie wysokości pożyczki kredyty chwilówki bez bik i krd kredyty chwilowki piekary slaskie karat pożyczki kredyt bank nowa ruda umowa pożyczki kwota wolna od podatku szybkie pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą umorzenie pożyczki jak zaksięgować bocian pożyczki środa wlkp kredyt mieszkaniowy deutsche bank forum pożyczki ratunkowe poznań kredyty i pożyczki ściąga idea bank opinie kredyt obrotowy kredyt bank franczyza pro group pożyczki gdzie mozna uzyskac kredyt bez bik kredyty online bez bik i krd kredyt bank zielonka godziny otwarcia udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi a pcc pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej bydgoszcz szybkie pożyczki bez bik forum pożyczki społecznościowe w domu pożyczki od ręki poznań pkobp kredyt pozabankowy pozyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania bik i krd pożyczka do domu płock optima pożyczki telefon pożyczki pozabankowe stalowa wola kredyt mieszkaniowy a praca za granica kredyt mieszkaniowy w kasie stefczyka umowa pożyczki jeremie atrakcyjne pożyczki umowa pożyczki z przelewem na konto druk umowy pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt chwilówki praca opinie szybkie pożyczki inowrocław pożyczki pozabankowe pabianice kredyt bank milanówek księgowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej porównaj pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank warecka kredyt bank warszawa ul chełmska 9 kredyt bank wejherowo kontakt kredyt bank nr na infolinie kredyt bank lease usługi pożyczki lublin kredyty bank pko sa pożyczki bez zaświadczeń opinie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik warszawa kredyty samochodowe bank zachodni kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firmy kredyty wspólnoty mieszkaniowej bocian pozyczki windykator terenowy kredyty bez bik plock pożyczki bez krd na dowód kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe do 30000 kredyt bank kartuzy alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki dla urzędników pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu opole kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartości nieruchomości kredyty chwilówki praca opinie pożyczki od osób prywatnych zielona góra pożyczki z banku alior bank kredyt gros kapitał pożyczki opinie pożyczki jednostek samorządu terytorialnego pożyczki człuchów idea bank kredyt online dla firm umorzenie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca euromedia pożyczki pozyczki domowe kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank kredyt bankowy w obliczu kryzysu finansowego windykacja w bik a kredyt kredyt bankowy rodzaje kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen dla firm allianz bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pozyczka do domu bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe podlaskie kredyt bank karta kredytowa opłata kredyty chwilówki radom kredyty konsolidacyjne kielce umorzenie pożyczki skutki podatkowe pożyczki kapitałowe kredyt bank gostyń wlkp pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i zaświadczeń warszawa kredyty chwilówki dział rozliczeń kredyt mieszkaniowy na oświadczenie o dochodach kredyt mieszkaniowy dla prowadzących działalność kredyty pozabankowe zielona góra asper pożyczki inowrocław karty kredytowe dla osob z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny dla bardzo zadłużonych kredyt pozabankowy naczym polega kredyty pozabankowe w lublinie kredyt bez bik wroclaw pożyczki w domu klienta włocławek kredyt bank dom maklerski kredyt studencki pko do kiedy wnioski bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2013 pożyczki kaska pożyczki na dowód inowrocław kredyt bank nr regon kredyt bank 2 oddział wrocław kredyt bank włocławek lokaty kredyt w pekao sa forum kredyt gotówkowy w pko sa kalkulator kredyt bank świecie godziny otwarcia pożyczki chełm kredyt bank w międzyzdrojach kredyt bank sa warszawa kontakt kredyt bank ul kasprzaka 22 pewne pożyczki pozabankowe w jakim banku brac kredyt na mieszkanie bankomaty kredyt banku kraków pożyczki dla mikrofirm bez bik kredyt m1 w którym banku najłatwiej wziąć kredyt kredyt bank konkurs pożyczki chwilówki łódź oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty chwilówki dla zadłużonych kredyt bank mickiewicza białystok forum biedronka pożyczki bank bph kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum bank kredyty chwilówki gdańsk kredyty bankowe bez prowizji kredyty chwilówki opole kredyt prostoliczony w credit agricole pożyczki bez bik suwałki pożyczki wadowice kredyt unijny idea bank opinie kredyt bankowy w rachunku kredytowym kredyt bank w skoczowie odsetki od pożyczki w skali roku kredyt bankowy aktywa czy pasywa szukam pożyczki gotówkowej bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki bez bik pod zastaw kredyty chwilówki czerwionka kredyt bank lodz zgierska bocian pożyczki malbork pożyczki grudziądz czy w santanteze banku latwo jest dostac pozyczke kredyt pozabankowy konsolidacyjny kredyt bank fuzja forum umowa pożyczki z oprocentowaniem kredyt studencki pko bp kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zgody małżonka pożyczki dla mikrofirm bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw bolesławiec udzielę pożyczki prywatnej 2011 kredyt odnawialny bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówki oszustwo kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bankomaty kredyt bank gliwice kredyty mieszkaniowe październik 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank oprocentowanie kredyty bank pko sa warunki pracy w kredyt banku kredyt firmowy pozabankowy pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej bez bik kronos pożyczki opinie umowa pożyczki z wekslem in blanco wzór kredyt bank gliwice dworcowa 24

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad