umowa pożyczki z zagranicy pomoc w uzyskaniu kredytu warszawa konwersja pożyczki na kapitał rezerwowy a pcc oddziały kredyt banku kredyt bank grunwaldzka 345 kredyt chwilówka wrocław ul strzegomska pko kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu kredyt studencki pko do kiedy zaświadczenie restrukturyzacja kredytu w credit agricole kredyt bank grodzisk mazowiecki pożyczki bez wykazywania dochodu kredyt konsolidacyjny firmowy realne pożyczki prywatne pożyczki pozabankowe w płocku przewalutowanie pożyczki kody do orange kredyt szybki kredyt 10000 mińsk mazowiecki kredyt bank warszawa praca kredyt bank 3 maja pożyczki oprocentowanie porównanie pożyczki wyszków idea bank opinie kredyt dla firm pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu poznań koszt umowy pożyczki dostępne pożyczki kredyty bez bik chojnice kredyt bank łódz piotrkowska pożyczki pod zastaw tarnów kredyt bank brodnica forma pisemna pożyczki kredyt bank sa adres kredyt chwilówka krotoszyn kredyt bank łódź aleksandrowska godziny otwarcia kredyty bez biku krd jaki jest kod na kredyt do orange bocian pożyczki windykacja odsetki od pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu kredyt bez biku opole kredyty mieszkaniowe 2004 pozyczki rodzaje pożyczka chwilówka żyrafa kredyt online eurobank opinie kredyt bank praca zarobki pożyczki przez internet darmowe pożyczki pod zastaw gruntu kredyt w banku wbk opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pozyczka bez sprawdzania duo pożyczki chwilówki umowa pożyczki celowej jak dostac kredyt w polsce pracujac w uk pożyczki końskie kredyt bez biku opole pcc od umowy pożyczki a kup kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulatory kredyt studencki pko procent kredyty chwilówki kraków bez zaswiadczen kredyty pozabankowe czestochowa pożyczki w policji kredyt w banku boś kredyt konsolidacyjny marża kredyt bank bric pożyczki pozabankowe świecie kredyt bank w białobrzegach pożyczki pozabankowe biała podlaska reklama pożyczki vivus szybkie pożyczki przez internet na dowód bezbik optima pożyczki tczew alior bank kredyty kredyty samochodowe dla firm kalkulator optima pożyczki przez internet kredyt bank grojec kredyt konsolidacyjny na 20 lat bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank legnicka wrocław pożyczki w banku pko bp pozyczki prywatne jele gora kredyt samochodowy w mbanku umowa pożyczki spółka jawna pożyczki na dowód bielsko biała pożyczka bez zaświadczec i bez sprawdzania w biku kredyt bank moje konto pko kredyt mieszkaniowy forum umowa pożyczki spółce z o o wzór kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego getin bank kredyt bank miedzyzdroje kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik szczecin duet pozyczka numer tel kredyty bez bik i krd łódź kredyt bank lokaty sierpień 2012 konsolidacja kredytu w wbk pożyczka na procent brodnica pożyczki ekspresowe bez bik optima kredyty lubin kredyty bez bik kalkulator koszty pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny skok rrso pożyczki prywatne na procent płock kredyt bank rzeszów adres kredyty pozabankowe dla firm bez bik pożyczka bez bik na dowód kredyt bank wypowiada umowy na życie kredyt bank lublin windykacja kontakt umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziny wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla forum umowa pożyczki niedozwolone klauzule kredyt bez bik zus i us kredyt bank kraków stradomska godziny otwarcia pożyczki ursynów kredyty bankowe z komornikiem pożyczki chwilówki puławy pożyczki na rozwój działalności kredyt bank gamma kredyt bank bankomaty euronet prominent pożyczki lublin kredyt bank groupon pożyczki dla start up umowa pożyczki pod zastaw złota kredyt bez bik alior bank kredyt bank zmiana limitu dziennego kredyt bank tabela opłat i prowizji kredyt bank kontakt mailowy pożyczki na lichwe kredyt na start w idea banku opinie umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wniosek kredyt bez bik 50000 bocian pożyczki bełchatów kredyt bank w luboniu 2000 pozyczki bez dowodu od zaraz kredyt bank w kepnie kredyt bez bik wniosek online pożyczki bez wpisu do bik pożyczki bez bik w gorzowie wlkp kredyt bez bik wadowice kredyt bank dworcowa gliwice kredyt chwilówka 24 pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości gorzów kredyt bank w mińsku mazowieckim pożyczki bank pko niespłacone pożyczki prywatne pożyczki pod weksel kraków kredyt na zakup ziemi bank spółdzielczy pożyczki bez bik warszawa kredyt bank kostrzyn kredyt samochodowy w mbanku forum kredyty bez komornika biku pożyczki online na dowód bez bik firma 7 pożyczki praca opinie co grozi za niespłacenie pożyczki w providencie konwersja pożyczki na udziały kalkulator pożyczki ekspresowej w pekao sa kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator credit agricole kredyt bez biku kraków oprocentowanie pożyczki pracowniczej kredyty bez bik kutno kredyt na samochód bez bik forum kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki bez bik w jakim banku wziąć kredyt 10000 kredyt konsolidacyjny plock kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt pko bp opinie kredyt bank zmiana limitu przelewu kredyt konsolidacyjny w żaglu pożyczki prywatnie kredyt pożyczka bez bik kredyt bank w rybniku oprocentowanie kredytu w banku śląskim tani kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki chwilówki na dowód bydgoszcz kredyty bez biki krd kredyt bank dyrektor marketingu gdzie w rzeszowie można dostać dobry kredyt bez bik kredyt bank rypin pożyczki unijne na otwarcie działalności kredyt bank pożyczka konsolidacyjna kredyt bank dane do przelewu pozyczka typu providen euro cen bocian kredyt bank program partnerski kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego provident nr pożyczki kredyt studencki banki kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior bank opinie pozyczka bez bik opolskie bezpieczny kredyt bez bik opinie nfośigw pożyczki pcc od umowy pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu nfośigw pożyczki preferencyjne pożyczki na firmę bez bik w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na auto bocian pożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczki na dowód olsztynek kredyt bank warszawa ul targowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw gliwice praca w kredyty chwilówki zarobki umowa pożyczki w lombardzie alfa kredyty chwilówki kredyt bank akcjonariat kredyty mieszkaniowe luty 2013 pożyczki chwilówki dębica kredyty bez bik do 25000 kredyt bank 24 doładowanie telefonu umowa pożyczki wypowiedzenie pożyczki pozabankowe opole bocian pożyczki tarnów kredyt bank konto walutowe pożyczki gwarant opinie pożyczka tygodniowka elbląg pożyczki na dowód zakopane najtańsze pożyczki ranking potwierdzenie salda pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank kościuszki pruszków pożyczki bez biku w tomaszowie maz kredyt bank chojnice pozyczki krakow bez zaswiadczen kredyt studencki pko kiedy spłata pieniążek pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki wrocław kredyt studencki na mieszkanie opinie kredyt samochodowy bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank forum 2011 kredyt bank lublin zana 38 kredyt w uk na dom kredyt bank kostrzyn kredyt bank 3 oddział poznań pożyczki gotówkowe kraków kredyt na dowod do reki bez dochodow gryfino umowa pożyczki od członka rodziny pożyczki bez poręczyciela kredyt bank wypowiedzenie rachunku nie zgłosiłem pożyczki od rodziny pożyczki bocian numer telefonu na jaki numer kredyt orange umorzenie pożyczki jaki pit umorzenie pożyczki wzór idea bank kredyt dla firm forum pozyczka w bankach na umowe zlecenie w czestochowie pożyczki pod weksel bez przedpłat kredyty chwilówki tychy tel pożyczki prywatne augustów umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej a podatek pożyczki bez biku zabrze pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorstw lublin kredyty chwilówki środa wlkp kredyty chwilówki ulotki pożyczki pozabankowe wejherowo pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe pożyczki na dowód jastrzębie zdrój pożyczki bocian kłodzko konwersja pożyczki na kapitał wzór kredyt bank hrubieszów tel kredyty gotówkowe skok chmi pożyczki ustka kredyty bez bik big krd centrala kredyt banku w warszawie pożyczki na dowód porównanie kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator getin bank kosiński pożyczki kredyt bankowy i jego cechy eurocash pożyczki kraków kredyt bez bik 7 kredyt bank kody jednorazowe pożyczki na dowód przez telefon kredyt bank wycena nieruchomości kredyt bank siedziby warszawa kredyt samochodowy na firmę porównanie helikon pozyczki opinie pożyczka wieloratalna przez internet kredyty bez bik sochaczew umowy pożyczki pieniędzy wzory kredyt konsolidacyjny wymogi kredyty chwilówka namysłów kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku forum pożyczki definicja wzór umowy pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem bank millenium kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki prywatne radom kredyty pozabankowe bez biku bocian pożyczki nowa sól kredyty chwilówki partner kredyt bank przeniesienie karty kredytowej kredyt konsolidacyjny do jakiej kwoty pożyczki chwilówki świecie gdzie kredyt bez bik zatrudnionych zagranica marża banku kredyt obrotowy pożyczki od prywatnych osób z londynu kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank kalkulator umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a osobą fizyczną dobre pożyczki bez biku drugi kredyt w innym banku kredyt mieszkaniowy dochody z zagranicy uni cash pożyczki kredyt bez zaświadczenia o dochodach forum kredyt bank pyrzyce umowa pożyczki od brata wzór pożyczki chwilówki szczecin krzywoustego pożyczki bez bik żywiec gdzie uzyskac kredyt bez bik kredyt bank w katowicach jak obliczyć całkowity koszt pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki łęczyca pożyczki bez biku łódź kredyt w banku bez umowy o prace kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku millennium prometeusz pożyczki bydgoszcz pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez zaświadczeń pożyczki łódź opinie kredyt santander bank 3x33 szybkie pożyczki na konto bez bik wysokie pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia placówka kredyt banku warszawa pożyczki bez bik siedlce kasa polska pożyczki podatek od odsetek od pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej umowa pożyczki dla siostry kredyt bank warszawa ul żytnia pożyczki pozabankowe ślimak szczecin pożyczki prywatne chwilówki kredyt bank czarne złoto pismo z prośbą o umorzenie pożyczki z fśs pożyczki chwilówki w bydgoszczy pożyczki w instytucjach pozabankowych okres przedawnienia pożyczki z zfśs kody do orange na kredyt pożyczki gotówkowe w pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny banku bph kredyt bez biku na dowód pożyczki chwilówki jak założyć oprocentowanie pożyczki w bankach pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2011 pożyczki chwilówki online obligacje pożyczki narodowej 1934 pozyczka dla zadluzonych w getin banku kredyt konsolidacyjny od jakiej kwoty kto umowa pożyczki pod zastaw kredyty chwilówki konin kredyt w banku irlandzkim kredyty chwilówki lubań fałszywe pożyczki pozyczki z dowozem do domu bez zaswiadczen warszawa kredyt w alior banku pożyczki na dowód w łodzi forma pożyczki kredyt bank drezdenko udziele pożyczki prywatnej forum kredyt bank ukraine pożyczki udzielone księgowanie pożyczki pod zastaw telefonów radom prośba o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór pożyczki z zakładowego funduszu mieszkaniowego zagraniczny inwestor pozyczki pożyczki lidzbark warmiński kredyt konsolidacyjny ing kredyt studencki pko bp termin składania wniosków drugi kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki logo pożyczki od ręki bocian kredyt studencki pko bp odroczenie spłaty kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych 25000zl w banku klient zaciągnął kredyt gdzie kredyt bez biku pokwitowanie pożyczki wzór bardzo szybkie kredyty bez bik pożyczki przez internet bez bik i zaświadczeń wycena bilansowa pożyczki w walucie kredyt bank połczyn zdrój tanie kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator kredyt pozabankowy przez internet kredyty bez bik i zdolności kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior opinie kredyty w banku millenium jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt samochodowy w banku bgż szybkie pożyczki bartoszyce pożyczki bez bik na święta pożyczki społecznościowe bez weryfikacji pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyt gotówkowy w eurobank kredyt bank czestochowa dekabrystów kredyt konsolidacyjny bez nieruchomości kredyt bank rachunek firmowy pożyczki na gumtree kredyt bank konto bankowe kredyt bez bik do 2000 pożyczki od osób prywatnych wałbrzych kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank opinie getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego kredyt bank białystok ul warszawska kredyt idea bank online kredyt mieszkaniowy abc kredyt bank krosno godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki praca warszawa credit agricole swiebodzin pozyczka 10tys pożyczki w czechach pieniądz kredyt bankowy i cykle koniunkturalne kredyt bez bik w skok kredyt bank w zgierzu kredyt bez bik raty pożyczki ostrów wlkp dla zadłóżonych kontakt tel kredyt konsolidacyjny co oznacza odsetki od pożyczki w grupie kapitałowej szybkie pożyczki gdynia kredyt w banku zagranicznym kredyt idea bank forum getin noble bank kredyt obrotowy kredyt bank warszawa ken 57 kredyty mieszkaniowe belgia bezpieczny kredyt bez bik opinie udzielone pożyczki długoterminowe w bilansie idea bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie pożyczki pozabankowe rzeszów broker pożyczki bez badania zdolności kredytowej pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki amber gold umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór bez odsetek kredyt na orange jaki numer kredyt konsolidacyjny w którym banku kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku bgz bank pko bp kredyt rodzina na swoim alior bank kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku 2013 kredyt bankowy dla małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór bez odsetek kredyty chwilówki logo pożyczki na dowód wałbrzych kredyt samochodowy w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki pozabankowe bochnia kredyt chwilówka 24 pozyczki chwilowki bez bik na dowod kredyt pozabankowy toruń kredyt bez bik online kredyt na mieszkanie w getin banku kredyt samochodowy na firme forum pożyczki pod zastaw telefonów wrocław kredyty bankowe plan kont kredyt bank akredytywa pożyczki chwilówki online bez krd partner pożyczki opinie kredyty na dowod radomsko pożyczki chwilówki brodnica pozyczki pod zastaw samochodu trojmiasto kredyty mieszkaniowe toruń kredyt konsolidacyjny bez małżonka pożyczki w uk szybkie pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet kredyt bank starachowice godziny otwarcia kredyt konsumpcyjny prawo bankowe kredyt bank oddział jana pawła warszawa na jaki numer wysyła sie kredyt w orange kredyt bank kosciuszki sopot księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki w jst kredyt studencki warunki pko kredyty chwilówka knurów kredyt w banku bzwbk kredyty chwilówki myslenice kredyt bank iii oddział kraków pozyczki w niedziele elementy umowy kredytowej wg prawa bankowego oprocentowanie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki pozabankowe nysa kredyt studencki bank pko sa kredyt bez bik do 10 tys umorzenie pożyczki po niemiecku pożyczki w ramach bgk kredyty chwilówki namysłów pozyczki osoby prywatne bydgoszcz kredyt studencki pko umowa turbo pożyczki kredyt w getin noble bank opinie optima pożyczki windykacja kredyt bank warszawa vii oddział pozyczki publiczne zalety pozyczki lubin mam długi potrzebuje pozyczki opole lubelskie pozyczki od reki w ostrolece umowa o zwrot pożyczki wzór nbp kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu wrocław pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczenia kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego alior bank kredyt bank ostrobramska warszawa pożyczki chwilówki płońsk pozyczka lubsko bez bik pożyczki pko pożyczki chwilówki warszawa jana pawła mikropożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności 2014 kredyty chwilówki tczew kredyt chwilowki lubin kredyt bank emilii gierczak szczecin pożyczki bankowe dla emerytów kredyt bank euro przelew kredyt studencki pko a urlop dziekański szybkie pożyczki w uk gros pożyczki toruń kredyt chwilówka kraków pieniądze do domu pożyczki szybkie pozyczki w domu prodomo warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki z providenta pożyczki peer to peer kredyt bez bik krd przez internet pożyczki z wojewódzkiego funduszu ochrony środowiska

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad