pożyczki na dowód piekary śląskie zwrot pożyczki ang prywatne pożyczki tczew kredyt bank ul kasprzaka 22 kredyt bank ciechanów telefon pożyczki prywatne bełchatów pożyczki chwilówki w bydgoszczy konto pożyczki udzielone kredyt bank oświadczenie inwestora zastępczego szybkie pożyczki online na dowód kredyt bankowy i jego cechy kredyt w banku millenium credyt pozyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank świętojańska gdynia opinie o pszczułce kredyty gus pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe alior bank kredyty pozabankowe bez zaswiadczen pożyczki inwestorskie pod zastaw jaki druk pcc od umowy pożyczki pożyczki z dostawą do domu kredyt studencki pko ile kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander bank pożyczki lubin armii krajowej pożyczki pozabankowe we wrocławiu wzór umowy pożyczki spłata w ratach pożyczki prywatne na działalność gospodarczą mikrokasa pożyczki kredyty chwilówki pozabankowe pozyczki w pko kredyt bankowy jego funkcje pożyczki chwilówki bez bik krd kredyt bank kalwaryjska kraków godziny otwarcia w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy 2013 kredyty w idea banku kredyt odnawialny pko kredyty chwilówki nysa kredyt bez biku bydgoszcz kredyt bez bik swidnica pożyczki pozabankowe prywatne wrocław kredyt banku sa pożyczki chwilówki śląskie pożyczki takto forum kredyt dla firm bez zus radom czy umowa pożyczki może być ustna getin bank kredyt samochodowy opinie 2013 pożyczki bezzwrotne dla nowych firm kredyt konsolidacyjny obliczenia umowa pożyczki pieniężnej między firmami umowa pożyczki od siostry kredyty chwilówki mysłowice grunwaldzka kredyt banki sieradz umowa pożyczki wibor pozyczka bez oplat i krs kredyt refinansowy w jakim banku kredyt bank bankomaty władysławowo regulamin pożyczki skok księgowanie odsetek od pożyczki udziałowca kredyty bez biku wadowice uruchomienie pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłuzonych kontakt bocian pożyczki dąbrowa górnicza kredyt bank oddział w toruniu pożyczki chwilówki na dowód rzeszów kredyt z komornikiem kamienna gora kredyty chwilówki chojnice pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych na dowód szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez bik krd zwolnienia grupowe w kredyt banku 2012 chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki godula kredyt konsolidacyjny bank kredyt w banku spółdzielczym kalkulator szybkie pożyczki anglia pożyczki na dowód długoterminowe kredyty chwilówki dębica preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko spłata kredyt bank sa kariera kredyt w dombanku bezpłatne konto w kredyt banku kredyt bank ciołka 10 godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik bankowe poszukuję pożyczki kredyt rns banki kredyt bank poleasingowe kredyt studencki wbk 2013 pozyczki bez bik wloclawek kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim ranking kredyt konsolidacyjny ge money bank pożyczki chwilówki chorzów centrum pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki forum pożyczki pod kontrakt umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki jawnej kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bgż opinie pozyczka z obsluga w domu warszaw pożyczki płońsk kredyty pozabankowe 50000 kredyt dla nowo powstałych firm bez bik kredyty chwilówki siemianowice śląskie kredyt bank consumer finance kredyty pozabankowe do 20000 getin noble bank kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank praktyki kredyt bank iv oddział wrocław plac solny lokaty w kredyt banku 2012 kredyt bank lipowa 4 kredyt na samochód bez bik zaświadczeń mikropożyczki 2013 kredyt bez bik biała podlaska kredyt bank laczy sie skarabeusz pożyczki rzeszów pożyczki bez bik tomaszów mazowiecki kredyt bez bik 20 000 aktywna umowa pożyczki pożyczki tylko na dowód osobisty kredyt bez bik slask pożyczki bez opłat rejestracyjnych kredyt w postbank kredyt bank oddział ruda śląska preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko regulamin pożyczki unijne małopolska kredyt mdm banki oferta pożyczki pko bp bilans pożyczki udzielone pożyczki internetowe opinie udzielenie pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie kredyt samochodowy dla firm kalkulator mikrokasa pożyczki bocian pożyczki ilawa kredyty chwilówki gredan pożyczki bez zaświadczeń provident pożyczki ratunkowe kredyt mieszkaniowy komornik kredyty chwilowki starogard gdanski pożyczki na dowód jaki numer na kredyt w orange pozyczki na weksel u klienta w domu mazowieckie pożyczki na weksel udzielenie pożyczki podmiotowi zagranicznemu provident pożyczki przelew kredyt bankowy dla bezrobotnych pożyczki świecie duży kredyt pozabankowy jaki jest numer do bociana zeby wziasc pozyczke pożyczki udzielone spółce przez wspólnika kredyt bank bialystok sklodowskiej kredyt bank oddział bielany wrocławskie kredyt mieszkaniowy w uk forum kredyt pozabankowy prywatny kredyt bank bez prowizji bocian pożyczki włocławek kredyt bankowy książka pożyczki unijne dla małych firm dolnośląskie kredyt bank bankomat prowizja pożyczki pod zastaw kołobrzeg pożyczki między firmami pcc kredyt chwilówka czechowice kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku kalkulator kredyty pozabankowe piła kredyt bank w lubartowie kredyt studencki w banku bgż pożyczki w provident kwota główna pożyczki kredyt bez big krakow kredyt bank kod iban wzór umowy pożyczki od rodziców pozyczki prywatne bez zaswiadczen bez bik i krd tczew getin noble bank kredyt dla firm oferty pożyczki bez bik pewne pożyczki dla każdego opinie pożyczki prywatne tarnowskie góry warunki kredytu credit agricole gdańsk pożyczki chwilówki usługa udzielenia pożyczki umowa pożyczki dla spółki wzór najgorsze pożyczki zawieszenie kredytu w credit agricole pożyczki spłacane tygodniowo częstochowa pożyczki prywatne zdunska wola pożyczki w firmie bocian umowa pożyczki rodzaje pożyczki bez bik śląskie kredyt bank zniknie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik lublin pożyczki pozabankowe 50000 umowa pożyczki właścicielskiej kredyty chwilówki praca opinie kredyt chwilówka warszawa grochowska kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibanku kredyt bank wrzeszcz kredyt bank w oleśnicy pożyczki pozabankowe na 30 lat getink bank krasnik kredyt dla firm kredyty mieszkaniowe czy warto kredyt bank warszawa jana pawła zgłoszenie umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym kamila ignasiak pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki olsztyn pieniężnego pożyczki bez bik do 2000 czy kredyt bankowy jest opodatkowany pożyczki bez bik optima kredyt bank wiceprezes pożyczki bez biku częstochowa podatek od pożyczki kara wypowiedzenie ubezpieczenia pożyczki kredyt bankowy a przedawnienie pożyczki tak to db kredyt gotówkowy bez bik pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen i przelewania grosza pożyczki pod nieruchomość kredyt bank jelenia góra wyłudzenie pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki prywatne ostrowiec pożyczki dla zadłużonych kalisz pożyczki dla bezrobotnych wrocław pożyczki w prawie rzymskim alior bank kredyt w euro pożyczki bez bik banki alior bank kredyt symulacja kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najkorzystniej turbo express pożyczki kredyty bez bik piotrkow tryb pożyczki ratunkowe wrocław najbardziej opłacalne pożyczki kredyt bank w oświęcimiu umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla córki umowa pożyczki akcji kredyt bank lublin zana 38 d kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulatory konwersja umowy pożyczki pożyczki prywatne żory pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez konta w banku wzór na oprocentowanie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pekao s a kredyty chwilówki kierowca kredyt w banku bez krd cechy pożyczki jako czynności prawnej pozyczki pozabankowe 7 jacek cybulski pożyczki kredyt bank zarobki 2012 zaświadczenie o zarobkach pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy pozyczki chwilowki na dowod mragowo kredyt samochodowy bez bik na firme najszybszy kredyt w banku kredyt bankowy na dowód optima pożyczki leszno kredyty mieszkaniowe czerwiec 2013 chorobowe a pozyczka w providencie mariusz tierling pożyczki kredyt bank kolobrzeska kredyt bank olsztyn telefon kredyty chwilówki 5000 księgowanie pożyczki dla pracownika pożyczki tarnowskie góry kredyt bank rachunek bankowy potwierdzenie salda pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank żagiel bydgoszcz kredyt bank kamienna góra godziny otwarcia kredyt na pit 11 w getin banku pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości łódź novum finance pożyczki forum banki które daja kredyt bez bik pożyczki na rok kredyt w uk tesco kredyt samochodowy ranking pożyczki bez bik kontakt telefoniczny umowa pożyczki między znajomymi lukas bank kredyt na mieszkanie obligacja tymczasowa pożyczki ogólnej narodowej pożyczki tise kredyty chwilówki zgierz kredyt bank w lodzi jaki podatek od pożyczki od rodziny meritum pożyczki bez bik pożyczki społecznościowe ranking kredyty gotówkowe dla zadłużonych cechy pożyczki jako czynności prawnej pozyczki prywatne pod weksel zory i okolice kredyt bank rozmowa kwalifikacyjna umorzenie pożyczki z pfron umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór doradcy24 pożyczki kredyt bank pbi sa warszawa pożyczki chwilówki ranking pożyczki inwestorskie pod zastaw kredyt bank awaria kredyty chwilówki dział windykacji kredyt na auto bez bik i krd rezygnacja z konta bankowego kredyt bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach olsztyn kredyt bank w zgierzu szybki kredyt pozabankowy kredyt konsolidacyjny bz wbk opinie pożyczki 30000 kredyt bank zagiel kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla kalkulator ubezpieczenie pożyczki w provident kredyt bank siedlce kontakt opole pożyczki prywatne pozyczki bez umowy o prace sanok banki lokata z premią kredyt bank opinie kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus bankomaty fines pożyczki opinie udzielone pożyczki po angielsku kredyt bank w dabrowie tarnowskiej kredyt bank a santander szybką pożyczka do domu klienta udzielenie pożyczki firmie w którym banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki prywatne poznań kredyt konsumpcyjny eurobank pożyczki wewnętrzne państwa banki udzielające kredytów bez bik kredyty chwilówki wrocław pozyczka bez bik dla zadluzonych opolskie pozyczka online dla bezrobotnych kredyt studencki w pko bp sa szybka kasa pożyczki prodomo pożyczki nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bank leasing aukcje bank w rzeszowie ktury udziela pozyczek bez biku pozyczki gryfino pożyczki piotrków trybunalski kredyt bank zabrze ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2012 kredyty mieszkaniowe opinie pożyczki chwilówki łódź piotrkowska pożyczki bez bik i krd chrzanów kredyt bank ul wielicka godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy ing bank pozyczki dzialdowo jak wziąć kredyt w banku kredyt konsolidacyjny bez dochodów kredyt w eurobank kredyt bank w jastrowiu odsetki od pożyczki kup kredyt bank oplaty za prowadzenie konta czy umowa pożyczki ulega przedawnieniu kredyt bank lodz bednarska pożyczki dla osób zadłużonych z komornikiem largo pożyczki szybkie pożyczki bez formalności kredyt bank jelcz laskowice pożyczki bez big kredyty chwilówki pruszków wojska polskiego pożyczki domowe grudziądz cechy pożyczki i kredytu przedmiot umowy kredyt pozabankowy gliwice pożyczki od osób prywatnych kraków kredyt bank łódź bednarska pożyczki prywatne szczecinek obliczenie spłaty pożyczki pożyczki ebroker kredyt bank sa iii oddział we wrocławiu pożyczki w bydgoszczy karr pożyczki umowa pożyczki lichwa prywatne pozyczki chodziez nowe pozyczki pozabankowe pożyczki takie jak provident godziny przelewow kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny do jakiego wieku tanie pożyczki chwilówki pomocne pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilówki wrocław opinie kredyt samochodowy online do kwoty 20000 pln mbank dcf pożyczki umowa pożyczki kodeks cywilny kredyty bez bik białystok kredyt bankowy dla zadłużonych kredyt konsolidacyjny najmniejsze oprocentowanie szybki kredyt pozabankowy oddziały kredyt banku białystok pożyczki typu subprime pożyczki chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski pożyczki pozabankowe międzyrzecz kredyty i gwarancje bankowe pdf skok pożyczki dla lekarzy kredyt bank kapelanka kontakt kredyt na mieszkanie w banku wbk kredyt bank tomaszów maz godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy bez bik 2013 prywatne pozyczki opole pozyczka podobna do pozyczka zyrafa kredyty mieszkaniowe w credit agricole pożyczki z funduszu świadczeń socjalnych umowa pożyczki z bratem reklama pożyczki gotówkowej zwrot pożyczki podstawa prawna pożyczki łapy przedłużenie pożyczki vivus pismo o umorzenie kredytu z funduszu socjalnego bocian pożyczki chwilówki szybki kredytyt gotwkowe przez internet bez bik konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy księgowanie kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osoby niepełnosprawnej pożyczki pozabankowe chełm pożyczki włocławek bez bik kredyt studencki bank slaski kalkulator pożyczki kredytowej pożyczki w uk na rok kredyty chwilówki w łodzi pożyczki pozabankowe lublin pożyczki z europejskiego banku inwestycyjnego pożyczka na procent brodnica kredyt bez bik września kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najkorzystniej kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce praca za granica kredyty trudne bez biku pożyczki od ręki kredyty dar pożyczki działdowo kredyty mieszkaniowe dla singli forum kredyt bank oferty pracy kredyty bankowe ksiegowanie kredyt bank zespół zajęć komorniczych kredyt bank konstancińska godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe oława szybkie pożyczki bez bik wałbrzych kredyt bank żeromskiego radom pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez big bocian pożyczki myślibórz skok kujawiak pożyczki pożyczki dfg kody orange kredyt pożyczki dla firm bielsko kredyty chwilówka online cechy pożyczki wikipedia gdzie w bydgoszczy dostane pozyczke na dowod pożyczki prywatna od ręki kredyt studencki w pko bank polski szybkie pożyczki bez bik kalisz pożyczki prywatne tarnowskie góry kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zamość jaki numer kredyt orange kredyt bez bik 5 tys kredyt bank jasło jak wyliczyć odsetki od pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki prywatne pod weksel szybki kredyt bez biku i zaswiadczen prywatne pożyczki inwestycyjne kredyt bank rybnik plac wolności godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik pożyczki szczecin pozyczka bez bik wabrzezno pożyczki na dowód od 18 lat online pożyczki dla firm skok kredyt bank gliwice dworcowa kredyt bank raszyn godziny pozyczka do domu gdynia kredyt bank myszków pożyczki ustawa kredyt pozabankowy na mieszkanie pożyczki pozabankowe duze kwoty kredyt bank w jarosławiu kredyt studencki pko bp do kiedy legitymacja odmowa udzielenia pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki społecznościowe blog kredyt bank ochrony środowiska pożyczki dla nowych firm bez bik jak zaksięgować umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bank kraków dietla pożyczki od inwestorów kredyt bez biku z komornikiem pożyczki bez bik wejherowo pożyczki od osób prywatnych belchatow kredyty chwilowki gdansk kredyt bank chełmska godziny otwarcia polbank pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty chwilówki siemianowice świerczewskiego pcc od pożyczki od firmy pożyczki od osób prywatnych nowy dwór mazowiecki kredyty konsolidacyjne gotówkowe porównanie kredyt bank powstańców śląskich warszawa telefon pożyczki dla zadłużonych i z komornikiem pożyczki biznes pożyczki osób bezrobotnych gdzie najłatwiej dostać kredyt bez bik kredyt pozabankowy na zaswiadczenieno zarobkach kredyt bankowy dokumenty pożyczki gotówkowe elbląg kredyt na samochód bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt bank warszawa ul abrahama kiedy kredyt bankowy jest przedawniony kredyty bez bik jelenia gora kredyty chwilówki brzeg kredyt bank łuków praca kredyt bank lokaty październik 2012 pożyczka na uwowa zlecenie czwa kredyty chwilówki umowa kredyt w banku wcześniejsza spłata pozyczka bez big i krs pożyczki na dowód chwilówki kredyty chwilówki olsztyn kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank opinie kredyt bank program partnerski kredyt bank wita stwosza wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń na 10 lat pcc od umowy pożyczki a kup pcc od pożyczki kosztem uzyskania przychodu kredyt bank kozienice

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad