pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej od 18lat ranking kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kalkulator szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd online pożyczki w skok stefczyka kredyt bank chełm kontakt pożyczki w skoku kredyt w banku bez biku pozyczki bez bik tel pożyczki prywatne zabrze pożyczki bez bik i krd jelenia góra pożycze prywatnie bez przedpłat kredyt bez bik żary pożyczki bocian gryfice kredyt konsolidacyjny meritum bank opinie ing bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt studencki bank pekao bp kredyt bank płock kolegialna deklaracja od pożyczki preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko forum kredyty chwilówki przez internet bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe rynek wtórny atiz pożyczki opinie pożyczki 30000 kredyt bank godziny otwarcia skawina udzielam pożyczki prywatnej umowa pożyczki z odsetkami szybka pozyczka z dostawa do domu zywiec kredyt bank warszawa jana pawła potrącenie pożyczki z odprawy emerytalnej kredyt bank lokata internetowa kredyt w alior banku kalkulator umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z zastawem wzór umowa pożyczki dla roidziny kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator bgz pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych kredyt bank lubań forta pożyczki łódź kredyt bank italy kredyt pozabankowy opinie kredyt bank jana pawła stara miłosna kredyt bank skok oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior bank kredyty chwilowki plonsk szybkie pożyczki przez internet koszt przelewu z karty kredytowej pko bp kredyt bank turek godziny otwarcia dobre pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank pl kursy walut kredyt przez internet bez bik i krd pożyczki bez podatku podatek kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego deutsche bank pożyczki chwilówki żary kredyt mieszkaniowy plus gotówka pożyczka 20000 bez weryfikacji warszawa pożyczki z obsługa w domu pozyczka getin bank w 5 minut kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczenia o dochodach kredyt studencki pko 2012 potrzebuję pożyczki 2014 prywatne pożyczki na sam dowód kredyty chwilówki zduńska wola umowa pożyczki zawarta zagranicą ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych grudzień 2012 pożyczki pozabankowe chorzów pożyczki bez bik i krd bialystok pożyczki pod zastaw auta śląsk kredyty chwilówki kraków kalwaryjska rodzaje kredytów bankowych dla msp kredyty dla nowych firm bez bik pożyczki prometeusz wrocław kredyt dla zadluzonych bez biku pożyczki bez banku activia 500 pozyczki czy sa w raciborzu kredyt bank kapelanka kredyty chwilówki wałbrzych broniewskiego kredyty pozabankowe piekary śląskie optima pożyczki dokumenty kredyt bezzwrotny idea bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny millennium bank pożyczki gotówkowe gdynia pożyczki do 50000 kredyt bank jumper 4 pożyczki na dowód wadowice w jakim banku wziac kredyt rodzina na swoim ranking kredytów samochodowych dla firm kredyty konsolidacyjne porownanie kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 zmiany pożyczki dla firm bielsko pożyczki społecznościowe jak inwestować kredyt bank 24h alior bank kredyt bez wychodzenia z domu pożyczki społecznościowe zopa kredyt konsolidacyjny do ilu lat wzór umowy pożyczki pienieżnej umowa pożyczki do spółki wzór kredyt bez bik na rok kredyt pocztowy na dowód pożyczka na rente socjalna krakow kredyt bank tarnobrzeg pożyczki dictionary bogdan dylewski pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne opinie pożyczki online bez bik i krd i przelewania grosza udziele pożyczki prywatnie poznań gdzie pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem szybkie pożyczki lubuskie abis szybkie pozycxki skarabeusz pożyczki czestochowa kredyt bank starzyńskiego podporzadkowanie pożyczki kredyty internetowe bez bik pożyczki na dowód szybko kredyty chwilówki inwestor pozyczka od reki bez biku błyskawiczne pożyczki online pożyczki na telefon 24 pożyczki radomsko kredyt na start firmy bez bik potrącenie pożyczki z odprawy kredyt studencki w banku pko bp luban sl prywatna pozyczka latwy kredyt samochodowy krakow kredyty w domu klijenta jarosław kredyty chwilówki z komornikiem kredyt bank sa płatności masowe kredyt studencki pko 2014 kredyty bez bik i zus pożyczki pozabankowe w pabianicach kredyt bank lublin windykacja kontakt bezzwrotne pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit 2013 picasso pożyczki wyliczanie rat pożyczki pożyczki tygodniowki elbląg księgowanie udzielonej pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank w gorzowie wlkp kredyt bankowy jako źródło finansowania msp kredyty chwilówki bez bik szczecin regulamin pożyczki mieszkaniowej bocian kredyt wloclawek kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych bez bik finan pożyczki kredyt według prawa bankowego kredyt bez biku tczew sigma bank kredyty bez poręczycieli bydgoszcz kredyt bank wypowiedzenie umowy sezam pożyczki krotoszyn kredyt bank warszawa sadyba waloryzacja pożyczki najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń ogłoszenia pożyczki wrocław kredyt bank zana kredyt bank krasnystaw kontakt kredyt samochodowy otomoto forum pożyczki bez stałych dochodów kredyt konsolidacyjny w pocztowym wyliczanie oprocentowania pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe legionowo przedawnienie pożyczki z zfśs ing bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt bank w grodzisku maz pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy marża argentum capital pożyczki potrzebny szybki kredyt bez bik pożyczki ślimak szczecin kredyty chwilówki jaworzno grunwaldzka kredyt chwilówka ostrów mazowiecka weksel pożyczki wzór kredyt studencki w getin banku kredyt bank płatność kartą za granicą pożyczki od osób prywatnych słupsk wojewódzki fundusz ochrony środowiska pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik szybkie pozyczki pod zastaw busko pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na dowód kredyt bank sandomierz kredyty chwilówki jaki procent kredyt bank racibórz najszybszy kredyt konsolidacyjny pcc od umowy pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu głogowski pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny alior kalkulator praktyka w kredyt banku opinie kredyty bankowe pko sa kredyt w banku millennium pożyczki prywatne włocławek kredyt bank kupon 6 aneks do umowy pożyczki a pcc pożyczki bez bik i krd w domu kredyty w banku santander kredyt bez bik zus us kredyty pozabankowe zgorzelec eurocash pożyczki toruń umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą kredyt bank rakowicka pcc od pożyczki między firmami pozyczki internetowe bez sprawdzania bik i krs kredyt studencki na mieszkanie lukas bank kredyt bank w leżajsku przedmiotem pożyczki mogą być potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki wzór pożyczki w domu klienta zielona góra kredyt bank rachunek oszczędnościowy oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki co musi zawierać oblicz ratę pożyczki santander millenium bank kredyt na mieszkanie parkmar pozyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez bik bydgoszcz kredyty mieszkaniowe 2004 konto księgowe pożyczki alior bank kredyt na samochód kalkulator kredyt w banku a utrata pracy pożyczki pod zastaw międzyzdroje kredyt chwilówka współpraca umowa pożyczki wzór do pobrania pożyczki wągrowiec pożyczki chwilówki gdzie najlepiej kredyt rodzina na swoim w jakim banku najkorzystniej umowa pożyczki zwolnienie z podatku umowy pożyczki gotówkowej wzór kredyty bez sprawdzania w bazie bik kredyty bez bik jastrzebie zdroj kredyt bank warszawa wawelska pożyczki odnawialne kredyt bank ozorków kredyt w pko opinie kredyt bank warszawa ul kondratowicza jak udzielić pożyczki pracownikowi pozyczki w domu klienta kredyty bez bik bytom jak zdobyc pozyczke bez bik i komornika pożyczki logo pożyczki bez bik krd kredyty mieszkaniowe procent placówki kredyt banku w polsce umowa pożyczki od brata pożyczki w skoku forum pożyczki 24h na dobę kredyt studencki pekao kredyt bank w mińsku maz kredyt bez bik złotów kredyt bank transfery kredyt bank oddziały kredyt bez historii bik pożyczki polkowice kredyt konsolidacyjny bs kredyt bank morawskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny pozabankowy aktywna umowa pożyczki pożyczki ekspresowe na dowód kredyt na dowód bank pko kredyt bank łaczy sie kredyt bez bik bank warszawa mikropożyczki w polsce kredyty w uk forum kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kalkulator rat kredyt bank biłgoraj godziny otwarcia oświadczenie poręczyciela pożyczki kredyt bank dlugie ogrody umowa pożyczki od kolegi prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe kraków kredyt bank numer telefonu pożyczki na święta bez bik pożyczki od 19 lat przez internet umowa pożyczki referat pekao sa kredyty studenckie pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczenia kredyt bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank akcjonariat kod kredytowy orange pożyczki konsularne kredyt bank dzienny limit operacji mieszkanie na kredyt hipoteczny nowy targ kredyt bank oława kontakt pozyczka kredyt bez bik krd numer telefonu kredyty chwiluwki grodzisk wlkp w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt inwestycyjny pożyczki gumtree pożyczki pod zastaw bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny przez internet pożyczki dla małych firm bez bik kredyt gotówkowy bez bik online kredyty chwilówki reportaż optima pożyczki gniezno kancelaria finansowa pożyczki kredyt studencki pko transze opodatkowanie pożyczki dla firmy pożyczki krótkoterminowe w uk provident nr pożyczki pozyczki bez krd kredyt bank cennik usług kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczenia pożyczki na dowód inowrocław dobranie pożyczki w ing kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego 27 pożyczki daiglob finance pożyczki bez biku sieradz pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa bielany getin noble bank kredyty gotówkowe kredyty chwilówki w łukowie kredyt bez bik radomsko karty płatnicze w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki co musi zawierać umowa pożyczki pomiędzy małżonkami pożyczki chwilówki profit umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od ojca pozyczki chwilowki na dowow osobisty walbrzych pożyczki chwilówki warszawa puławska udziele pożyczki prywatnie pożyczki bez bik kielce pożyczki osoba prywatna pożyczki prywatne 30000 kredyty w banku lloyds pożyczki getin bank kredyty chwilówki parabank kredyt pozabankowy na kupno mieszkania gdzie kredyty bez biku wroclaw z komornikiem kredyt bank zawiercie telefon umowa pożyczki wzór spłata w ratach pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu opole kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego bank bph kredyt bank ostrow wlkp ewidencja odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki odsetki od pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi kredyt mieszkaniowy wcześniejsza spłata wniosek o restrukturyzację pożyczki kredyt bank csr pożyczki prywatne a podatek kod do kredytu w orange kredyt bank w lipnie umowa pożyczki z odsetkami credit agricole swiebodzin pozyczka 10tys kredyt konsolidacyjny teoria kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin pożyczki bez bik świecie kredyt bank gdańśk kredyt bank koszt przelewu kredyt bank liderzy biznesu druk pożyczki pkzp pożyczki prywatne gumtree pożyczki udzielane z budżetu państwa są alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim opinie kredyt bank zapomniałem hasła lojalka w kredyt banku kredyt lombardowy banku centralnego pożyczki między firmami pcc udziele pożyczki prywatnie warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millenium opinie udzielę pożyczki na procent pożyczki gotówkowe bez zabezpieczeń kredyty mieszkaniowe wkład własny kredyt bank spółdzielczy umowy kredytowe w spółce komandytowej kredyty bez bik w poznaniu kredyt bank bielany wrocławskie godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki podatek od czynności cywilnoprawnych optima pożyczki kraków forta pożyczki łódź pożyczki na termomodernizację zwolnienia w kredyt banku 2012 kredyty chwilówki wejherowo bocian pożyczki przyznawalność nowość pożyczki do domu 24 h pożyczki kontakt pozyczka z pracy bezprocentowa w uk kredyty bankowe stan początkowy pożyczki pod zastaw zasady pożyczki chwilówki szybkie pożyczki przez internet opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum banku pożyczki z sektora pozabankowego kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kalkulator kredyt bank zaswiadczenia potwierdzenie zwrotu pożyczki pożyczki bartuś tani kredyt bez bik kredyt bank arkadia pożyczki a podatek pcc pożyczki na dowód wrocław orange kredyt 5zł pozyczka bocian dla bezrobotnych kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku opinie preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko spłata koszt pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt konsolidacyjny na firme przedmiot pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy mbank wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp wzór szukam ekspresowej pozyczki tarnow kredyt bank sanok godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki w warszawie pożyczki bez bik piła kredyty bankowe funkcje kredyt bez biku do 50000 kredyt chwilówka opole bez bik getin bank oferta pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na dowód pożyczki płock online kredyt bank adres e mail umowa pożyczki dla spółki wzór potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia pozyczki prywatne wrocław polcredit pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa ul patriotów kredyt gotówkowy eurobank kalkulator pozyczki na dzialalnosc bez bik kredyt bank mława godziny otwarcia pozyczki prywatnych inwestorów kredyt studencki pekao sa 2012 kredyt bank 25 pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości gdańsk advice financial pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy bez odsetek kredyt bank otwock staszica pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i big umowa pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank w kutnie pożyczki pozabankowe olsztyn pożyczki chwilówki świecie prowizja pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny pko kalkulator kredyty chwilówki bez bik pożyczki luboń kredyt dla nestora w banku pocztowym pożyczki na dowód wadowice kredyt bank 24 infolinia kredyt chwilówka kłodzko pożyczki kościan pożyczki pyskowice kredyt gotówkowy pekao sa kalkulator pożyczki inwestycje pożyczki długoterminowe w uk kredyt bank zgierz kontakt opodatkowanie umorzonej pożyczki tytuł przelewu pożyczki pożyczki prywatne kutno pożyczki oświęcim jak dostać kredyt bez bik w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy forum umorzenie pożyczki a podatek kto udzieli pożyczki pozabankowej kredyty samochodowe alior bank pożyczki błyskawiczne pożyczki prywatne mogilno pożyczki na dowód od 18 kredyt konsolidacyjny w deutsche banku pozyczki prywatnych inwestorów pożyczki społecznościowe na dowód kredyty bez umowy kredyt bank wrocław plac solny kredyt bank warszawa ursynów godziny otwarcia pożyczki domówki grudziądz kredyt bank rawa mazowiecka godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe inowrocław pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomości bankowy kredyt gotówkowy kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pocztowy opinie kredyt bank jelenia góra kontakt ekspert pożyczki pozyczki na oświadczenie w ostrów mazowiecka kredyt bez bik konin znaczenie kredytu w działalności banku kredyt bank zory godziny otwarcia kredyt bank gdynia chwaszczyńska pożyczki chwilówki pomorskie kredyt chwilówka dla studenta chojnów kredyty bez bikkrd kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz pożyczki na dowód wejherowo bocian pożyczki środa wlkp pożyczki bez infomonitora kredyt bank warszawa siedziba bocian pożyczki chojnice kredyt bank tychy pożyczki społecznościowe dla zadłużonych kredyt bank targowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank doładowanie telefonu kredyt dla studenta bzwbk pożyczki bez bik wawa cz bank pocztowy daje kredyty mdm pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik kredyt bank transze tubielewicz pożyczki oświadczenie poręczyciela pożyczki kredyt samochodowy w mbank opinie santander bank kalkulator kredytu samochodowego umowa pożyczki kurs warunki dobrej pożyczki umowa pożyczki akt notarialny niski kredyt w banku rola kredytu w działalności banku kredyt w deutsche banku umowa pożyczki prawo bankowe pożyczki bez zaświadczeń płock pożyczki w domu klienta szczecin pożyczki na zakup towaru pożyczki dla zadłużonych kraków kredyt bankowy obrotowy kredyt bank pocztowy opinie mikropożyczki białystok

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad