umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs zmarłemu emerytowi kto udziela pozyczki w domu klienta walbrzych kredyt bez bik lublin kredyt na pit 11 w getin banku pożyczki dla zadłużonych bytom kredyty chwilówki dębica pożyczki infinity szybkie pożyczki przez internet na dowód bezbik kredyt bank świecie pożyczki ciechanów kredyt mieszkaniowy bez zdolności kredytowej pożyczki chwilówki jasło pożyczki bez bik stargard szczeciński ubezpieczenie do pożyczki gotówkowej cech pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy pod zastaw mieszkania rodziców kredyt bank filie kredyt preferencyjny w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki chwilówki bez przelewu getin noble bank kredyt na start kredyt bankowy praca licencjacka chomikuj el global rzeszów kredyty opinie kredyt bank natolin kredyt konsolidacyjny plock jak wziąć kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt gotówkowy w pekao sa opinie pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości szczecin kredyt konsolidacyjny w credit agricole kredyty chwilówki współpraca regulamin pożyczki pracowniczej kredyty chwilówki w skok pożyczki bez bik kraków pozyczka sms dla zadluzonych jestem w bik kredyt studencki w jakim banku 2011 pozyczka bez bik 5000 kredyt mieszkaniowy na nowe mieszkanie w jakim banku kredyt na mieszkanie forum odsetki ustawowe umowa pożyczki pożyczki jaworzno pożyczki chwilówki białystok lipowa pożyczki akcent pożyczki wielkopolska bocian pożyczki kielce forum kredyty chwilówki wniosek wzór umowy pożyczki wraz z ustanowieniem zastawu pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyty bez bik 25000 umowa pożyczki w transzach bankomat kredyt banku warszawa kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt kredyt samochodowy lukas bank kredyt samochodowy getin bank oprocentowanie pożyczki przez internet lista przedawnienie odsetek ustawowych umowa pożyczki kredyty chwilowki glogow w ktorym banku najtanszy kredyt kredyt credit agricole kalkulator kredyt bank gocław kredyt bank oferta konta pożyczki toruń bez bik kredyt bank zielona gora kontakt firma udzielająca pożyczki wałbrzych piaskowa góra kredyty na oddłużenie oddluzanie kredytow w tychach kredyt bank program lojalnościowy pożyczki chwilówki na sam dowód ranking kredytów samochodowych lipiec 2013 pozyczki bocian dla osob w bik eu2 pożyczki kredyt bank kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczki w banku śląskim kredyt bank kontakt lublin kredyt bank kołłątaja szczecin pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa gumtree kronos pożyczki kontakt pożyczki bez bik trójmiasto kredyt w getin bank kalkulator pożyczki podobne do vivusa odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem abis pozyczki chwilowki kontakt telefonizny kalkulator kredytowy jelenia góra banki kod na kredyt w orange kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku najlepiej forum kredyt konsolidacyjny ge money bank kalkulator kredyt bez bik i krd forum kredyt bank czas przelewu pozyczka podobna do pozyczka zyrafa kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki kielce oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego pko pożyczki prywatne dolny śląsk kredyt bank archiwum kursów walut kredyt bank racibórz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa szczecin kredyt bez biku świdnica kredyt bank łochów udzielę pożyczki pod weksel poznań kredyt bank ełk kontakt pożyczki bocian praca kredyt bank osiedle kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia niezgłoszenie pożyczki od rodziców pożyczki bez bik big i krd online prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław szybki kredyt w banku kredyty niebankowe kredyt bank raszyn telefon kredyt bank w katowicach w którym banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy kredyt mieszkaniowy na zarobki z zagranicy kredyty pozabankowe bez biku sosnowiec darmowa umowa pożyczki pozyczki chwilowki na dowod mragowo jaki kod w orange na kredyt kredyt bank żeromskiego 77 pozyczki zyrafa aleksandrow lodzki kto płaci podatek od udzielonej pożyczki assa pożyczki pożyczki rybnik bez bik lokata w kredyt banku 6 5 kredyt bank warszawa tarchomin bank pko kredyt studencki regulamin kredyt w irlandii bank of ireland luban sl pozyczki prywatne kredyt bank cash4you szybkie pozyczki bez bik krd z komornikiem torun udzielenie pożyczki udziałowcowi kredyt bank w dębicy pożyczki pozabankowe gryfice el global pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe bez wychodzenia z domu pożyczki kórnik kredyt bank nowy sącz jagiellońska bocian pożyczki zgierz w jakim banku wziąć kredyt forum kredyt bank konferencja pożyczki bez bik nakło nad notecią pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez big kredyt bank konto junior kredyt bank częstochowa dekabrystów pożyczki pozabankowe od zaraz ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych marzec 2012 w jakim banku nie brac kredytu kredyty bez bik ruda slaska biuro dobrej pożyczki pko pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty chwilówki lędziny kredyt samochodowy getin bank forum kredyt bank wroclaw powstancow umowa pożyczki bankowej przedawnienie kredyt bank zgłoszenie zagubienia karty pożyczki polskie kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior banku pko kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kalkulator szybki kredyt w banku pocztowym gdzie dobry kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki mikołów pożyczki brzesko pożyczki gros kapitał kredyt bank bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia pożyczki przez internet bez bik i zaświadczeń getin bank kredyt bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank komornik pożyczki bez bik cały kraj tfad pożyczki pożyczki profireal jakie są ustawowe odsetki od pożyczki kredyty chwilówki sulechów kredyt bank zielona góra kontakt pozyczki dzialdowo pożyczki od osób prywatnych lods kredyt on line bez biku meritum bank kredyt online opinie jak dostac kredyt w uk kredyt bez weryfikacji w biku kredyt mieszkaniowy porównanie ofert banków pożyczki pozabankowe garwolin eurocash pożyczki chwilówki kredyt chwilówki gliwice kredyt bank polska 2012 skarabeusz pożyczki przemysl kredyty oddłużeniowe pozabankowe mikropożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt getin bank opinie pożyczki pozabankowe z obsługą w domu kredyt bank opłata za listę haseł pko bank polski sa kredyt studencki pożyczki pozabankowe bełchatów pożyczki bezzwrotne dla mikrofirm kredyt bank łódź zgierska godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w mbanku szybkie pożyczki prywatne przez internet pożyczki na rozwój firmy oprocentowanie pożyczki pko sa pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw samochodu renata pikuła pożyczki kredyt bank rawicz kontakt kredyt bank wałbrzych ul słowackiego kredyt bank godz otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp kalkulator kredyty pozabankowe chełm kredyty konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej gredan pożyczki pożyczki morąg kredyt bez biku bialystok bankomaty kredyt banku rzeszów pożyczki pod zastaw biżuterii pożyczki prywatne malbork oświadczenie o udzieleniu pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy bgż kalkulator kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowe kredyt bank spółdzielczy konto pożyczki długoterminowe banki udzielające pożyczki kredyt w banku a zgon kredyty pozabankowe dlugoterminowe kredyt bez bik chełm kredyty chwilowki krs pożyczki chwilówki chojnice kredyt chwilówki zielona góra kredyt konsolidacyjny bez poreczycieli umowa pożyczki dla dziecka wzór kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko sa kredyty konsolidacyjne gdynia umowa pożyczki pit kredyt bez bik gryfice kredyt bez bik na umowe zlecenie umowa dotycząca pożyczki pieniędzy feniks pożyczki opinie udzielę prywatnej pożyczki katowice kredyty chwilówki tychy jana pawła ii opinie na temat dobrej pożyczki skarbiec kredyt chwilówka getin bank kredyt bank starzyńskiego pozyczka prywatna czechowice pożyczki świecie pożyczki bocian kościan kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy z komornikiem kredyt przez internet bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole kalkulator skok kujawiak pożyczki pożyczki bez podatku kredyty bez bik w sosnowcu pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki warszawa mbank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat umowa pożyczki elementy dokumentowanie odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bank profile pożyczki z nfośigw pożyczki money now pożyczki pozabankowe w legnicy kredyt bank placówki wrocław godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe w 15 min pożyczki sł margonem kredyt bank konstancinska pożyczki kruk sa chwilówki i pożyczki pozabankowe w starachowicach kredyty chwilowki na oswiadczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko sa kredyt bank rachunek powierniczy jak wyliczyć odsetki od umowy pożyczki kredyt bank lodz piotrkowska pożyczki na dowód opinie mikropożyczki dla bezrobotnych czy od pożyczki bankowej płaci się podatek wniosek o kredyt bankowy wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy w idea bank pożyczki prow kredyt bank wielkokacka kredyt bank pocztowy kalkulator kredyt bank kontakt mailowy pożyczki bez historii kredytowej prometeusz pozyczka gotówkowa na dowód kredyt na dowód bank bph capital partners pożyczki kredyty bankowe pasywa warunki kredytu w banku wbk kredyty bez bik 2012 kredyt bank mielżyńskiego poznań kredyt bank ząbki jak wziąć kredyt w banku zagranicznym kredyt mieszkaniowy przy zarobkach 2500 kredyt bank godziny otwarcia tarnów pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów wrocław w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt studencki który bank udziela kredytów bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złą historią kredytową alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie wynagrodzenie w kredyt banku kredyt studencki na preferencyjnych warunkach najtaszy kredyt pozabankowy przez internet ranking kredytów samochodowych marzec 2013 24 h pożyczki telefon polska kapitalizacja odsetek pożyczki kredyty pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego deutsche bank pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt bank rybnik plac wolności kredyty chwilówki kraków ul długa pożyczki bez bik internetowe wzór umowy pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie kredyty bankowe książki chomikuj kredyt konsolidacyjny z komornikiem kredyty bez bik żary kredyt bank sa jelenia góra kredyt bank łączy się z pożyczki chwilówki swarzędz kredyt bank w cieszynie kredyty bez biku sosnowiec getin bank kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń kredyt dla firm w getin banku kredyt bank www kredyt bank lokata forum pożyczki umowa o dzieło kredyt bankowy książka kredyty bankowe współpraca pożyczki pozabankowe legionowo pożyczki oleśnica pożyczki dla bezrobotnych poznań udzielone pożyczki prezentacja w bilansie kredyt bank warszawa grójecka pożyczki katowice kredyty chwilówki w łodzi sprawdzone pożyczki dla zadłużonych kredyt bank departament prawny pożyczki prywatne 24h kredyt bank białołęka bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny 60 tys kredyt bank parkiet forum szybki kredyt dla firm online umowa pożyczki jak księgować pożyczki chwilówki opinie kredyt bank pruszcz wzór umowy pożyczki dla syna chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki orzegów pożyczki pod zastaw ruchomości pożyczki dla firm wrocław przelewy walutowe w kredyt banku kredyt online bez bik kredyt bank królewska 63 pożyczki społecznościowe spłacalność kredyt pod zastaw działki bez bik kredyt bank praca pożyczki na otwarcie działalności gospodarczej bocian pożyczki głogów kredyt bank okulickiego szczecin godziny otwarcia rata pożyczki pożyczki bez bik szybko i prosto kredyt bank świdnica kontakt przetarg na kredyt bankowy 2013 umorzenie pożyczki po śmierci pracownika pożyczki bez bik zgierz umowa pożyczki historia kredyt studencki pko zaświadczenie z uczelni pozyczki chwilowki szczecin pożyczki wrocław bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na czas określony pożyczki dla adwokatów umowa pożyczki osoba prywatna wzór kredyty chwilówki z komornikiem pożyczki chwilówki jak otworzyć kredyt bank kraków wielicka kredyt bank blz pożyczki ratunkowe wrocław pwr pożyczki gdzie można uzyskać kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik eurobank kredyt kredyt bank szczecin adres szybkie pożyczki kwidzyn kredyt na samochód bez bik krd marcin adler pożyczki pożyczki głubczyce kredyt bez sprawdzania biku kredyt bank w brzegu umowa pożyczki opracowanie pożyczki dla osób prowadzących działalność forsa pożyczki kredyty chwilówki warszawa opinie wierzyciel pożyczki kontakt jak otrzymac pozyczke w prodomo pożyczki prywatne na już szybki kredyt 10000 mińsk mazowiecki kredyt na dowód bez bik i krd pożyczki z funduszu fundacji wspomagania wsi neobank kredyt pod zastaw gruntow rolnych kredyt pozabankowy do 5 tys kredyt bank narutowicza 55b lublin kontakt kredyt bez bik do 3000 ekstra kredyty chwilowki pismo o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki przez internet pierwsza za darmo bez bik kredyt bank hajnówka kredyt bank sa bielany wrocławskie kredyt bank gdynia chwaszczyńska godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank najlepsza lokata ing bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyty bez bik starogard gdański pożyczki bez granic siemianowice śląskie pożyczki od osób prywatnych forum pożyczki w domu klienta poznań kredyt samochodowy santander kalkulator pożyczki bez biku śląsk pożyczki na procent kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior banku opinie turbo pożyczki pozyczki na procent warszawa kredyt na auto bez bik koszt przelewu zagranicznego kredyt bank pożyczki biznesowe kredyt studencki zasady udzielania pożyczki pod zastaw zielona góra kredyt w banku online bez sprawdzania pożyczki 2000 zł pożyczki pozabankowe z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki ze złą historią kredytową uk uzasadnienie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt w getin bank kalkulator pożyczki prywatne kokos pożyczki społecznościowe chwilówki w jakim banku kredyt na mieszkanie 2013 kredyt bank ostrowiec św wzór umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs ei global pożyczki umowa pożyczki postępowanie upominawcze kredyt konsolidacyjny w sygma bank umowa pożyczki z deklaracją wekslową umowa pożyczki między vatowcami kredyt samochodowy bez bik zus us pożyczki wspólników kredyty pozabankowe atiz pożyczki pozabankowe pruszków kredyt bank strzelce opolskie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank ruczaj pożyczki w ramach grupy kapitałowej kredyt bank iban cechy pożyczki jako czynności prawnej kredyt bez bik gdzie kredyty w uk po polsku pożyczki dla bezrobotnych włocławek akropol pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór osoby fizyczne oprocentowanie kredytu studenckiego w pko bp kredyt bank w łodzi pożyczki społecznościowe jak inwestować w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki gdańska 69 bydgoszcz opinie pożyczki pozabankowe od zaraz pożyczki dla pracowników księgowanie kredyt bank gdańsk targ drzewny godziny otwarcia actum pożyczki kredyt inwestycyjny idea bank forum pozyczki bez zaswiadczen chrzanow pozyczki bez biku i krd kronos pożyczki olkusz kredyty konsolidacyjne leszno kredyt konsolidacyjny polbanku restrukturyzacja pożyczki w skok kredyty pozabankowe białystok pożyczki na dowód oświęcim umowa pożyczki rejestracja w urzędzie skarbowym kredyt mieszkaniowy oferty banków nalepszy kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki alibaba kredyt chwilówka krotoszyn mikropożyczki czestochowa lokata w kredyt banku opinie opodatkowanie pożyczki od rodziny bocian pozyczki swiebodzin kredyt bank godziny otwarcia czestochowa kredyt ratalny eurobank szybkie pożyczki online forum kredyt bankowy jest zawsze oprocentowany kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku spoldzielczym kiedy umowa pożyczki jest ważna kredyt bank gdańsk wrzeszcz emida pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank 1 oddział warszawa kredyt bank fundusze inwestycyjne zamknięte kredyt bank w myslenicach kredyt bank limanowa pożyczki od 18 lat online w jakim banku wybrać kredyt kredyt bank elbląg godz otwarcia pozyczka na dzialalnosc bez zaswiadczen umowa pozyczki z poreczeniem pewny kredyt bez bik kredyt bank w bełchatowie numer telefonu do banku o pożyczkę bez dochodów kredyt bank platnosc karta za granica kredyt bank kosciuszki lodz bocian pożyczki opinie skutki umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu pracy radom pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank program rabatowy pożyczki łódź pożyczki eden finance idea bank kredyt na start oprocentowanie potrzebuję pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik piła

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad