kredyt bank forum dyskusyjne pomoc w uzyskaniu pożyczki w uk dobry kredyt bez biku udzielenie pożyczki spółce z oo udzielę pożyczki prywatnej kraków pozyczki prywatne na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd tczew praca w pro domo pożyczki kredyt bank słowackiego gdańsk godziny otwarcia udzielać pożyczki translation pożyczki abrewo umowa pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia wzór bocian pożyczki brodnica kredyt bank kraków długa 4 godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki inwestowanie pożyczki chwilówki suwałki kredyt samochodowy w idea bank bik pożyczka w placówce warszawa kredyt bank główny ekonomista kod na kredyt w orange pop alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej czy można dobrać kredyt w getin banku forum kredyty bez biku grudziadz kredyt bank warszawa książkowa termin przedawnienia pożyczki kredyt bank gdańsk noskowskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik w internecie pożyczki udzielane przez gminę kredyt bank problem z logowaniem pożyczki przez internet pierwsza za darmo kredyt bank nowe konto oszczędnościowe pożyczki pod zastaw pruszków pożyczki na dowód debica pożyczki online bez bik zaświadczeń global pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyty bez zaświadczeń bez bik komornik pożyczki społecznościowe czy pożyczki są opodatkowane kredyt konsolidacyjny do 200 tys kredyt bank żniwna pożyczki bez bik w głogowie kredyt bank sieradz godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy bez zaświadczenia o zarobkach forum pożyczki na procent szczecin pożyczki z ue dla firm kredyt bank wielicka kraków godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny bez wychodzenia z domu pożyczki w domu klienta opole allekasa pożyczki pozyczki września pożyczki pozabankowe dzierżoniów pożyczki prywatne na zakup nieruchomości feninks pozyczki pozabankowe strona glowwna optima pozyczka z obsluga w domu sanok i okolice akcje spółki kredyt bank sa w warszawie kredyt samochodowy getin kalkulator kredyt bank klienci kredyt bank potwierdzenie przelewu kredyty bez biku tychy kredyt bez bik radomsko pozyczki bez bikikrd kredyty chwilówki ciechanów kredyt bez bik firma kredyt bank opłata za monit kredyty chwilówki z komornikiem mikropożyczki dla firm 2012 bocian pożyczki ustka kredyt bank linia kredytowa kredyt bank fuzja umowa pożyczki chomikuj kredyt bank w wieluniu kredyt dla firmy bez biku kredyt bez biku w poznaniu kredyt bank sprzedaż cechy pożyczki jako czynności prawnej umowa pożyczki pieniędzy bez odsetek pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw samochodu kredyt mieszkaniowy wyposażenie mieszkania przejęcie kredyt banku przez wbk kredyt bank z bz wbk pożyczki bez bik mielec czy odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem pożyczki pod zastaw opatów pozyczki prodomo kredyt bank w prabutach kredyty mieszkaniowe sierpień 2012 kredyty chwilówki chorzów batory kredyty chwilówki praca bytom getin bank oprocentowanie kredytów gotówkowych w jakim banku w swarzędzu dostane pozyczke z pit pożyczki bez bik w domu klienta kredyt samochodowy dominet bank kredyt pozabankowy dla zadłużonych pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wrocław pożyczki w polbanku kredyt bank sandomierz kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bgż alior bank kredyt forum kredyt bank wojska polskiego szczecin pożyczki prywatne busko kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik pcc od pożyczki od firmy pożyczki chwilówki bez zatrudnienia kredyty pozabankowe atiz umowa pożyczki 777 pożyczki od osób prywatnych płock kalkulator odsetkowy pożyczek miszkaniowych z zfŚs kredyt w banku arabskim nefis pożyczki kredyty chwilówki myszków umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenia kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 procent kredyt samochodowy alior bank opinie pożyczki w ramach bgk kredyt bank bydgoszcz modrzewiowa kontakt wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt bank gorzów wlkp kredyt bank chełmska godziny otwarcia pożyczki z obsługą w domu podkarpacie pożyczki pod zastaw gdańsk umowa pożyczki z zakładem pracy szybkie pożyczki panda kredyt w uk dla zadluzonych przelew w kredyt banku kredyt bank piła plac konstytucji pożyczki w firmie bocian kredyty w getin banku kredyty pozabankowe leszno deutsche bank kredyt na dowod online kredyty dlugoterminowe bez bik i zaswiadczen w jakim banku wziac kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki w domu płock kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najkorzystniej kredyt bank sa główna siedziba kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczki dla zadłużonych pożyczki bez badania zdolności tczew pożyczka z bankomatu kredyt bank dm kredyt konsolidacyjny bez biku szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik kredyt bank santander pożyczka pozabankowa do20tys kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym forum umowa pożyczki pomiędzy rodzeństwem kredyt bank lokata roczna pożyczki pod zastaw szczecin pożyczki chwilówki kwidzyn kredyt bank kiedy dochodza przelewy kredyt bank rawa mazowiecka godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki skok wzór umowy pożyczki spłata w ratach kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp kalkulator kredyty oddłużeniowe pozabankowe trustbuddy pożyczki kredyt bank lokaty grudzień 2012 pożyczki katowice pożyczki bez bik zus i us kredyt bank 24 swift umowa pożyczki pod warunkiem zawieszającym umowa pożyczki wysokość odsetek kredyt bank dział zakupów kredyty chwilówki jastrzębie zdrój oblicz ratę pożyczki ing kredyty bez big do 30000 szczecin kredyt mieszkaniowy credit agricole forum kredyt bank warszawa plac powstańców gdzie dostane kredyt bez biku kredyt bez bik bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank w nowym sączu pożyczki dla małych firm na start pożyczki bez banku kredyt bez biku krosno bank dajacy kredyt 30 tys zl na oswiadczenie kredyt bez bik i zus kredyt bank wrzutnia kredyt bank w tomaszowie mazowieckim umowa pożyczki wzór gofin kredyt bank radzyń podlaski w jakim banku najłatwiej wziąć kredyt umowa pożyczki od członka zarządu kredyt studencki pko poręczyciel pożyczki pozabankowe będzin kredyty chwilówki praca kalisz pożyczki dla bezrobotnych 2014 kredyty chwilówki windykacja praca pożyczki do 5 tysięcy kredyty chwilówki dział windykacji banki dające kredyt studencki pozyczki pozabankowe atiz krotoszyn kredyt bank grunwaldzka 345 gdańsk objawy pożyczki bocian pożyczki raty kredyt bez bik krosno kredyt bank skoczów kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator alior konwersja pożyczki na akcje bocian pożyczki numer telefonu udzielę pożyczki prywatnej szybko i bez sprawdzania kredyt bez bik do 25 tys kredyt konsolidacyjny oplaca sie oddziały kredyt banku szczecin czy dostane kredyt w getin banku mennica pozyczki jelenia gora opinie kredyt w koncie w banku pocztowym pożyczki online zyrafa kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki wzór umowy pożyczki osoba prywatna kredyt bank marketing manager kredyt konsolidacyjny katowice kredyt bank oblicz ratę pożyczki pozabankowe nysa kredyt dla firm bez bik big pozyczki bez zaswiadczen chrzanow kredyt bank częstochowa oddziały decyzja kredytowa w kredyt banku 2012 bocian pożyczki świecie podatek od pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku bgz kredyt konsolidacyjny łódź kredyt w banku centralnym pożyczka w domu klienta numer tel gorzow kredyt bez bik bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator open finance wymagalność pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej forum pożyczki gotówkowe definicja pożyczki od 18 lat online pożyczki na święta pożyczki pewne pożyczki chwilówki płońsk pożyczki gotówkowe 5000 umowa pożyczki pod zastaw działki pożyczki na dowód piła skarabeusz pożyczki przemyśl pożyczki 5000zl bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach mlawa alex pożyczki wrocław pozyczki pod zastaw samochodu trojmiasto kredyt bank w bialymstoku kredyt bank skoczów kontakt kredyt bank kostrzyn nad odrą pożyczka kielce online kredyt na oddłużenie pożyczki z wojewódzkiego funduszu ochrony środowiska w jakich bankach można wsiąść pożyczkę na dowod kredyt bank krakowska pożyczki prywatne chodzież tanie kredyty bez bik kędzierzyn koźle pożyczki bez bik ostrołęka jaki jest kod na kredyt do orange kredyt studencki pko bp wymagane dokumenty kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredytowy kredyty chwilówki tychy windykatorzy pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu koszalin potrącanie rat pożyczki z zasiłku chorobowego kredyt bez bik dolnośląskie mikropożyczki ekonomia społeczna kredyty pozabankowe gorzów wlkp wzór umowy pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp symulacja pożyczki na lichwe kredyt bank zaswiadczenia kredyt studencki pko sa regulamin kredyt bank tarnobrzeg godziny otwarcia kredyt bank żary telefon kredyty bez big do 30000 szczecin kredyt bez bik wikipedia kredyt z banku na otwarcie działalności pozyczka z obsluga w domu warszaw udzielam pożyczki prywatnej kredyt studencki ing bank śląski pko kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyty chwilówki mysłowice ing bank śląski kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator łukasz formela pożyczki kredyt bankowy ksiazka kredyt prywatny wzór umowy cywilno prawnej kredyt bez bik krd w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na samochod wycena otrzymanej pożyczki na dzień bilansowy umowa pożyczki z klauzulą wykonalności pozyczki chwilowki na dowow osobisty walbrzych pożyczki chwilówki bez bik wierzyciel pożyczki forum pożyczki gotówkowe bez poręczycieli pożyczki do 300 zł kredyt bank gdańsk godziny otwarcia sobota kredyt bank chf kredyt w banku bez umowy o prace kredyt orange pop numer pożyczki bez biku pozabankowe kredyt bank warszawa ul powstańców śląskich alior bank kredyt konsumpcyjny najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bez bik udzielę pożyczki prywatnej 2011 kredyt konsolidacyjny na chwilowki pożyczki gotówkowe ciechanów kredyt bank w kutnie pożyczki vivus opinie forum przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał pożyczki onet gdzie szukac pożyczki pozabankowej w starachowice umowa pożyczki pieniędzy między firmami pozyczka z komornikiem lublin kredyt dla rolników bez biku kredyty chwilówki warszawa puławska pożyczki na dowód chojnów vivus limit pożyczki żyrafa pożyczki śrem pożyczki konsolidacyjnej sprzedaż kredyt banku santander pożyczki warp pozyczka bez umowy o prace na dowod szczecin kredyt bank w krasnymstawie kredyt bank wibor 3m 1000 zl pożyczki lublin bocian pożyczki prudnik pozyczki na procent plock duomax pożyczki kredyt bank lista darmowych bankomatów kredyt w deutsche banku kredyt gotówkowy bez bik bytom optima pożyczki warszawa zdolność kredytowa pożyczki gotówkowej umowa pożyczki pisemna kredyt konsolidacyjny w lukas banku pozyczka chwilowka od reki jaki jest numer zeby wziasc kredyt w orange kiedy jest wyłudzenie pożyczki najtańsze pożyczki w bankach kredyt samochodowy deutsche bank kalkulator expres pożyczki pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej bez bik wzór umowy pożyczki z poręczeniem pożyczki gotówkowe słupsk kredyt bank susz godziny otwarcia kredyt z komornikiem w łodzi pożyczki z dostawą do domu kredyt bez bik stalowa wola pożyczki prywatne uk kredyt bank bok opinie pożyczki provident getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy kredyt bank szczecin starzyńskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyt w millenium bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez umowy o prace kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobanku pożyczki chwilówki łódź narutowicza kredyty pko bp opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank opinie pożyczki dla domu oblicz ratę pożyczki pko kredyt bez bik do 7000 emilion pożyczki pożyczki piotrków tryb kredyty chwilówki w łukowie kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaświadczeń firma kronos pożyczki kontakt oprocentowanie pożyczki w skoku pożyczki w domu klienta żnin kredyt bank ul narutowicza 55b lublin kredyt bez biku dla zadłuzonych kredyty chwilowki deblin kredyt bank garbary kredyty bez bik małopolska prawo bankowe kredyt gotówkowy kredyty chwilówki puławska 71 pożyczki na dowód 2013 kredyt bank i wbk kredyty chwilówki w częstochowie kredyt bank gdansk kolobrzeska kredyt konsolidacyjny we frankach szwajcarskich kredyt bank pocztowy opinie szybkie pożyczki na dowód sosnowiec kredyty chwilówki grójecka 78 kredyt bank łódż kredyty chwilówki dział marketingu pożyczki argentyńskie pożyczki transfer w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy 2013 optima pożyczki kalisz tylko dobre kredyty bez biku pożyczka bez bik pożyczki onet mieszkaniowe kredyty preferencyjne kredyt bank prabuty kontakt pożyczki dla bezrobotnych z pup praca w kredyty chwilówki zarobki kredyty mieszkaniowe knf konto ror w kredyt banku kredyty bez bik mazowieckie kredyty chwilówki lubin pożyczki bez biku na dowud do domu kredyt w banku śląskim kredyty pozabankowe bez bik poznań alior bank kredyt z komornikiem kredyt bank chorzów godziny otwarcia udzielone pożyczki aktywa kredyt bank w gostyniu szybkie pożyczki bez bik kalisz rafał kania pożyczki kredyt bank oferta kredytowa firmy oferujące pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe 20000 kredyty pozabankowe do 5000 pożyczki z sektora pozabankowego msp kredyt w banku aib irlandia pożyczki bez bik brodnica kredyt konsolidacyjny w pbs pożyczki na działalność bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe nowy targ kredyt upadłość banku pozyczki bez konta w banku kredyty chwilówki gorzów sikorskiego pożyczki w banku millennium kredyt bank szczecinek kontakt kredyt w db bank kredyt bank włocławek promienna godziny kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka kalkulator pożyczki bez bik na umowe zlecenie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla lekarzy kredyty bez bik jastrzebie kredyt konsolidacyjny jelenia góra kredyt bez bik zachodniopomorskie pokl pożyczki umowa pożyczki poświadczona notarialnie kredyt bank jakie dokumenty pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla sędziów uzasadnienie pożyczki remontowej pożyczki przez internet lista firm kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok piast kredyt w getin banku niezarejestrowana umowa pożyczki pożyczki ełk kredyt bank euro kurs kredyty trudne bez biku kredyt w tesco na dowod opinie umowa pożyczki a użyczenia pozyczki dla zadlzonych bialystok kredyt konsolidacyjny santander consumer bank mariusz dudziński pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilówki wałbrzych broniewskiego praktyka w kredyt banku opinie umowa pożyczki z budżetu gminy kredyt bankowy encyklopedia wzór umowy pożyczki z członkiem zarządu kredyt bank rabaty szybka pożyczka 20tysięcy obsługa w domu wysokie pożyczki na dowód pożyczki marka opinie kredyt bez bik dla rolników umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki wzór zmiana nazwiska a kredyt w banku kredyty chwilówki trzebinia kredyt bank gdynia bławatna 11 kredyt częstochowa forum 2014 kredyt bez bik na 20 lat kredyt bank kościuszki kielce kredyt bank sa praca kredyt bank niepodległości 54 szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd przez internet toyota bank kredyt samochodowy opinie godziny pracy kredyt banku w warszawie umowa dotycząca pożyczki umowa pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami wzór kredyty chwilówki inowrocław kredyt na dowód przez internet bez biku pożyczki kraków kalwaryjska kredyt bez bik do 5 tys kredyt chwilówka kraków nowa huta kredyt bank ken 57 certus pożyczki opinie kredyty bez bik mielec eurobank kredyt w 15 minut pożyczki bez bik oława umowa pożyczki pieniędzy u notariusza pożyczki bez bik ratalne praca w kredyty chwilówki zarobki najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe 2013 pożyczki od osób prywatnych 2012 pożyczki do domu włocławek pożyczki chwilówki bez erif reklama pożyczki 2012 pozyczki od 18 lat wrocław kredyty dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych forum pożyczki z funduszy pożyczkowych kredyt konsolidacyjny bez podpisu małżonka kredyt bankowy dziedziczenie pożyczki chwilówki do ręki kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b telefon pożyczki od osób prywatnych lods oddziały kredyt banku w katowicach gdzie dostac kredyt bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny odmowa pożyczki w euroexpert fakturowanie pożyczki kredyt 10000 w jakim banku kredyt bank komisji edukacji narodowej kredyty konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad