kredyty chwilówki katowice francuska opinie pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik w czestochowie kredyty studenckie mieszkaniowe kredyty bez bik poznań głogowska kredyt bank oddział bielany wrocławskie umorzenie pożyczki konsekwencje podatkowe profit pożyczki włocławek umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie firma żyrafa pożyczki kredyt studencki bz wbk kredyty chwilówki bielsko kredyt z orange kod kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie forma umowy pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania bik kredyt bank koszty kredyt konsolidacyjny bez poreczycieli i zadluzonych kredyty chwilówki zabrze koszt pożyczki pozyczka 20000 bez bik i zabezpieczen kredyt w uk kalkulator pożyczki prywatne forum w jakim banku najlepiej brać kredyt na samochód placówki kredyt banku w białymstoku pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód kredyt samochodowy w banku pko kredyt bank prowizje w bankomatach pozyczki bez dochodow koszalin pozyczki bez rejestrow poznan kredyt bank ruda śląska umowa pożyczki z obcokrajowcem umowa pożyczki pod zastaw kredyty pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt bank v oddział w warszawie kredyt konsolidacyjny nordea bank wzór umowy pożyczki udziałowca kredyt bank gdynia karwiny godziny otwarcia pozyczka chwilowka od reki kredyty chwilowki krakow kredyt bank radzymińska białystok kredyt bank godziny otwarcia włocławek pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik poznań kredyt bank x oddział warszawa kredyt bank facebook gros kapitał pożyczki opinie pożyczki prywatne dla bezrobotnych domowa pożyczka bocian pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik poznań kredyt bank vii oddział w warszawie kredyt bankowy książki chomikuj kalkulator pożyczki kredytowej pożyczki podobne jak provident pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk grunwaldzka pożyczki wielkanocne kredyt bank sa w lublinie kredyt bank kurs walutowy kredyt bank zaswiadczenie o zarobkach pożyczki dla bezrobotnych i zadłużonych pożyczki pozabankowe wawa kredyt samochodowy bre bank kredyt jako produkt bankowy pożyczki chwilówki starogard gdański ile kosztuje kredyt w banku obligacje pożyczki narodowej 1934 kredyty chwilówki logowanie system partner pożyczki filemon getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyty samochodowe tel kredyt bank lidzbark warmiński kredyt bank 2 gdzie kredyt bez biku szukam pożyczki prywatnej ogłoszenia 24 pożyczki na procent kielce kredyt mieszkaniowy deutsche bank forum kredyt konsolidacyjny alior praca za granica prywatne pozyczki chwilowki warszawa kredyt bank długa godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy ing forum kredyt pozabankowy częstochowa pożyczki bez bik na dowód potrzebny kredyt konsolidacyjny cesja umowy pożyczki a pcc kredyt w pko bp oprocentowanie kredyt bank noskowskiego pożyczki krajowe kredyt remontowy kredyt bez bik i krd warszawa pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej i bik kalkulator kredytowy konsolidacyjny alior bank kredyt pozabankowy gdzie pożyczki na dowód przasnysz kredyt bank reklama mafia kredyt szybki bez bik i krd pożyczki społecznościowe a pcc nowość pożyczki do domu kredyt bank warszawa abrahama kredyt bank powstańców śląskich wrocław kredyt chwilówki toruń pożyczki w kilka minut kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym bez umowy o pracę kredyt bank warka pożyczki w profi credit forum kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatu bez prowizji kredyt samochodowy bez bik na firme kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osob pracujacych w uk w jakim banku dostane kredyt na dowód lokata kredyt banku 6 5 kredyt bank warszawa siedziba kredyt konsolidacyjny w ge money bank umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego a podatek kredyty gotówkowe alior bank kalkulator żyrafa pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank notowania kredyt bank dzienny limit operacji kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking lipiec 2012 ślimak pożyczki toruń kredyty bez bik kielce pozyczki w domu klienta poznan parabanki kredyty chwilówki duzy kredyt bez bik wieruszów kredyty pozabankowe 50000 umowa pożyczki w firmie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy bez odsetek wzór 458 punktów bik kredyt w eurobank pożyczki na dowód płock vivus pożyczki rejestracja kredyty chwilówki opinie praca pożyczki na dowód tarnów pko bp kredyt dla niepracujacych ubezpieczenie pożyczki warunki pożyczki w skoku stefczyka kredyt bank zielona góra telefon pożyczki gotówkowe w anglii kredyty mieszkaniowe marzec 2013 kredyty studenckie bzwbk kredyt konsolidacyjny chomikuj kredyt bank wolczanska lodz jak zgłosić umowę pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego fundusze inwestycyjne pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki na dowód forum kredyty bez zaswiadczen minsk mazowiecki kredyt bankowy pdf chomikuj pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic kredyt bank oddział warszawa kondratowicza kredyt mieszkaniowy można odliczyć od podatku pożyczki bez bik w starachowicach kredyt bank kapelanka kraków godziny otwarcia oferta kredytową firmy optima kredyty chwilówki słupsk wzór umowy pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności gospodarczej tanie kredyty gotówkowe bez bik pożyczki chwilówki bez bik pożyczki ratunkowe poznań kredyt bank wbk opinie umowa pożyczki gotówkowej wzór jaki numer kredyt w orange nowe pozyczki pozabankowe pożyczki racibórz kredyty bez bik toruń pożyczki chwilówki łask kredyt bank wejherowo kontakt kredyt w banku wbk gdzie dostane kredyt bez sprawdzania w biku pożyczki w domu klienta piła umowa pożyczki pkzp pożyczki indywidualne kredyt prostoliczony lukas bank kalkulator odsetki od pożyczki a koszt uzyskania przychodu kredyty bez bijk poznan wilda kredyt bank w olsztynie godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki dokumenty kredyty chwilówki legnica kredyt bank współpraca kredyt przez internet bez bik i krd pożyczki w prawie rzymskim kredyt bank w grodzisku maz prywatne pożyczki we wrocławiu kredyt dla firm na oświadczenie bez bik pożyczki radziejów pożyczki chwilówki leszno pożyczki pozabankowe w kaliszu pozyczki lubin pożyczki na pierwszy biznes kredyty chwilówki żywiec kredyty chwilówki kraków wielopole pożyczki chwilówki ostrów wielkopolski kredyty pozabankowe lubin kredyt studencki porównanie banków kredyty bez bik bolesławiec kredyt z banku na otwarcie działalności inwestor pozyczki z zagranicy kredyt w banku aig kredyt studencki bank wbk kredyt bank łomianki godziny otwarcia kredyt w uk natwest pożyczki gotówkowe na oświadczenie kredyt bank ekstrakonto s umowa pożyczki ang pożyczki chwilówki długoterminowe kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorstw co to znaczy kredyt bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe włocławek kredyty bez bik mikołów kredyt bank w nysie kredyt w aib pozyczki chwilowki gorzow wlkp pożyczki pozabankowe piaseczno pożyczki bez bik 5000 zł kredyt studencki pekao podporządkowanie spłaty pożyczki pozyczki dla bezrobotnych niebankowe szamotuly pożyczka na dowód choszczno pożyczki obliczanie rat kredyt bank ełk godziny otwarcia kredyt bank police godziny otwarcia awans pożyczki lukas bank kredyty konsolidacyjne optima pożyczki włocławek kredyt 5 zł orange pop kredyt bank rzeszów umowa pozyczki pomiedzy matka a corka kredyt konsolidacyjny dla lekarzy kredyt bank okopowa pożyczki dla firm bez zus i us kredyt w banku bz wbk odnowienie pożyczki kredyt bank wolczanska lodz kredyty od 18lat na sam dowod ostrowiec sw kredyty chwilówki małopolska ekspres kasa spłata pożyczki umowa pożyczki spółki z o o pożyczka 25000 kokos kredyt w orange jaki numer pożyczki prywatne chwilówki kredyt bez bik lębork odsetki karne pożyczki kredyt w banku a przedawnienie kredyt bank skrytki bankowe kredyt samochodowy sygma bank pozyczka pod zastaw agd w toruniu pożyczki bez bik na 2 lata kredyt studencki w pko bp forum formularz umowy pożyczki pozyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania bik i krd udzielanie pożyczki przez gminę kredyt bank sokółka telefon kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim ranking pożyczki bez bik rypin kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior banku kredyt chwilówka jastrzębie zdrój prywatne pozyczki na procent dublin pożyczki bez bik legnica kredyt bank dzienny limit operacji na rachunku pożyczki online bez grosza kredyt mieszkaniowy a umowa na czas określony kredyty w alior banku opinie pożyczki z amber gold pożyczki chwilówki stargard szczeciński kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najlepiej forum kredyt bank warszawa ul kondratowicza obliczenie odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki bez bik w radomiu kredyt bank w grójcu wzór oświadczenia pożyczki pieniędzy pko bp sa kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank warunki kredytu gotówkowego kredyt bank 10000 pożyczki minicredit kredyt bank kapelanka kontakt pożyczki prywatne ruda śląska pozyczka sms dla zadluzonych jestem w bik kredyt konsolidacyjny do 100 wartości nieruchomości doradcy24 pożyczki kredyt bank wniosek o wakacje kredytowe kredyty chwilowki wroclaw pożyczki na dowód warszawa pozyczki jredyty zakopane kredyt gotówkowy bez biku kutno kredyt gotówkowy mieszkaniowy termin przedawnienia roszczeń z umowy pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa ostrobramska kredyt bank łosice pożyczki z nigerii pozyczkipod zastaw auta minsk maz kredyt chwilówki końskie pożyczki chwilówki krotoszyn kredyt bank środa śląska godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki jaki procent forma przekazania pożyczki pożyczki lider kredyt samochodowy bank pko bp kredyty chwilówki wymagania pożyczki online bez odsetek kredyt bank infolinia numer pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych na dowód kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator zdolności kredyt bank gliwice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank warszawa wolska kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższe oprocentowanie kredyt bank nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bank bełchatów godziny otwarcia firma żyrafa pożyczki kredyty chwilówki zawiercie kredyt bez biku bielsko biala pożyczki z pfron odsetki od pożyczki tłumaczenie pcc od pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki kredyty konsolidacyjne plock pożyczki oddłużeniowe bez bik najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe 2012 kredyt bez bik brzeg kredyt bank lidzbark warm kredyt bez bik santander pożyczki na biznes kredyt bank w bzwbk kredyt bank piła dąbrowskiego szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez biku pożyczki bocian nowy tomyśl kredyt bank filia poraj kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millenium opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim warunki przyznania kredyt konsolidacyjny bph kredyt chwilówki starachowice kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank profi credit kalkulator pożyczki konsolidacja kredytów gotówkowych mbank pożyczki pod zastaw agd pożyczki oddłużeniowe bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki chwilówki poznań pożyczki poznań chwilówki mosina tukan pożyczki lokaty w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny w db kredyt opinie pożyczki jessica pożyczki z komornikiem pod weksel pożyczki bez rejestrów kredyty bankowe to konto bilansowe kredyt samochodowy getin kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny wysokość raty kredyt bank bz wbk fuzja pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny na dowód pożyczki preferencyjne dla gmin kredyt samochodowy ing oprocentowanie pożyczki w grupie kapitałowej pożyczki pieniędzy kalkulator kredytowy konsolidacyjny alior bank kredyt bank przelicznik rat umowa pożyczki kto składa pcc kredyt chwilówka porównanie pożyczki dla firm kielce pożyczki pozabankowe w białymstoku kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank opinie kto płaci podatek od pożyczki prywatnej kredyty i pożyczki bez bik czy można wziąć kredyt w zagranicznym banku pożyczki społecznościowe zopa najnowsze pożyczki bez biku czy pozyczki activia sa bez biku pożyczki online od 19 lat kredyt bank w polsce bocian pozyczki grojec kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik i krd podatek od pożyczki od osób fizycznych szybkie pożyczki online w uk kredyty gotówkowe bez sprawdzania w biku umowa o pożyczki pożyczki na prefinansowanie kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt bank sanok telefon czy kredyt konsolidacyjny jest opłacalny kredyt konsolidacyjny brak zdolności kredytowej lokata rentierska kredyt bank opinie w jakim banku wziac kredyt gotowkowy kredyt samochodowy ranking sierpien 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny najdłuższy okres kredytowania pożyczki na dowód gdańsk pożyczki dla młodych osób pozyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny na 10 lat kalkulator kredyt bank sa 20 601 lublin ul t zana 39a umowa pożyczki bezprocentowej szukam pożyczki 2013 umowa pożyczki skok stefczyka kredyty bez bik ruda śląska kredyty bez bik zamość potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki wzór kredyt bank legnica godz otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny wrocław umorzenie pożyczki zfśs a podatek kredyt bank radzymińska scarabeusz pozyczki piotrkow bocian pożyczki lubań kredyty chwilówki mikołów kredyt 3000 bez bik pożyczki na projekty unijne kredyt samochodowy ing bank śląski rachunek depozytowy w kredyt banku opłata za przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku kredyt bank reklama ojciec chrzestny kredyt bank plock tel kredyt bank s a iv oddział w warszawie pożyczki bez bik sosnowiec kredyt bank czynny w sobote warszawa kalkulator pożyczki provident kredyt kielce scarabeusz pozyczki piotrkow przedawnienie pożyczki z zakładu pracy wysokie pożyczki prywatne rzeszów kredyty bez biku piła prywatne pozyczki chwilowki warszawa kredyt bez bik elbląg bocian pożyczki czat pożyczki bogatynia kredyt bank wpłaty kredyt bez bik jelenia góra kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator 2014 kredyt bez bik gniezno kredyt prostoliczony śmierć pożyczki na pit 11 kredyt na samochód w getin banku kredyt bank cena akcji kredyt getin bank bez bik kredyt bez bik wniosek online kredyty bez biku z komornikiem umowa pożyczki umowa wzajemna prywatne pożyczki kraków kredyt bank piłsudskiego łódź godziny otwarcia termin przedawnienia spłaty pożyczki dłużnik nie oddaje pożyczki kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank w kołobrzegu kredyt bank wołomin kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt kredyt bank bankomat prowizja pko bp kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator pożyczki z opóźnieniami w bik udzielę pożyczki pod weksel koscian umowa pożyczki podatek od czynności cywilnoprawnych kredyt mieszkaniowy pozabankowy kredyt bank lokata strukturyzowana opinie pożyczki prywatne sanok pozyczka pieniedzy plock kredyt w banku dla zadluzonych pożyczki dla wszystkich księgowanie pożyczki w walucie kredyt bank gora kalwaria kredyt bank kraków dietla godziny otwarcia kredyt bank mazowieckie kredyt bank kiedy wychodzą przelewy pożyczki chwilówki kalkulator pożyczki na dowód ostrowiec umowa pożyczki od akcjonariusza kredyty bez bik krosno instrumenty finansowe pożyczki bocian pożyczki praca kierownik kredyt bank olawa godziny otwarcia jaki numer na kredyt orange kredyt studencki pko urlop dziekański umowa pożyczki dla syna kredyt bank iphone kredyt mieszkaniowy mój dom kredyt bank obligacje kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka kontakt tarnobrzegocian pożyczki idea bank kredyt dla firm opinie kredyt bank błonie kredyt studencki pko bp terminy pożyczki eden kredyt bank lodz piotrkowska kredyt konsolidacyjny co potrzebne pożyczki na dowód sochaczew kredyt studencki wbk 2014 kredyt bank w ostrowi mazowieckiej pożyczki bytów kredyt bank gora kalwaria pożyczki remontowe kredyty konsolidacyjne kalisz pożyczki na dowód tarnów opodatkowanie otrzymanych odsetek od pożyczki 2012 jak wziąć kredyt w orange 5 zł pożyczki chwilówki końskie kredyty chwilówki bytom kredyt bank branches pożyczki na dowód rybnik pcc czy vat od pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór bez odsetek pożyczki gotówkowe śląsk pożyczki prywatne jarocin kredyt bank w prabutach beta pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy w santander bank opinie kredyt w anglii forum kredyt bank gliwice telefon kredyt pozabankowy inowrocław umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki dla zadłużonych wrocław kredyt bank bankomat euronet

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad