kredyt bank oszczędzanie kredyt chwilówki toruń kredyt bank wypłaty bez prowizji kredyt bank nidzica kontakt idea bank jakie oprocentowanie kredytu kredyt bank skawina godziny otwarcia pożyczki opole kredyty pozabankowe kontakt kredyt dla firm bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe w wielkiej brytanii kredyt bez biku zielona góra pożyczki rybnik bez bik pozyczka z komornikiem piekary sl umowa pozyczki wzor bankomaty kredyt banku kraków pożyczki na start dla firm sprawdzone pożyczki prywatne warszawa mikropożyczki świętokrzyskie kredyt mieszkaniowy pozabankowy lublin pozyczka na dowod bez dochodu kredyty gotówkowe bez bik rzeszów kredyty chwilówki białystok kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki ekspresowej pko sa optima pożyczki katowice pożyczki na sfinansowanie kosztów szkolenia umowa pożyczki w i grupie podatkowej kredyty chwilówki konsolidacja pożyczki gotówkowe bph kredyty bez bik jarocin kredyty chwilowki lomza pożyczki dla firm bez zus i us niski 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opinie forum pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy legnica ak group pożyczki kredyt bank konto walutowe opinie wałbrzych piaskowa góra kredyty na oddłużenie kredyty mieszkaniowe irlandia pożyczki krótkoterminowe bez dochodów w jakim banku najlatwiej wziasc kredyt kredyty chwilówki w płocku pożyczki wyszków kredyt bank w chojnicach pożyczki chwilówki dla każdego kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla bez wkładu pożyczki gotówkowe oprocentowanie umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs księgowanie kredyt bez bik alior bank kredyt bank opinie kredyty i pożyczki w uk bocian pożyczki jakie raty pożyczki ratunkowe wrocław kredyt banku zarobki forum kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kalkulator rat pożyczki przeterminowane druk pcc od pożyczki kredyt bank adres siedziby bank pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pożyczki od prywatnych osób z londynu pożyczki gdańska 69 bydgoszcz opinie kredyty chwilówki włocławek kredyty chwilówki fundacja przedłużenie pożyczki ok money bocian pożyczki bik cesja wierzytelności z tytułu pożyczki pcc od umowy pożyczki a kup kalkulator kredytowy kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty trudne bez biku i prywatne kredyty bankowe i ich zabezpieczenia praca magisterska pomoc w uzyskaniu pożyczki bez bik pożyczki chwilówki zakopane gdzie otrzymać kredyt bez bik szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt telefo pożyczki chwilówki bocian kredyty chwilowki w czestochowie kredyt na samochód w credit agricole ewidencja pożyczki w walucie obcej kredyt konsolidacyjny z ubezpieczeniem pozyczki na umowe zlecenie pruszcz gdanski kredyt bank sa chojnice podatek od pożyczki kto płaci kredyt na dowód tarchomin siedziba warszawa kredyt bank bankomaty toruń leasing a kredyt bankowy praca magisterska szybka pozyczka z dostawa do domu zywiec pożyczki bez bik zus i us kredyt mieszkaniowy pko forum wnioski o kredyt studencki pko bp kredyty konsolidacyjne forum pożyczki na sam dowód myszków w jakim banku dostane kredyt na dowód kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus opłaty getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy wymagania kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw 2013 kredyt bank sa zamość pro domo pożyczki toruń kredyt bank parasol pozyczki dla zadluzonych boleslawiec kredyty chwilówki bez big kredyt bank w międzyzdrojach kredyt na remont mieszkania kalkulator pko kredyt bank w swieciu kredyt bank w oświęcimiu kredyt chwilówka warunki sprawdzone kredyty konsolidacyjne pozabankowe oświadczenie o oddaniu pożyczki jak zaksięgować pcc od umowy pożyczki pozyczki prywatne olsztyn rejestracja umowy pożyczki w us kredyt bank wykaz placówek kredyt w banku pekao sa opinie najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku pożyczki bez bik grodzisk wlkp kredyt bank w tarnowie kredyt bank gliwice telefon kredyt bank mława godziny otwarcia kalkulator kredytu bank pko bp kredyt u pośrednika czy w banku kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki za granica bankomaty kredyt banku lublin nefis pożyczki oszukuje przectawiciel bocian pozyczki goleniow ubezpieczenie zdrowy kredyt w getin banku pozyczki skarabeusz pożyczki chwilówki na umowe zlecenie mikropożyczki bangladesz kredyt bank gold profit podatek od pożyczki udzielonej spółce kredyt bank kraków długa 4 godziny otwarcia solidny kredyt oddłużeniowy skarżysko kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen o dochodach wniosek kredytowy na samochod bez bik pożyczki ślimak poznań pożyczki chwilówki żagań optima sa pożyczki pożyczki bez bik krd warszawa pożyczki od osób prywatnych warszawa jaka kwota pożyczki bez podatku kredyt gotówkowy w banku bgż pożyczki gotówkowe prominent pożyczki z unii dla firm pożyczki społecznościowe bez weryfikacji pozyczki chojnice kredyt bank lodz pilsudskiego kredyt bank wałbrzych piaskowa góra kredyt gotówkowy w banku millenium opinie baltic money pożyczki pożyczki udzielone spółce przez udziałowca kredyt bank kierownik kredyt bank przejęcie finan pożyczki kredyt bank zielonka godziny santander consumer bank kredyt kontakt forum pożyczki bocian pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik online kredyty lub pożyczki w grudziądzu bez biku pożyczki 1200 pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod zastaw kredyt gotówkowy bez bik poznan kredyt bank bez prowizji bankomaty kredyt bank toruń fosa kredyt bank gdańsk ul noskowskiego godziny otwarcia białystok pożyczki bez bik bgk pożyczki dla absolwentów pożyczki pszczółka pożyczki dla pracowników a vat szybkie pożyczki wągrowiec pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez bik mariusz tierling poznań pożyczki kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach forum dyskusyjne kredyt studencki 2013 banki pożyczki świdnica kredyty bez bik forum kredyt chwilówka nowa ruda pozyczki banknot kredyt bank wrocław strzegomska kredyt bank fuzja pracownicy umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kredyty konsolidacyjne tychy pożyczki na dowód credit agricole kredyty chwilówki dąbrowa górnicza kredyt bank duplikat karty kredyt bank w kepnie kredyt bank bankomaty szybkie pożyczki pierwsza za darmo szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik provident zasady pożyczki kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt kredyty chwilówki definicja kredyt bank oświęcim godziny otwarcia forma prawna pożyczki kredyt na otwarcie firmy ze zla historia kredytowa pożyczki pod zastaw auta legnica profi credit wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny alior sync w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy forum pożyczki bez bik zaświadczeń o dochodach pożyczki citibank adres kredyt banku centrala kredyty chwilówki jak działają pożyczki pod zastaw piotrkow kredyty bez bik i krd kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochody jaki kredyt bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki uzyskania multika rzeszów kredyt bez bik prodomo pożyczki toruń kredyty chwilówki gorlice oddłużanie pożyczki marr pożyczki dla firm pcc umowa pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku bph meritum bank kredyty konsolidacyjne mikropożyczki nobel kredyty pozyczki chwilowki kredyt bank morcinka pożyczki pozabankowe finan kredyt konsolidacyjny ustawa kredyt studencki oprocentowanie 2011 umorzenie pożyczki konsekwencje podatkowe vivus limit pożyczki kredyt chwilówki kluczbork prywatne pozyczki na procent katowice pożyczki dla budżetówki kredyt konsolidacyjny z windykacją umowa pożyczki do spółki kredyt bank sa infolinia kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit 2013 umowa pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bez bik puławy kredyt bank zwycięstwa koszalin kredyt bank bocian kredyt bank katowice kredyt bank w lublinie windykacja umowa pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym wzór udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez udziałowca kredyt bez biku żywiec udzielenie pożyczki udziałowcowi a pcc kredyt pozabankowy od reki pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem gliwice istota kredytu kredyt bez banku podatek od odsetek od pożyczki wspólnika kredyty bez bik opolskie kredyt bank kolegialna 22 kredyt w eurobank opinie mikropożyczki opinie kredyty pko bp kalkulator kredyty chwilówki email pożyczki chwilówki dla każdego kredyty chwilówki ile procent kredyt bank kontakt centrala pożyczki chwilówki w świeciu kredyt bez bik ciechanów pożyczki sezam wieluń kredyt bank infolinia lublin kredyt bank tarnobrzeg kontakt kredyt bank sa telefon kredyt bank zytnia 15 godziny otwarcia pożyczki umowa co lubuskie alior bank kredyt firmowy najtańsze pożyczki ranking kredyt bank gliwice dworcowa pożyczki bez dochodu i bik szybki kredyt bez bik forum kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt bank warszawa krs kredyt bank gryfino godziny otwarcia oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki z zfśs aig bank polska sa kredyt pożyczka na dowód piła do 20 otwarcie mennica pożyczki z jakimi bankami jest powiązana pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik i krd kredyt bez bik gniezno udzielone pożyczki ang kredyt bank money kredyt bank karta visa kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim opinie pożyczki jedności narodowej wrocław jak dostać kredyt w banku spółdzielczym kiedy jest wyłudzenie pożyczki kredyt bank fb kredyt konsolidacyjny jest to pożyczki wieruszów czy każda umowa pożyczki podlega opodatkowaniu formy pożyczki kredyt banki mikołów kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście lublin kredyt bez bik głogów szybkie pożyczki piaseczno wzor umowy o kredyt wbk expres pozyczki infolinia udzielić pożyczki po angielsku auto kredyt bez biku przyznawalność kredytów w credit agricole pożyczki przez internet zyrafa pożyczki gotówkowe żary szybkie pożyczki przez internet uk kredyt samochodowy bank tarnów pożyczki dla dzieci kredyt chwilówki zielona góra pożyczki bez bik świecie pożyczki uprzywilejowane pożyczki pozabankowe w lublinie bocian pożyczki oddziały pożyczki bez bik i krd warszawa 2014 rok szybkie pożyczki bez bik kraków wycena pożyczki według zamortyzowanego kosztu kredyty gotówkowe bez bik przez internet kto da pożyczkę lub kredyt z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki ratunkowe pożyczki online bez wychodzenia z domu kredyt konsolidacyjny w db kredyt opinie kredyt studencki pko bp regulamin prywatne pożyczki na weksel pożyczki ślimak pożyczka bez krd forum kredyt w banku pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt prowizja banku pożyczki pozabankowe w kaliszu kredyt bez bik i krd bolesławiec kredyt bank fuzja forum pożyczki bez bik praca kredyt chwilówka ostrów mazowiecka kredyt mieszkaniowy bgż kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy porównanie banków artur kobus pożyczki kredyt chwilówka klodzko kredyt bank obsługa klienta pożyczki porównywarka kredyty chwilówki kraków długa cechy pożyczki i kredytu przedmiot umowy oferty pożyczki pozabankowej zamortyzowany koszt pożyczki gdzie najłatwiej dostać kredyt mieszkaniowy opodatkowanie umorzonej pożyczki z zfśs konwersja pożyczki na kapitał podatek u źródła firma żyrafa pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe do 7000 kredyty chwilówki tarnów alior bank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki czy weksel kredyt bank sa oddział lublin kredyt bank warszawa radość kredyt bez bik skarbiec kredyt mieszkaniowy na mieszkanie w kamienicy kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa 8 c wpłatomaty kredyt banku warszawa pożyczki dla prawników pożyczki bez bik gorzów wlkp żyrafa pożyczki kontakt pożyczki do 1200 kredyt bank obsługa kart pozyczki pozabankowe w euro w holandii kredyt bank pozew zbiorowy pożyczki z funduszy europejskich pożyczki gogolin kredyt bankowy a pożyczka pieniężna podatek od pożyczki darowizny kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108a kredyt bank w leborku gzie najlepiej w krakowie wziasc kredyt pozabankowy wierzyciele pożyczki kredyt bank psie pole kredyt samochodowy bank pekao sa jak zaksięgować zaciągnięty kredyt bankowy cesja zobowiązania z tytułu pożyczki pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat kredyt bank marketing getin bank kredyt gotówkowy online pożyczki odnawialne umowa pożyczki informacje pożyczki pozabankowe garwolin pozyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania bik i krd kredyt bankowy dla zadłużonych pozyczki dla kazdego kontakt lomza kredyty chwilówki poznań 23 lutego kredyt bank w elblągu kredyt bank płock kolegialna telefon pozyczka bocian bytom odsetki od pożyczki ceny transferowe umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki prywatne a prawo umowa pożyczki z zastawem kredyt bank sa infolinia kredyt bank sa email prywatne pożyczki pod weksel poznań kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego pko bp meritum bank kredyt firmowy opinie w jakim banku wziąć kredyt rodzina na swoim pożyczki preferencyjne małopolska mikropożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt bez bik śląsk umowa pożyczki lichwa kredyt bank w kaliszu kredyty bez bik pruszków kredyt bank plonsk kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki historia pożyczki gotówkowe koszalin kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim ranking szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez prowizji pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod zastaw kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny kto spłaca kredyty mieszkaniowe raport umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a składki zus kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń pomorskie pożyczki prywatne bez bik szczecin bank pekao sa kredyt opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny z najniższym oprocentowaniem kredyt konsumencki banki pożyczki bez bik 5000 zł pożyczki między ludźmi kredyt bank swidnica karta kredytowa splata kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń na 10 lat kredyt bez bik rzeszow auto kredyt bez bik forum kredyty bez bik żory pożyczki bez bik sanok pożyczki w wałczu szybki kredyt dla firm online kredyt banki grudziądz kredyt dla firm w mbanku konsolidacja zabezpieczona pko bank polski kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt bez bik 30 tys pożyczki unijne małopolska kredyt samochodowy oprocentowanie forum praca w pozyczkach ostrowwlkp umowa pożyczki wraz z poręczeniem pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik pożyczki w domu wałbrzych czy warto brać kredyt studencki forum kredyt konsolidacyjny wielka brytania oddziały kredyt banku w warszawie pulawska kredyty chwilowki warszawa bez bik i krd kredyt bank przelewy wewnętrzne udzielenie pożyczki a pcc potrzebny szybki kredyt bez bik umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kapitałowymi umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a urząd skarbowy kredyty chwilówki do domu pożyczki domówki grudziądz kredyty chwilówki bez krd pożyczki pozabankowe ełk kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku zachodnim wbk w jakim banku najlepiej brać kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank w lezajsku kredyt bank kupiony przez santander wzór wniosku o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank warszawa mokotowska 49 szybki kredyt 5 tys niski procent opolskie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd kredyt bank bródno umowa pożyczki pomiędzy wspólnikiem a spółką kredyt bank godziny otwarcia słupsk kredyt w banku pko bp opinie kredyt bank zgubiona karta kompensata pożyczki ogłoszenia pożyczki chwilówki kredyty konsolidacyjne porownanie pożyczki w domu śląsk pożyczki pozabankowe w gorzowie wlkp kredyt bank 3 oddział warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny invest bank żyrafa pożyczki logowanie kredyt w banku pekao

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad