skarabeusz pożyczki oświęcim kredyty chwilówki dla zadłużonych kredyt pod zastaw w banku kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego alior bank pozyczki bez dochodow koszalin pożyczki aleksandrów kujawski kredyt bank w jaworznie koszt umowy pożyczki mennica pożyczki z jakimi bankami jest powiązana kredyty santander consumer bank pożyczki dla firm katowice szybkie kredyty przez internet bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny w jakim banku umowa pożyczki do pobrania kredyt na juz bez bik kościan najtanszy kredyt w banku kredyty konsolidacyjny w2014 r szukam pożyczki prywatnej pod zastaw kredyt bank rekrutacja eurocent pozyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń poznań kredyt bank włocławek godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki gliwice atiz pożyczki opinie kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku millenium opinie pożyczki bez bik turek tęcza pożyczki kredyty w idea bank opinie www kredyt konsolidacyjny pozyczki szczecin od zaraz najdluzsze kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki prywatne holandia kredyt bez biku banki pozyczki dla osob krd i pracujacych na czarno szczecin kredyt bank w białymstoku ul warszawska kredyt bank ilawa szybki kredyt 10000 mińsk mazowiecki jak wziąć kredyt w credit agricole kredyt bank ostrołęka godziny pracy kredyty bez bik i krd katowice pożyczki inteligo kredyty bez bik warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny wady w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczka przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt bank wojska polskiego szczecin firma finan pożyczki kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche bank opinie białystok pożyczki bez bik pożyczki bez bik poznań kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osoby samotnej kredyt gotówkowy eurobank kalkulator pożyczki dla organizacji gdzie kredyt bez biku alior bank kredyt na samochód kalkulator kredyt bank w koscianie wniosek o kredyt studencki pko bp kredyty chwilówki siedziba kredyt studencki w getin banku udzielenie pożyczki księgowanie kredyt bank sztabowa godziny otwarcia o banknot pozyczki getin noble bank kredyt inwestycyjny pożyczki na komornika kredyt mieszkaniowy 3x0 opinie kredyty bez bik forum kredyt studencki pko poręczenie bgk szybkie pożyczki ubezpieczenie kredytu w fm banku kredyty chwilówki lublin pozyczki prywatne do reki kredyt bank tbg umowa pożyczki konsekwencje kredyt bez bik na start best partner pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe oświęcim 458 punktów bik kredyt w eurobank pożyczki 15 tys pożyczki ltro kredyt bank poznan dabrowskiego pożyczki duże kwoty kredyt bank sa iban sprzedaż kredyt banku santander pożyczki 100 przyznawalności przekształcenie pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy kredyt bank lublin jutrzenki godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki ze wspólnikiem spółki kredyt bank otwock kredyt na remont mieszkania bank pocztowy kredyt bank w dębicy kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli w 2013 pożyczki długoterminowe kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki gotówkowe gliwice kredyt w banku a śmierć umowa pożyczki za granicą pcc przetarg kredyt bankowy kredyt bank pabianice godziny otwarcia kredyt obrotowy w idea banku pożyczki chwilówki bez bik włocławek kredyt bank warsaw odsetki od pożyczki kosztem potrzebuję pożyczki blog 2014 pożyczki bez zaświadczeń zus us kredyt bank kraków wielicka godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum bank kredyt remontowy w banku pekao sa alior bank kredyt bez zaswiadczen gdzie kredyt bez bik zatrudnionych zagranica umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie do urzędu skarbowego cesja z umowy pożyczki uzasadnienie pożyczki kredyt bank gdansk kartuska pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik poznań kredyt samochodowy paribas bank pożyczki online bez bik i big pożyczki prywatne lublin szukam pożyczki warszawa pożyczki pieniężne definicja umowa pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bank otwock staszica kredyt bank zatrudnienie pokwitowanie pożyczki pieniędzy pożyczki od osób prywatnych łódź kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw 2014 pożyczki pod zastaw kwidzyn kredyt bank lokaty kwiecień 2012 kredyt bank warszawa chmielna kredyt pozabankowy kalisz pożyczka online do 60 dni kredyty chwilówki w olsztynie umowa pożyczki druk do pobrania kredyt bank sa nip kredyt bank piła sikorskiego pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód bez bik czy kredyty chwilówki sprawdzają bik kredyt bank gryfino kontakt pożyczki społecznościowe oferty czy odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem kredyt bank wita stwosza pożyczki opolskie pożyczki w grosie pożyczki do 5000 bez bik kredyt bank w rawiczu pozyczki krosos windykacja umowa pożyczki a pcc 2012 pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik i krd kredyt bank oddział łódź podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki gotówkowe do 20000 pożyczki od ręki na dowód kredyty bez bik sieradz bank pko bp kredyt studencki kredyty bez bik dla firm kredyt bez bik świebodzin pożyczka kielce online pożyczki bez bik dla nowych firm umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs pożyczki chwilówki wejherowo kredyt bank przetargi kredyt z idea bank opinie pożyczka w domu bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe porównanie ofert kredyt bank dekabrystów częstochowa kredyty bez bik i zaswiadczen o zarobkach pożyczki bez pracy tanie pożyczki sezam wieluń kredyt w uk dla polakow kredyt bank sa lublin żagiel kredyt na mieszkanie bez banku szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki wysokooprocentowane kredyt mieszkaniowy a firma na ryczalcie kredyt bank złota karta pozyczki pozabankowe kredyt ze złą historią kredyt bank zamość telefon pożyczka przez internet bez bik i zaświadczeń pozyczki internetowe bez sprawdzania bik i krs kredyt w kasie stefczyka a innym banku kto udziela pozyczki w domu klienta walbrzych pożyczki ostrów wlkp dla zadłóżonych kredyt na dowód alior bank umowa pożyczki a podatek dochodowy pożyczki eurocash kredyt bank lublin głęboka godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki w firmie pożyczki prywatne wałcz pożyczki dla firm przez internet kredyt bank kęty pozyczki pozabankowe z zajeciem komorniczym boleslawiec kalkulator odsetkowy pożyczek miszkaniowych z zfŚs umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a pcc abil pożyczki bank bgż pożyczka gotówkowa umowa zlecenie pożyczki elbląg kredyt na start w idea bank forum jednorazowe udzielenie pożyczki a vat dobre pożyczki opinie kredyt pod zastaw auta bez biku kredyt bez bik wadowice kredyt na dowód w alior banku pożyczki kredyty dla zadłużonych kredyty chwilówki lichwa kredyt w allianz bank pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości prywatne kredyt bank bierz co chcesz pozyczki od osob prywatnych w bialymstoku kredyt bez bik 25000 konsolidacja kredytu gdzie teleklient pożyczki oddziały kredyt banku w kielcach w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyt bank bierz co chcesz kredyt na kupno samochodu bez bik karat pożyczki pożyczki bez bik bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt konsolidacyjny korzyści kredyty gotówkowe w banku millennium kredyt bank w słupsku prywatne pożyczki na weksel kredyt bank poznań niepodległości godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki inwestowanie kredyty pozabankowe zgorzelec pożyczki konsumpcyjne porównanie w jakim banku najlepiej brać kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank giżycko telefon kredyt bank szczecin matejki godziny otwarcia pożyczki między rodzeństwem kredyt konsolidacyjny anglia pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki forum pożyczki dla zadłużonych z bik kredyt bank bankomaty za granicą pożyczki między internautami jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs bocian pożyczki inowrocław kredyt samochodowy getin bank jastrzębie zdrój pożyczki everest pożyczki bez zaświadczeń rzeszów kredyt bank warszawa srodmiescie pożyczki bocian starogard gdański w jakim banku opłaca się wziąć kredyt umowa pożyczki na firmę szybkie kredyty bez bik kredyt studencki getin bank pożyczki w domu druk umowa pożyczki bocian pożyczka nr tele oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego w mbank kredyt bank i oddział warszawa toyota bank kredyt samochodowy opinie pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pod zastaw samochodu pożyczki pozabankowe kontakt telefoniczny kredyt bank pozyczka na dowod getin bank warunki kredytu gotówkowego umorzenie pożyczki konsekwencje podatkowe kredyt bankowy a podatek vat opodatkowanie pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bez biku siedlce pożyczki na dowód chełm kredyt konsolidacyjny bnp paribas kredyt z orange na jaki numer pożyczki kapitałowe pożyczki krótkoterminowe w bilansie kredyty chwilówki poznań praca kredyt w uk jak dostac pożyczki pod zastaw pomorskie kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu kredyt bank konstancińska godziny otwarcia promocja w kredyt banku pożyczki chwilówki chojnice bank pekao sa kredyt rodzina na swoim pożyczki gotówkowe od ręki czy pcc od pożyczki jest kosztem uzyskania przychodu pozyczki bez bik i krd numerz tel kredyty bez bik slaskie pożyczki unijne jeremie kredyt bez biku na oswiadczenie prywatne pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank oddział łódź kościuszki kredyt konsolidacyjny wcześniejsza spłata kredyty mieszkaniowe bez bik provident zwrot pożyczki kredyt samochodowy bez bik opinie bocian pożyczki dąbrowa górnicza kredyt bank prowizje kredyt bank kielce sienkiewicza pożyczki bez bik raty kredyt bank wilanowska kredyty chwilówki płońsk kredyty chwilówki konto szybkie kredyty gotówkowe pozabankowe kredyt w raiffeisen bank żyrafa pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe śląskie kredyty mieszkaniowe z wkładem własnym kredyt w fortis bank kredyt lombardowy banku centralnego kredyty chwilowki starogard gdanski najtańszy kredyt na 30 tyś bez bik kredyt oszczędnościowy w getin banku prywatne pozyczki chwilowki w domu klienta łodz kredyt konsolidacyjny wikipedia pożyczki pozabankowe koszalin ile kosztuje umowa notarialna pożyczki oblicz oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku kredyt bank warszawa ochota kredyt w orange pod jaki nr kredyt bank dom maklerski pożyczki dla ciebie pożyczki chwilówki na rok kredyt bank plock 1 maja money now pożyczki pożyczki bez bik krd online kredyty chwilówki nysa rynek zabezpieczenie pożyczki na nieruchomości koszt pożyczki bocian pożyczki częstochowa pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki od osób prywatnych leszno kredyt bank promocje lokat kredyt bez bik opolskie kredyty chwilówki tychy kadry kredyt bank w środzie śląskiej kredyt bank godziny pożyczki takto pożyczki bez odsetek kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulacja kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 3000 netto pożyczki poznań kredyt bank kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zus kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank pozyczki z krd w starachowice kredyt bank kosztorys i harmonogram prac budowlanych pożyczka pozabankowa bez bik i zabezpieczeń kredyt chwilówka kraków bocian pożyczki jakie dokumenty kredyt bank departament prawny kredyt bank warszawa książkowa godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny długoterminowy pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator getin bank umowa pożyczki dobrowolne poddanie się egzekucji kredyty bez bik na oswiadczenie pożyczki przy niskich dochodach helios pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny pnb paribas pożyczki bez opłat wstępnych getin noble bank kredyty samochodowe kontakt potrzebny szybki kredyt bez bik pozyczka na rok bez bik dla bezrobotnych pożyczki z parp argentum pożyczki definicja pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt w banku pko sa opinie umowa pożyczki pieniężnej wzór doc eurocash pozyczki poznan prestiż pożyczki pożyczki bocian bytom nie oddaje pożyczki kredyt bez bik mbank pożyczki na dowód eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny z opóźnieniem warta pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe a pcc znaczenie kredytów w działalności banków bocian pożyczki nysa kredyty bez umowy kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania bez bik kredyt bank choszczno kredyty bez bik elblag kredyt chwilówka kraków kredyt bank warszawa zeromskiego pożyczki pozabankowe na już kredyt bez biku szczecinek kredyty bez bik płock kredyt bank tomaszów mazowiecki telefon kredyty pożyczki trudne prywatne kredyt bank opole żwirki i wigury godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne od osób prywatnych kredyt w banku rodzina na swoim kredyt odnawialny pko bp bik umowa pożyczki spółce kredyt bank w piotrkowie trybunalskim pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa bez bik dobre kredyty bez biku kredyt bank iii oddział łódź kredyt bank email kredyt konsolidacyjny w którym banku pożyczki na dowód bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach kredyty bankowe historia pożyczki chorzow kredyt bank godziny otwarcia czestochowa kredyt w ulster bank ie kredyt samochodowy ranking styczeń 2014 w jakim banku mały kredyt pko bp kredyt studencki oświadczenie poręczyciela wysokie pożyczki na dowód kredyty chwilówki pierwsza za darmo kredyt bank gubin kredyty konsolidacyjne w uk cesja pożyczki pcc kredyt chwilówka co to jest kredyt mieszkaniowy dla studenta pko pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wejherowo kredyty bez bik i krd wrocław uchwała kredyt konsolidacyjny pro domo pożyczki inwestor pozyczki z zagranicy pożyczki all money kredyty bez bik w uk kredyt w eurobanku a utrata pracy konwersja pożyczki na akcje czy można dobrać kredyt w getin banku pożyczki luton pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kielce wycena bilansowa udzielonej pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank fuzja pożyczki chwilówki garwolin kredyty chwilówki koszalin kredyt chwilówka pruszcz kredyty mieszkaniowe zmiany 2014 kredyt bank sa w gdańsku kredyt bank żytnia godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki łódź piotrkowska pożyczki gotówkowe tarnowskie góry kredyt bank łomża godziny otwarcia kredyt bank ubezpieczenie mieszkania kredyt bank zduńska wola godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zdolność kredytowa kalkulator kredyt bank lokata 6 bankomaty kredyt bank stargard kredyt bank poznań godziny otwarcia pozyczki chwilowki pozabankowa pszczyna jaki jest kod na kredyt w orange kredyt bank wrocław plac solny wzór umowy pożyczki w ratach szybkie pożyczki cieszyn pożyczki wałcz kredyty bez bik w poznaniu kredyt ratalny alior bank opinie umowa o pożyczki kredyt w idea bank opinie wzór umowy pożyczki pienięznej kredyt w skok stefczyka bez bik kredyty bez bik w poznaniu odsetki od pożyczki płatnik kredyt gotówkowy w banku pko bp trudne pożyczki bez bik kredyty bez biku jelenia góra kredyty chwilówki poznań głogowska warunki kredytu samochodowego getin bank nadpłata pożyczki ing kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli kalkulator umowa pożyczki i przewłaszczenia na zabezpieczenie dobranie pożyczki w providencie umowa pożyczki darmowy wzór kredyt bank sa nip oblicz kredyt w credit agricole pożyczki społecznościowe zakra kredyty samochodowe ing pożyczki prywatne szczecin pożyczki bez udokumentowanych dochodów pożyczki podobne do takto kredyty bez bik 5000 pożyczki z obsługą w domu radom kredyt bank ruda śląska godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe uk kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt kredyty bez bik wodzisław śl odnowienie pożyczki kredyt dla firm bez bik kraków pożyczki ze środków unijnych oblicz ratę pożyczki ing zabezpieczenie pożyczki nieruchomością kredyty chwilówki mysłowice grunwaldzka kredyt bank bps kredyty konsolidacyjne kalisz pożyczki chwilówki bez bik poznan pożyczki dla absolwentów pożyczki praca umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki wzór warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp kredyty bez biku gliwice pozyczki prywatne w obcej walucie pomocne pożyczki opinie kredyt samochodowy kalkulator bank kredyt studencki pko 2014 kredyt w banku hsbc uk kredyt bank zielonka alior bank kredyty studenckie przykładowa umowa pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bez bik dla każdego chwilowki bez zdolnosci kredytoeej na dowod kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim w pko sa instytut finansowy pożyczki opinie

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad