pożyczki chwilówki forum 2013 pożyczki provident przez internet pożyczki bez bik nakło nad notecią pożyczki w banku wbk pozyczki prywatne wloclawek pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki pożyczki pozabankowe gniezno odmowa pożyczki kredyt w orange jaki nr kredyty chwilówki wrocław strzegomska pożyczki bez bik w olsztynie kredyt bank biłgoraj odsetki od pożyczki a przychód podatkowy kredyty bez bik i krd tychy kredyt gotówkowy bez bik i krd kredyt mieszkaniowy bez wkładu własnego 2012 kredyt bank address kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka 2 umowa pożyczki między osobami prywatnymi kredyt bank zabrze wolności marka pożyczki ełk kredyt bank oława kontakt pozyczki bez biku kredyty chwilówka częstochowa kredyt bank łuków praca kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2011 pożyczki z banku światowego kredyt bank susz godziny otwarcia opodatkowanie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca alior bank kredyt odnawialny opinie kredyt gotówkowy bez bik i zdolności kredytowej bocian pożyczki świdnica szybka pozyczka do reki tczew na dowod umowy o kredyt miedzyfirma a prywatna pożyczki pozabankowe dla każdego poznań kredyt bez bik tarnobrzeg kredyt studencki zasady przyznawania kredyt bank rodzina na swoim 2012 kredyty chwilówki turek kredyt bank nazwa tanie pożyczki gotówkowe opinie umowa pożyczki udzielona spółce przez wspólnika kto udzieli pożyczki bez bik i krd rybnik kredyty bez bik z komornikiem pożyczki na działalnośc gospodarczą pożyczki internetowe bez biku pożyczki chwilówki suwałki kredyty chwilówki świebodzin w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy ing czy mozna wziasc kredyt na dowod kredyt samochodowy dla młodych ludzi kredyt bank śliska telefon kredyt z pierwsza pozyczka za darmo pko bp kredyt studencki druki kredyt pozabankowy gdzie udzielam pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe przepisy kredyt bank wbk szczecin pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości legnica umowa poręczenia spłaty pożyczki kredyt w credit agricole kalkulator kredyt bank pytania umowa pożyczki w rodzinie a podatek parabanki pozyczki prywatne wrocław siedziby chwilowki kredyt jaslo przekształcenie pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy pozyczka bez bik w mbank umowa pożyczki in blanco przelewy w kredyt banku godziny kredyty chwilówki mikołów konsolidacja kredytów gdzie najlepiej czy poręcza się kredyt z odsetkami czy bez w jakim banku wziac kredyt kredyty chwilówki wrocław praca pożyczki bez bik jasło akcje spółki kredyt bank sa w warszawie bankomaty kredyt banku w krakowie kredyt bank radlin godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku uk podatek pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca kredyty chwilówka jelenia góra kredyty bez bik współpraca pewny kredyt bez bik ranking pozyczek bez bik i z odbiorem na poczcie kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank polecacie kredyt bank wroclaw plac solny szybki kredyt przez internet bez bik kredyt studencki pko kiedy decyzja kredyt bank warszawa bielany pożyczki od osób prywatnych słupsk umowa pożyczki pod weksel wzór kredyt bank sosnowiec modrzejowska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank nowy sacz kontakt pożyczki na dowód poznań pożyczki bez bik w kielcach kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego bank bph koszt całkowity pożyczki kredyt bank wolczanska kredyty bez bik w koninie umowa pożyczki udzielona spółce przez wspólnika pożyczki gotówkowe siedlce wzór umowy pożyczki doc kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobank pożyczki w internecie kredyt bank bankomaty partnerskie partner pożyczki warszawa pożyczki alter kredyt bank zmiana hasła kredyt prostoliczony w credit agricole sieradz pożyczka 15000 najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 proste pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt od ręki rybnik kredyty do firm parabanki odsetki od pożyczki a przychód podatkowy kredyt bank gniezno godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w biłgoraju kredyt bez bik prywatny kredyt bank mapa pożyczki prywatne online kredyt bank konkurs ewidencja odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki pożyczki na własny biznes kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik pożyczki chwilówki grodzisk maz pożyczki na dowód prywatne kredyt bank nowe środki kronos pożyczki tarnowskie gory telefon umowa pożyczki w języku angielskim kredyt bank dietla godziny otwarcia pozyczki internetowe na dowod ostrow wlkp kredyty bez bik zielona góra pożyczki bez biku kredyt bank giżycko telefon lubań kredyty pod zastaw mieszkania optima pożyczki ełk kredyty mieszkaniowe bph udzielam pozyczek do reki kontakt slask kredyt w banku getin bank sulechow pozyczki bez zaswiadczen z doreczeniem do domu pko sa pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczka w domu warszawa i okolice pożyczki mieszkaniowe w policji kredyt bank konto walutowe opinie szybkie pożyczki bez biku umorzenie pożyczki tłumaczenie kredyty chwilówki biznes pożyczki bez bik big krd bydgoszcz bez biku kredyty oddłużeniowe konsolidacja pożyczki bez bik krd z komornikiem bydgoszcz kredyt konsolidacyjny bez krd oferuję pożyczki kredyt bank aktywa kredyt studencki pko spłata pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta jak dostac kredyt w polsce pracujac w uk pko bp kredyt studencki zaświadczenie pożyczki typu provident warszawa profi credit kalkulator pożyczki kredyt bez bik pozabankowy kredyt bank żeromskiego warszawa godziny otwarcia pożyczki społecznościowe opinie kredyt chwilówka sosnowiec szybkie pożyczki bez bik opole pożyczki od osób fizycznych pożyczki bez bik zawiercie kredyt bank kasprzaka 22 kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt oferteo pożyczki pożyczka meritum stargard kredyt prostoliczony lukas bank kalkulator kredyt bank świecie umowa pożyczki od firmy zagranicznej szybkie pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz opinie wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego czy można zawiesić kredyt w banku zabezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej bankomaty kredyt banku w koszalinie bocian pożyczki praca kierownik kredyt bank gorlice godziny kredyt bank wikipedia kredyt bank dlugie ogrody pożyczki bocian kościan kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę karty kredytowej pożyczka na dowód choszczno kredyt dziesiatka pozyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania bik i krd pożyczki inowrocław niski procent kredyt bez bik 2013 pożyczki chwilówki kozienice luban sl prywatna pozyczka przeniesienie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pożyczki od ręki online kredyt bez bik kościan szybkie pożyczki w domu klienta kredyt bank program concerto kredyt bank lokaty rentierskie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik włocławek kredyt online bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt na pit w getin banku forum kredyt na dowód bank bph kredyt mieszkaniowy oplaty kredyty bez bik na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank świebodzice godziny otwarcia kalkulator pożyczki bnp paribas banki udzielajace kredytu bez biku kredyt na oddłużenie pożyczki direct najtańsze kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking bocian pożyczki wrocław kredyt bank spółdzielczy wschowa ile kosztuje kredyt w banku kredyty chwilówki w bełchatowie pożyczki głogowska pożyczki z ue dla firm kredyt bank biuro powiernictwa pożyczki chełm umowa pożyczki na wykup mieszkania kredyty chwilówki małopolska kredyt studencki mbank umowa pożyczki pieniędzy opodatkowanie udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez członka zarządu kredyt bank vii oddział w warszawie kredyt bank wejherowo godz otwarcia kredyt bez bankowego rejestru kredyt bank przelewy online kredyt bank olsztyn kredyty bez biku i zdolnosci kredytowej hesta pożyczki pożyczki refinansowe deklaracja wekslowa do pożyczki profi credit wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki ogólne warunki kredytu samochodowego getin bank kredyt na mieszkanie bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank payback pożyczki milicz oszukańcze pożyczki obsługa pożyczki w domu kredyt inwestycyjny idea bank opinie kredyt w banku zachodnim forum pożyczki bez krd profit pożyczki ciechanów kredyt gotówkowy w banku millenium opinie kredyt bank klodzko kredyty bez bik w sosnowcu pożyczki prywatne wrocław umowa pożyczki dowód ze świadków kredyt chwilówka pruszcz uzasadnienie pożyczki remontowej umowa pożyczki z poręczeniem wzór ranking banków udzielających kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt na samochód bez bik forum kredyty mieszkaniowe na umowe zlecenie kredyt bank krosno bankomaty kredyty konsolidacyjne piła pożyczki 100 zł kredyty bez bik w plocku pożyczki pod zastaw dębica próba wyłudzenia pożyczki umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki przychód udzielone pożyczki w bilansie szybkie pożyczki w uk kredyt bank ostatnie księgowanie kredyt bank w oleśnicy pozyczka na pit bez bik w bydgoszcz szukam pożyczki warszawa umowa pożyczki a us kredyt online idea bank zgoda na umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny słownik pozyczki pila bank pko lublin kredyt na dowod osobisty pożyczki pozabankowe rybnik kredyt gotówkowy skok chmielewskiego kredyt bank warszawa godziny kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt bank problem z bankomatem pożyczki bez pcc kredyt bank ciołka 10 godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód bez bik krd kredyt bez biku w stalowej woli kredyt studencki oprocentowanie kredyt bankowy regulacje prawne pożyczki w walucie kredyt bank bankomaty lublin kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator rat rodzina na swoim kredyty chwilowka sosnowiec santander kredyt samochodowy wcześniejsza spłata bocian pożyczki żywiec szukam taniej pożyczki kredyt firmowy idea bank opinie przekształcenie pożyczki w darowiznę kredyt samochodowy dla rencistów pożyczki pod zastaw słupsk chwilówki gliwice pożyczki gliwice chwilówki knurów szybki kredyt bez bik gdańsk pożyczki chwilówki warszawa kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki od udziałowca zagranicznego getin bank kredyty samochodowe telefon podatek od pożyczki cywilnej kredyt bank regulamin kredyt bank wałbrzych piaskowa góra pożyczki od rodziny i znajomych pożyczki poznań na dowód pożyczki bez bik szczecin kredyt chwilówka rawicz pożyczki udzielane przez gminę w jakim banku korzystny kredyt pożyczki bez bik kłobuck kredyt bank plac solny wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w będzinie pożyczki bez bik mława umowa pożyczki zwrot pożyczki a oprocentowanie jak dostac kredyt w polsce pracujac w uk umowa pożyczki z przelewem na konto pożyczki bez bik mazowieckie pożyczki na procent wrocław getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny pozyczka prywatna chrzanow kredyt bank kapelanka godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe radomsko pożyczki społecznościowe w polsce kredyt bank lokata 6 kredyty chwilówki windykator opinie pożyczki świebodzice kredyt bankowy ze złym bikiem pożyczki chwilówki dla zadłużonych kredyt bank wielkokacka kredyty chwilówki windykacja praca kredyt bank sprzedaż kredyt w lukas banku opinie kredyt bank lokata swobodna oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki zfron kredyty chwilowki pl bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe dla osób bezrobotnych promocje w kredyt bank kredyt studencki warunki pożyczki na dowód długoterminowe ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych marzec 2012 kredyt na remont mieszkania kalkulator pko bocian pożyczki ełk konwersja pożyczki na kapitał skutki podatkowe pożyczki de minimis pożyczki z pracy kredyty mieszkaniowe na umowe zlecenie kredyt studencki spłata forum dyskusyjne pozyczki poza bankowe skarbiec promocja pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki chwilówki kalkulator pożyczki pod zastaw złota lublin pożyczki internetowe w 15 minut kredyty bankowe samochodowe umowa pożyczki między małżonkami wzór pozyczki chwilowki zyrafa pozyczki poznan umowa zlecenie bank bgż pożyczka gotówkowa umowa zlecenie bocian kredyt wloclawek kontakt kredyt bank głogów księgowanie odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki kredyt na mieszkanie w getin banku kredyt bank zambrów kontakt kredyty bez bik i krd bocian walbrzych kredyt kredyt bank pin do karty kredyt bank wrocłąw pożyczki drawsko pomorskie wzór umowy pozyczki kredyt chwilówka kwidzyn transakcja pożyczki równoległej amber fish pożyczki kredyt bank w goleniowie umowa pożyczki podatek pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny w żaglu umowa pożyczki pieniędzy gofin kredyty bez bik kęty kredyt konsolidacyjny korzyści bankowy kredyt samochodowy gdzie pożyczki dla zadłużonych pożyczki gdzie najlepiej pożyczki o charakterze inwestycyjnym kredyt konsolidacyjny wikipedia kredyt bank gryfino godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w ciechanowie lokaty umowa pożyczki pieniędzy między firmami kredyt bank piotrków kontakt żyrafa pożyczki chwilówki opinie bocian pożyczki jelenia góra pożyczki na dowód piekary śląskie kredyt konsolidacyjny skok wspólnota gros pozyczki pleszew bez bica kredyt getin bank opinie feninks pozyczki pozabankowe strona glowwna umowa pożyczki lombardowej kredyty bez bik i bez zaświadczeń konwersja pożyczki na kapitał wzór pożyczki giełda kredyty chwilówki w uk kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli restrukturyzacja pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe na działalność gospodarczą sprawdzone pożyczki dla zadłużonych kredyty samochodowe bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulatory kredyt mieszkaniowy a ślub wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki wfośigw kredyt bank białołeka bez bik kredyty konsolidacyjne rybnik kredyt mieszkaniowy w credit agricole opinie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt studencki pko zawieszenie druk udzielenia pożyczki ewidencja otrzymanej pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kalkulator kredyt bank w łomży pożyczki krótkoterminowe bilans kredyt bez bik zielona gora kredyt samochodowy bank pko bp finan pożyczki umowa pożyczki przepisy warunki kredytu samochodowego getin bank wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania umowa pożyczki pieniężnej z zabezpieczeniem optima pożyczki do domu szczecin pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach i bik pożyczki online od 19 lat pożyczki dla każdego lombard mikołów najszybsze pożyczki online kredyty bez bik wroclaw kredyt bank godziny otwarcia słupsk pozyczki do domu świdnica przewalutowanie pożyczki różnice kursowe kredyt bank ochrony środowiska umorzenie umowy pożyczki kredyty pod zastaw bez bik pożyczki literatura kredyt bank współpraca zasady kredytu studenckiego w pko bp kredyt samochodowy na firmę kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik płock numer telefonu do kredyt banku zagiel kredyt bank bielawa pożyczki takto forum ewidencja pożyczki w walucie obcej kredyt pozabankowy bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank zastrzeganie kart kredyty bez bik wroclaw kredyt bez bik złotów kredyt bank marcinkowskiego poznań kredyt bankowy obrotowy kredyt bank sa w lublinie kredyt bank kontakt lublin pożyczki tax care opinie kredyty i gwarancje bankowe zbigniew dobosiewicz pdf kredyt odnawialny bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny bez małżonka umowa pożyczki poręczenie kredyt studencki pko pierwsza transza umowa pożyczki gotówkowej druk pozyczki krotoszyn getin bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bez bik do 3000 ewidencja pożyczki długoterminowej umowa pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wzór kredyt studencki pko bp warunki kredyt bank bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia pożyczki ostrzeszów pożyczki chwilówki on line oblicz kredyt w credit agricole credit agricole klodzko druczek na kredyt umowa pożyczki na samochód kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp marża pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania poznań kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko oprocentowanie łukasz fornela pozyczki pożyczki prywatne jaworzno kredyt bez biku chorzów tomasz kotłowski pożyczki kredyt bank foksal część pożyczki puszczona w obieg pożyczka chwilówka prywatna wrocław pożyczki od prywatnych firm szybkie pożyczki bez bik włocławek kredyt bank rembertów vivus pożyczki rejestracja pożyczka na procent pod mieszkanie pożyczki brzozów kredyt bank komisji edukacji narodowej pożyczki dla służb mundurowych pożyczki bez bik kujawsko pomorskie kredyt bank metro politechnika kredyt studencki poręczenie przez bank kredyt przez internet w idea bank 10000 kredyty chwilówki w domu klienta kredyty mieszkaniowe na 100 wartości pożyczki prywatne 30000 kredyt bank zabrze symulacja kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad