cena rynkowa pożyczki pożyczki bez bik i krd gniezno kredyt obrotowy idea bank opinie pożyczki bez bik zdunska wola najszybsze pozyczki w domu klienta kod na wzięcie kredytu w orange umowa pożyczki pieniędzy przedawnienie kredyt bank fundusze notowania miś pożyczki umowa pożyczki od wspólnika spółki cywilnej kredyt bank bankomaty toruń cechy pożyczki przedmiot umowy kredyt pozabankowy gliwice kredyt bank adres do korespondencji kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej getin bank kredyt bez biku rzeszów kredyt bank w świnoujściu przedawnienie pożyczki odnawialnej pożyczki pod zastaw sprzętu rtv łódź wałbrzych pożyczki bez bik getin bank auto kredyt kalkulator kredyt w fortis banku opinie umowa pożyczki pcc czy vat kredyt gotówkowy eurobank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny w uk pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik i krd skarbiec pożyczki kontakt umowa pożyczki gofin kredyt bank lokaty strukturyzowane kredyt bank konta osobiste pożyczki prywatne bydgoszcz kalkulator kredyt gotówkowy alior bank pożyczki bez zaświadczenia o zatrudnieniu kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń pomorskie kredyty bez bik i krd olsztyn udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi a pcc afera kredytowa kredyt mieszkaniowy wbk forum kredyt bankowy podsumowanie pożyczki przez internet bez bik pożyczki żuromin kredyty pozabankowe do 10000 kredyt bankowy bez biku wzór umowy pożyczki lombardowej pożyczki pozabankowe wady i zalety kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pocztowym opinie kredyt z banku pocztowego pożyczki bez bik gumtree pożyczki w banku millennium kredyty chwilówki wejherowo kredyt chwilówka bocian kredyt z banku pod zastaw lokaty pożyczki chwilówki olecko kredyt pozabankowy bielsko kredyt gotówkowy bank pocztowy kalkulator optima pożyczki świdnica kredyt studencki pko zasady kredyt bank czechy pozyczki bez bik gliwice gotowka do reki kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochód kredyt bank w białej podlaskiej pozyczki pozabankowe na termin 12 miesiecy szamotuly pro group pożyczki wbk24 kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt na samochód a umowa na czas określony pożyczki bez bik internetowe kredyt bank przelewy wewnętrzne współpraca pożyczki bez bik pożyczki bankowe na oświadczenie getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyty chwilówki ostrów wielkopolski podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego mikropożyczki mazowieckie partnerzy pożyczki pożyczki na dowód od 18 lat online pożyczki andrychów nazwa pozyczki udzielonej przez bank kredyty chwilówki zdjęcia kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochód kredyt bank ken 19 warszawa uczciwe pożyczki pozabankowe pcc umowa pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt mieszkaniowy emeryt pozyczki bez bik gliwice gotowka do reki kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp opinie pożyczki do 500 zł pożyczki bez zaświadczeń słupsk szybkie pozyczki w uk kredyty mieszkaniowe londyn kredyty chwilówki trzebinia kredyt bank reda mikropożyczki online kredyt bank w brodnicy pożyczki program partnerski kredyty bez bik i krd tychy zasady bezzwrotnej pożyczki w idea bank obliczenie raty pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki dictionary kredyt w banku pocztowym bez historii w bik cechy pożyczki odróżniające ją od kredytu pożyczki bez bik bez zdolności kredytowej pożyczka typu provident pożyczki gotówkowe oprocentowanie kredyty chwilówki gdańsk opinie getin bank kredyt samochodowy infolinia umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobą fizyczną a spółką gdzie kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyt bankowy chomikuj dwie pożyczki w jednym banku pożyczki pieniężne w rodzinie numer telefonukredyt chwiluwka w słupsk kredyt bank tomaszów mazowiecki godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik kontakt telefoniczny kredyty chwilówki prudnik kredyt bank polanica zdrój pożyczki dla dzieci kredyt dziesiatka kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik i krd kredyt odnawialny w ing bank śląski ile kosztuje umowa notarialna pożyczki pożyczki w getin banku kontrakt pożyczki w prawie rzymskim pożyczki pod zastaw konin kredyty bankowe bez bik kredyt lombardowy banku centralnego pożyczki gotówkowe inowrocław pożyczki nowa ruda pożyczki łowicz pożyczki gotówkowe bez zgody współmałżonka pożyczki ze złym bikiem pożyczki bank kredyt bank krakowska opole pożyczki gotówkowe dublin pozyczki internetowe bez sprawdzania bik i krs kredyt idea bank ze wsparciem unijnym pko pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym forum pożyczki prywatne bez dochodów banki udzielające kredyt bez bik pożyczki bez bik bankowe pożyczki bez bik z komornikiem slupsk pożyczki pozabankowe bez prowizji kredyt gotówkowy od osób prywatnych bez krd umowa nieodpłatnej pożyczki wzór wzór umowy pożyczki spłata w ratach provident dobranie pożyczki czy dostanę kredyt w profi z komornikiem kredyt bank prowizja opłat zawieszenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko kredyt bank legionowo kredyt orange pop 5 zł pcc pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt pozabankowy 5000 zl pożyczki w domu płock pożyczki chwilówki przez telefon pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód częstochowa kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw warunki opodatkowanie pożyczki 2012 kredyt studencki porównanie banków open finance krakow pozyczki poza bankowe fines pożyczki pożyczki od właścicieli w bilansie pożyczki chwilówki warszawa kondratowicza pożyczki prywatne jaki procent kredyt w credit agricole opinie kredyt bank kołłątaja szczecin kredyty chwilówki debica kredyt bank opole sosnkowskiego kredyt bank rudnickiego godziny otwarcia kredyty bez sprawdzania w biku skarbiec pożyczki oszustwo pożyczki giełda kredyt bank giełdowa pożyczki pozabankowe iława pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu lubuskie kredyty pozyczki chwilowki jak dostac pozyczke w atiz kredyty bez bik warszawa kredyt samochodowy bez bik kredyt na samochód bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny pko sa betgang pożyczka kredyt samochodowy santander wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki kodeks cywilny kredyt bank rachunek depozytowy pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych warszawa getin noble bank kredyty firmowe kredyt bez bik do domu pożyczki z obsługą domową pożyczki społecznościowe podatki pożyczki prywatne lębork pożyczki bez bik i krd forum pożyczki chwilówki trójmiasto kredyty chwilówki opole reymonta kredyt na remont w getin banku pożyczki gotówkowe gliwice kredyt bank oddziały umowa pożyczki od firmy zagranicznej kredyt w banku zachodnim kalkulator bilans pożyczki udzielone kredyty chwilowki z dojazdem do domu umowa pożyczki w ratach optima pozyczki na dowod chwilowki umowy kredytowe w spółce komandytowej pokl pożyczki kredyty chwilówki dział rozliczeń przedłużenie umowy pożyczki kredyt bank adres siedziby bcs gwarant pożyczki kredyt bank królewska pożyczki bez bik nowy sącz pożyczki dla firm jeremie kredyt bank dworcowa gliwice pożyczki bankowe dla zadłużonych santander kredyt samochodowy prowizja alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczenia kredyty chwilówki jakie oprocentowanie likwidacja rachunku w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki odnawialnej kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat pko kredyt konsolidacyjny na oświadczenie pożyczki na rok przez internet odsetki od pożyczki kurs pożyczki konsorcjalne udzielenie pożyczki a podatek vat kredyty bez biku w rzeszowie pożyczki głogów pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pożyczki bez sprawdzania krd i bik pożyczki prywatne w płocku pożyczki internetowe bez bik aig bank polska sa kredyt kredyt bank kołobrzeska 12 kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt bank dział windykacji lublin kredyt chwilówka jaworzno pożyczki na dowód forum chwilówki i pożyczki pozabankowe w starachowicach parabanki udzielające pozyczek bez sprawdzania biku kredyt bankowy kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik poznań sygma bank kredyt online pożyczki pozabankowe w niemczech pożyczki w banku ślaskim kredyty bez biku poznań kredyt na oświadczenie kredyty mieszkaniowe rynek wtórny pożyczki głogowska kredyt bank opole żwirki i wigury czy idea bank daje kredyt pod zastaw kredyt w banku pocztowym a bik kredyt dla firm bez bik opinie z banku wzięto kredyt w wysokości 2000 money ok krakow pozyczki ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych październik 2012 kredyt samochodowy bank pocztowy szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń przez internet pożyczki luboń kody na kredyt orange kredyt bez krd kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowania szukam pożyczki bez bik tragedia w kredyt banku profi credit pozyczka kłodzko kontakt pożyczki unijne bezzwrotne pożyczki prywatne prawo pożyczki chwilówki przez internet ranking arkadiusz nowakowski pożyczki ratalne szybkie pozyczki przez internet agar umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór bez odsetek pożyczki na procent gdańsk kredyt bank szczecinek godziny otwarcia kredyt z dofinansowaniem unijnym idea bank opinie eurolan pozyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank opinie bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2012 pożyczki ratunkowe kredyty bez biku zielona góra pozyczki w domu klienta w plocku kredyty chwilówki tychy bank pko bp kredyt samochodowy kredyty chwilówki kadry kredyty pozabankowe rybnik bocian pozyczki zywiec kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik radom konwersja pożyczki na kapitał a różnice kursowe w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank psie pole wrocław kredyty chwilówki chełm kredyt getin bank samochodowy charakter pożyczki kredyty bez bik płock kredyt bank pbs wzór weksla pożyczki umowa pożyczki wg kodeksu cywilnego mikropożyczki toruń kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatu bez prowizji magdalena boczarska pożyczki kredyt studencki pko wysokość pożyczki z zakladowego funduszu świadczeń socjalnych najkorzystniejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 szybka pozyczka z obsluga w domu kredyty pozabankowe gdańsk pożyczki kraków chwilówki pożyczki bocian formularz kredyt chwilowka bydgoszcz ul gdanska kredyt gotówkowy banku bph pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw kredyt bank krolewska krakow pożyczki w domu kraków pożyczki pozabankowe w ciechanowie kredyty chwilówki bez bik wrocław santander consumer bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt kredyt bank program partnerski kredyt bank depozyt umorzenie pożyczki podatek dochodowy od osób prawnych umowa pożyczki odsetki za zwłokę getin bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt kredyt bez bik tychy umowa pożyczki zfśs kredyt mieszkaniowy na singla podatek pcc od pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca abis pożyczki dla każdego opinie pożyczki cashper opinie szybkie pożyczki na dowód przez internet kredyt mieszkaniowy na firmę pożyczki pozabankowe udzielane w domu pożyczki pozabankowe 5000zl pożyczki bez bik nowości pożyczki bez bik przez sms kredyt bez bik grojec pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet forum kredyt mieszkaniowy marzec 2013 czy pożyczki pozabankowe są bezpieczne pożyczki gotówkowe z obłsugą w domu kredyt bank działdowo kredyt bankowy księgowania pożyczki między firmami a pcc kredyty pozabankowe czestochowa szukam pożyczki kredytu kredyt pozabankowy na oswiadczenie firmy kredyt samochodowy santander kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy w credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator credit agricole kredyt bank bankowy fundusz gwarancyjny umowa pożyczki wspólnika do spółki kredyty bez bik w plocku pożyczki na dowód ciechanów jaki jest numer do finan pozyczki kredyt w orange pod jaki nr pożyczki bez bik ruda śląska pożyczki na dowód szczecinek pożyczka bez bik przez internet w 15 minut forum kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredytowy pozyczki słupsk 24 do 5 tyś słupsk kredyt samochodowy ranking czerwiec 2012 promesa udzielenia pożyczki wzór kredyt bank w lublinie kredyt bank nowe konto oszczędnościowe pelikan pożyczki kredyt bank gliwice dworcowa pożyczki bez bik nysa księgowanie pożyczki udzielonej pożyczki jst kredyt bez bik wałbrzych ewidencja księgowa pożyczki dla pracownika nieoprocentowane pożyczki z zfśs kwota pożyczki proz kredyt mieszkaniowy kielce magdalena lis pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowa kredyty bez bik szczecin kredyty pozabankowe łódź pozyczki poznan umowa zlecenie oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku jak liczyć umowa pożyczki pobierz dłużnik nie oddaje pożyczki pożyczki wewnętrzne potwierdzenie udzielenia pożyczki czy umowa pożyczki musi być na piśmie kredyt bank godziny otwarcia placówek centrum pozyczki24 bank spółdzielczy kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą dotacje czy pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców po 2013 kredyt bank forum klientów pożyczki pożyczka dla rencistów pożyczki gotówkowe zagiel pożyczki w olsztynie kredyt konsolidacyjny 40000 promocje w kredyt bank pożyczki rapida pożyczki dla każdego na dowód kredyt bank logowanie do konta pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kalkulator pożyczki pko sa kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa wczesniejsza spłata kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego w banku pocztowym pożyczki w domu klienta wielkopolska bocian pozyczki zywiec kontakt alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy marża w kredyt banku dobre pożyczki opinie kredyt bank oszuści umorzenie pożyczki po angielsku kredyty chwilówki bitwy warszawskiej pożyczka pozabankowa do 20000 szybki kredyt bez bik i big pożyczki bez bik i krd na dowód pożyczki pozabankowe wejherowo kredyt bank łódź godziny otwarcia pożyczki regita pożyczki prywatne łowicz kredyt bank bogatynia kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek 2014 umowa pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym umowa pożyczki firma firmie czy pozyczki marka sprwdzaja bik big czy krd alior bank sa kredyt kredyty chwilówki szczecinek prywatne pożyczki na weksel umowa pożyczki do wydruku pożyczki 5000 bez bik kredyt bank w mlawie znaczenie kredytów w działalności banków kredyt bank ekstrapremia pożyczki chwilówki bez odsetek udzielenie pożyczki członkowi zarządu jaki jest nr na kredyt w orange pożyczki na procent śląskie kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki pekao sa poręczyciele kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator mbank udzielenie pożyczki pkwiu kredyt studencki w banku pekao sa kredyt bank w policach pożyczki multibank kredyt bank sa numer swift pko bank polski kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki na dowód kontakt bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2013 podatek od pożyczki od wspólnika pożyczki chwilówki ekspresowe pożyczki pod zastaw złota tarnowskie góry pożyczki gotówkowe santander pożyczki łódź plac wolności szybki kredyt bez biku i krd kredyt bank otwock godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wyrobienie nowej karty kredyt bank sa oddział leszno pożyczki z komornikiem bocian pożyczki krs kredyt w eurobanku opinie 2013 pożyczki lubań kredyt studencki pko sa 2012 pożyczki chwilówki wieluń kredyt bez biku opinie umowa pożyczki pcc zwolnienie kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolności kredytowej kredyt bez bik zus i us pożyczki olesnica kto bierze pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank bankomaty euronet pozyczki prywatne bez zaswiadczen bez bik i krd tczew kredyty chwilowki zory opodatkowanie otrzymanej pożyczki charakter pożyczki kredyt bank kod aktywacyjny pozyczka bez bik kielce udzielenie pożyczki w bilansie kredyt bank tomaszów lubelski kredyt bank opłata za sms kredyt mieszkaniowy bank pocztowy forum szybkie pożyczki w domu klienta warszawa pożyczki chwilówki w kielcach gros pożyczki toruń kasa polska kredyt na umowe zlecenie kredyty bez bik grudziadz kredyty studenckie warunki przyznania pożyczki w skoku stefczyka banki ktore udzielaja kredytu przez internet kredyty chwilówki skoczów kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego kontakt kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku pko udzielę pożyczki prywatnej ogłoszenia umowa pożyczki osób prywatnych advice financial pożyczki kredyt bank karta kredytowa oprocentowanie pożyczki prywatne biznes kredyty bez bik skierniewice bocian pożyczki opinie kredyt bez bik 50000 tczew pożyczka z bankomatu pożyczki dla zadłużonych umowa pożyczki wypowiedzenie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez krd wzór umowy pożyczki pcc kredyty na firme bez bik kredyt bank gdańsk ul noskowskiego godziny otwarcia bezzwrotne pożyczki dla nauczycieli

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad