pożyczki chwilówki stargard szczeciński kredyt bank kasprzaka 2 8 kredyt bank warszawa abrahama 18 kredyt bank forum dyskusyjne kredyty chwilówki pośrednictwo kredyt bank międzyrzecz kredyt w banku pocztowym bez historii w bik kredyt bez biku na dowód głogowski pożyczki raty pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank cennik usług kredyt bank kondycja finansowa umowa podporządkowania pożyczki 2000 pozyczki bez dowodu od zaraz getin noble bank kredyt gotówkowy max kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt chwilówki wałbrzych kredyty w banku pko sa kredyty chwilówki sokołów podlaski kredyt bank zalozenie konta pożyczki na raty tygodniowe umorzenie pożyczki a pit pożyczki pozabankowe bez przedpłat kredyt bez bik myszkow umorzenie pożyczki przychód kredyt gotówkowy bez bik katowice kredyty gotówkowe na oświadczenie 2014 pozyczka podobna do okam uk pożyczka przez internet bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki bez bik gniezno umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs zmarłemu emerytowi pożyczki podkarpacie pozyczki dla emerytow legnica kod na kredyt w orange na karte kredyt gotówkowy lukas bank kalkulator umowa pożyczki z akcjonariuszem kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko sa pożyczki multibank pożyczki millenium kredyty chwilówki ranking pożyczki w domu łódź kredyt bez bik elbląg kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank kredyt bank zytnia pozyczka na dowod osobisty, chełm kredyt bank sa cieszyn pozyczki internetowe na dowod ostrow wlkp kredyty sms bez bik pożyczki będzin odsetki od pożyczki kto płaci podatek pożyczki prywatne na zakup nieruchomości pożyczki prywatne bez opłat wstępnych pożyczka na 60 dni kredyty pożyczki trudne prywatne niskooprocentowane pożyczki z funduszy unijnych szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń przez internet bank pko sa kredyt obrotowy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez biku pożyczki bez bik dobra pożyczka pożyczki gotówkowe bez sprawdzania w bik kredyty konsolidacyjne jakie oprocentowanie kredyt bank sa 20 601 lublin ul t zana 39a umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami pcc koszty notarialne pożyczki kredyt bank gdansk targ drzewny rentowność pożyczki pozyczki do domu podkarpacie skarabeusz pożyczki opinia pożyczki w banku bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny niskie oprocentowanie pożyczki prywatne będzin pożyczki długoterminowe dla bezrobotnych kredyt rodzina na swoim w getin banku forum gdzie dostac pozyczke z komornikiem w starachowicach pożyczki dla firm jednoosobowych kredyt bank dane adresowe kredyt bank wieliczka telefon kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych katowice ubezpieczenie pożyczki od śmierci pożyczki pozabankowe wejherowo kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko kalkulator kredyt bank zgorzelec kontakt pożyczki społecznościowe dla firm bank pko sa kredyt konsumpcyjny pożyczki pozabankowe gdynia pożyczki na dłuższy okres polecane pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank oferta dla wspólnot kredyty chwilówki fabryczna 12 kredyt bank ustka godziny otwarcia kredyt chwilówka poznań praca pożyczki piotrków tryb pożyczki bez bik olecko kredyt konsolidacyjny w innym banku kredyt z orange kod kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit 2013 kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim 2013 kredyt marża banku uzasadnienie pożyczki na remont kredyty chwilówki tychy windykatorzy niespłacany kredyt w banku na jaki numer kredyt orange kredyt bank biłgoraj praca umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu wzór preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko opinie kredyt dla firm bez bik zus korzyści pożyczki eurocash pożyczki opinie kredyt marza banku kredyty chwilówki wynagrodzenie pożyczki umowa zlecenie pozyczka lubsko bez bik pożyczki do 8000 kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pekao sa pożyczki bez bik krd wrocław kredyt bank wykaz bankomatów kredyty chwilówki przez internet kredyt bank zana pożyczki do 100 zł szybkie pożyczki warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw akcji jsw pożyczki chwilówki wieliczka pożyczki współpraca pomarańcza owocne pożyczki kredyt bank częstochowa pożyczki na niski dochód gdzie najłatwiej o kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki i chwilówki windykacja pożyczki czy podatek pcc od pożyczki jest kosztem podatkowym capital partners pożyczki wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs umowa pożyczki rzeczy pożyczki na dowód słupsk kredyty bez bik piła pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca 2013 pożyczki dla firm ranking kredyt bank oplaty i prowizje pożyczki bez bik kłobuck pożyczki od prywatnej osoby kredyt gotówkowy bez bik iz komornikiem kredyt bank lokata ubezpieczeniowa warta gwarancja inwestor pozyczki z zagranicy kredyty bankowe konto bilansowe kredyt gotówkowy bez bik na dowód kredyty trudne bez biku kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca opinie kredyt bank mielec mickiewicza pożyczki w płocku pożyczki rynku pieniężnego konwersja pożyczki na kapitał 2012 banki spółdzielcze kredyty bez bik pożyczki bankowe włocławek kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp oprocentowanie kredyt bank sa w pile kredyt samochodowy porównanie banków profil aktywny w kredyt banku kredyty bez bik chorzów fundusz mikro – pożyczki dla małych firm pko ubezpieczenie pożyczki księgowanie odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki kredyt bank lwowska tarnów pożyczki w uk na rok kredyty chwilówki 24 pożyczki na telefon bez bik lublin szybki kredyt bez bik przez internet kredyty chwilówki skok kredyty bankowe dlugoterminowe pożyczki gierka pro domo pożyczki kontakt nowe miasto lubawskie pro group pożyczki w jakim banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pekao sa kredyt studencki kredyt w aig bank polska kredyt jako podstawowy produkt banku komercyjnego optima sa pożyczki opinie kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy bgz pożyczki śrem koszty pożyczki prywatnej kredyt mieszkaniowy dla mlodych malzenstw 2013 kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach forum dyskusyjne kredyt bank zabrze 3 maja kredyt studencki pko wysokość pożyczki na rente kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik dla firm pozyczki online kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce praca za granica oblicz ratę pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty mieszkaniowe forum 2013 kredyt bank forum 2011 wzór umowy pozyczki bocian pożyczki i podobne kredyt 3 tysiące bez biku pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania poznań kredyt bank wroclaw legnicka pożyczki lombardowe oprocentowanie kredyt studencki warunki spłaty kredyty pozabankowe kontakt optima pożyczki koszalin pożyczki bez bik banki pożyczki bez bik dla firm pożyczki gotówkowe prywatne pożyczki pozabankowe gdańsk rybnik kredyty bez bik z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę zadłużeń kredyt bank poznan krauthofera kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie oprocentowanie kredyt bank radom ul żeromskiego pożyczki mennica jelenia góra kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 186 kredyt ze złą historią kredyty chwilówki praca oświęcim kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacja pożyczki na dowód wieluń pożyczki bezzwrotne dla mikrofirm orange kredyt 5zł wniosek o przyznanie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe pożyczki na telefon bez bik kredyt bank piotrków tryb godziny otwarcia pożyczki bocian kartuzy kredyt konsolidacyjny z komornikiem banki udzielajace kredytu wspolnotom krótkie pożyczki getin bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny w credit agricole kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank opinie kredyt w banku a przedawnienie kredyt samochodowy na firmę porównanie kredyt mieszkaniowy a firma na ryczalcie pożyczki w średniowieczu czy skarabeusz pożyczki obsługuje kielce pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości lodz kredyty chwilowki z dojazdem do domu pożyczki bez bik w łodzi bezzwrotne pożyczki dla nauczycieli kredyt bank bialoleka kredyt bank w janowie lubelskim pożyczki bez bik tarnów kredyt bank lokaty rentierskie pożyczki między firmami a pcc alina wacławek pożyczki kierownik premium pożyczka rawicz pko bp kredyt studencki legitymacja kredyt bank rzeszów grunwaldzka kredyt bank rzeszów rejtana pożyczki bez meldunku chwilówka stargard pożyczki bez dochodu toruń szybka pozyczka z dostawa do domu zywiec kredyt bank w bielsku podlaskim oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej pożyczki z funduszu europejskiego konsolidacja kredytów gdzie najlepiej wycena pożyczki w walucie na dzień bilansowy kredyt bank token problem kredyt bank w gliwicach kredyt mieszkaniowy bez wkładu własnego 2012 kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus forum czy warto brac kredyt w getin banku reklamacja pożyczki kredyt bank zniwna kredyt w banku jakie dokumenty kredyt bank przeniesienie karty kredytowej kredyt na samochód w credit agricole opinie pożyczki gotówkowe telefon pożyczki pod zastaw rzeszów pozyczka z funduszu bez baz kredyt bankowy pekao kredyt gotówkowy bez bik gliwice zwrot pożyczki przychód kredyt bank warecka warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw ruchomości kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank opinie kredyt bank warszawa godz otwarcia pożyczki dla bezrobotnych wrocław idea bank kredyt opinie kredyt studencki pko potrzebne dokumenty w jakim banku wziasc kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank fundusz gwarancyjny kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlatwiej dostac kredyt bank zielona góra kontakt kredyt bank chorzów godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki gorzów księgowanie pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank karta kredytowa oprocentowanie kredyt na mieszkanie bank zachodni umowa o udzielenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki gotówkowe online bez bik kredyty chwilówki skawina kredyt bez biku dla zadłużonych pożyczki kartuzy mcredit oferuje pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik pożyczka na dowód bez zaświadczeń dzierzoniow odsetki od pożyczki jak wyliczyć pożyczki udzielane przez gminę kredyt gotówkowy bez biku i zaświadczeń kredyt bank warszawa kondratowicza godziny otwarcia pożyczki wołów patryk raczkowski pożyczki pozyczka z pracy bezprocentowa w uk kredyt bez bik na zakup mieszkania kredyt konsolidacyjny 60000 kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej ing czy w skok stefczyka można wziąć kredyt bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe krd polskie pożyczki opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy 130 kredyt bez biku na telefon pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez konta bankowego od 18lat kredyt bank rybnik plac wolności umowa pożyczki cesja kredyt w getin banku bez bik pożyczki dla zadłużonych warszawa kredyt rodzina na swoim w jakim banku najkorzystniej kredyt konsolidacyjny w kb kredyt lombardowy w banku szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki dla najbliższych kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp 2013 pożyczki pod weksel łódź kredyt bank warszawa politechnika pożyczki chwilówki w lesznie kredyty chwilówki grudziądz kredyt bank sa częstochowa opodatkowanie umów pożyczki umowa pożyczki co musi zawierać kredyt bank pytania prominent pożyczki szczecin kredyty bez biku toruń pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania łódź kredyt bez sprawdzenia w bik szybkie pożyczki we wrocławiu pożyczki chwilówki bez bik szczecin szybkie pożyczki elbląg kredyt dla nowych firm bez bik prywatne pożyczki pod weksel pożyczki gotówkowe dla nauczycieli mcredit pożyczki getin bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt ranking kredytów samochodowych dla firm kredyt bez bik ruda śląska kredyty pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyty chwilówki franczyza pożyczki lubuskie umowa pożyczki paragraf 777 kredyty chwilówki sulechów kredyt bank dubois białystok kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro opinie kredyt bank jest bankiem kredyt bank w słubicach kredyty chwilówki swiebodzin cesja umowy pożyczki wzór dobra pożyczki kredyty bez bik 50000 pożyczki chwilówki poznań 23 lutego pożyczki rywal umowa pożyczki literatura baltic money pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking 2013 bank pko kredyt 20000zł kredyt bez bik sieradz kredyt bank sa chełm kredyty bez bik na mieszkanie dąbrowa górnicza kredyty dla osob w bik kredyt bank świętokrzyskie pożyczki na telefon 24 kredyty chwilówki kozienice bocian pożyczki nowogard kredyt bank kariera umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a prawną kredyt bank radość pożyczki na dowód kwidzyn kredyty niebankowe kredyt konsolidacyjny okres kredytowania kredyt konsolidacyjny 200 tys kredyt samochodowy w fiat bank pozyczki na procent pila kredyty chwilówki kędzierzyn hnarutowicza leszno kredyty dla zadluzonych umowa pożyczki formularz pcc kredyt bankowy dla małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw umowa pożyczki przez internet pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania poznań kredyt bank sa oddział w słupsku kredyty chwilówki tychy dmowskiego kredyt na pit bez bik i krd w ktorym banku dostane dlugoterminowa pozyczke kredyt bez bik katowice kredyt dla bezrobotnych na dowód pożyczki udzielone pracownikom w bilansie rejestrowanie pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank w swarzędzu kredyt bank koszalin kontakt kredyt bank kluczbork godziny otwarcia pożyczki udzielone przez polske ubezpieczenie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior banku umorzenie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca kredyt gotówkowy w boś bank kredyty chwilówki libiąż kredyt bank starogard gdański szybkie pozyczki nysa bez zaświadczeń pożyczki gotówkowe piła wycena bilansowa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w pnb paribas kredyt mieszkaniowy w millenium forum kredyt konsolidacyjny eurobank pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik i krd pożyczki bez bik na konto pożyczki banki księgowania przelewów w kredyt banku umorzenie pożyczki od rodziny kredyt bank plac solny godziny otwarcia postea pożyczki kredyty chwilówki piekary bezzwrotne pożyczki dla nauczycieli pożyczki krasnystaw kredyt studencki wbk 2013 pożyczki pod weksel warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny bz wbk kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe pabianice kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku zachodnim wbk pożyczki chwilówki starachowice kredyty chwilówki poznań praca pożyczki lublin lubartowska pożyczki na dowód mbank pożyczki przez internet bez big bez zaświadczeń mikropożyczki efs wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pozyczki prywatne w bialymstoku pożyczki dla zadłużonych gdańsk optima kredyty warszawa kredyty chwilówki brzeg wartość bilansowa pożyczki błyskawiczne pożyczki przez internet kredyt samochodowy bez bik na firme konfuzja pożyczki szukam pożyczki dla firmy kredyt bank w żywcu kredyt konsolidacyjny ile procent pożyczki na dowód chojnów kredyt bez bik szybko pożyczka na procent kredyty chwilówki biała podlaska ing bank kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń jelenia góra kredyt bez bik na 12 miesięcy pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi rolnej pozyczka pozabankowa 20000 kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorstw kredyt bank cennik usług kredyt bank w hrubieszowie pilne pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki pozabankowe płock kredyt samochodowy w kosztach firmy bardzo szybki kredyt bez bik kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku kredyt bank warszawa siedziba pożyczki bez bik i krd kraków kredyt bank łódź oddziały kredyt w kredyt banku forum księgowania przelewów w kredyt banku wzór umowy pożyczki w ratach pko bp lublin kredyt studencki kredyt bank warszawa rudnickiego białystok pożyczki bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt pko bp opinie kredyt bank żeromskiego radom kredyt mieszkaniowy samotna matka oprocentowanie pożyczki w alior banku pożyczki chwilówki w warszawie pożyczki bez bik rumia kredyt bank ostrowiec kredyt bank kod iban kredyt bank warszawa ul chełmska 9 najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe ranking pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz kredyt bank żniwna pożyczki internetowe vivus pożyczki kasy stefczyka jakie sa pozyczki w domu na oswiadczenie kredyt pleszew bez biku skok wołomin pożyczki bez bik novum finance pożyczki forum umowa pożyczki od rodziny a pcc kredyt bank giełda notowania pożyczki prywatne wałbrzych umorzenie pożyczki w walucie obcej umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs wzór kredyt bank koło kredyt bank adresy warszawa jaki jest kredyt do orange poszukuję pożyczki pozabankowej szybki kredyt bez biku i krd kredyt w banku potrzebne dokumenty kredyty chwilówki rzeszów plac wolności pożyczki banknot kredyty pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki pod zastaw motocykla

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad