kredyt w banku śląskim opinie kredyt bez bik malbork pożyczka bez bik w pko bp wzór na odsetki od pożyczki z zfśs kredyty gotówkowe bez bik forum pożyczki prywatne zawiercie kredyt chwilówka 2000 zł pożyczki na dowód bez bik i krd pożyczki 2014 ustna umowa pożyczki orzecznictwo kredyt bankowy plan pracy kredyt bank marszałkowska kredyt bank szczecin telefon kredyt bank w zawierciu kredyty mieszkaniowe książki firma uzyskała kredyt w banku na 12 procent kredyty chwilówki białystok pożyczki od ręki bez zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki skutki podatkowe kredyt konsolidacyjny prawo pozyczki augustow przez internet pożyczki lombard kredyt bank logo eps kalkulator pożyczki bgż kredyt bank pracownicy pożyczki bez krd przez internet kredyt dla zor w banku pocztowym wycena pożyczki na dzień bilansowy pożyczki bez dochodów od 18 lat pożyczki bez bik bez zaświadczeń o dochodach pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik i krd kredyty pozabankowe zgorzelec pożyczki nysa kredyt bank prezentacja kredyty 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kredyt bank kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia kredyt 20 lat oddłużeniowy ze zła historia kredytowa kredyt w banku raty pozyczki chwilowki natychmiastowe z komornikiem poznan pozyczki z komornikiem w mielcu pożyczki społecznościowe bez bik i krd długoterminowe pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank marza kredyty bez bik piła pożyczki społecznościowe smava pożyczki 1000 pożyczki online bez bik i big oblicz kredyt samochodowy santander kredyty bankowe pdf pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie umowa pożyczki podporządkowanej wzór kredyty konsolidacyjne gotowkowe pożyczki od zagranicznych inwestorów kredyty pozabankowe naklo nad notecia ul rynek król pożyczki marka kredyty opinie pozyczka dla zadłużonych kredyt walutowy deutsche bank umowa pożyczki ze spółką zależną kredyty chwilówki czebotar podanie o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt w banku spółdzielczym bez bik księgowanie pożyczki w stowarzyszeniu pożyczki podobne do providenta płock kod do kredytu orange oświadczenie udzielenia pożyczki pozyczki skarabeusz kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao pozyczki prywatne wloclawek żyrafa pożyczki getin bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń afera o kredyt kredyt bank przelewy prywatne pożyczki w gdańsku ogłoszenia pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank lublin oferty pracy kredyt bank godziny otwarcia lublin pożyczki gryf kredyt pozabankowy plock kredyt studencki pko bank polski pożyczki kredyty gotówkowa kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku forum kredyty chwilówki kalkulator w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt studencki uzasadnienie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz opinie kredyty bankowe współpraca kredyt chwilowki poznań kredyty banku bph kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciami komorniczymi kredyt konsolidacyjny dla lekarzy kredyt bank w zorach kredyty mieszkaniowe pko bp forum kredyt w postbanku pożyczki bez bik i krd leszno regulamin pożyczki skok kredyt bank w koscianie kredyt bank skawina godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny warto kredyt bank bielawa kredyt bank wrocław plac solny godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w siedlcach godziny otwarcia skarabeusz pożyczki rawicz kapitalizacja pożyczki pożyczki chwili kredyt bez bik przez internet pt pożyczki pożyczka zdunska wola bez bik do 6000 pożyczki na nową działalność gospodarczą pozyczka gratka opinie pcc od umowy pożyczki między firmami czy łatwo dostać kredyt w banku spółdzielczym ak group pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny warto jakie oprocentowanie pozyczki gotowkowej w pekao bp wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki kodeks cywilny kredyty chwilówki praca leszno kredyt mieszkaniowy millenium forum schaer kredyt bankowy pożyczki przez internet vivus pożyczki chwilówki pozabankowe bez bik oferty pożyczki gotówkowej irr pożyczki kredyty bank pko sa umowa pożyczki z zastawem wzór pożyczki w firmie bocian reklama pożyczki regulamin pożyczki ze środków obrotowych pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów tarnów pożyczki na dowód wadowice kredyt chwilówka uk dobre pożyczki chwilówki kredyt w banku a śmierć kredytobiorcy pozyczki posrednictwo warszawa bez dochodu kredyty chwilówki września kredyty chwilówki gdynia ktory bank da kredyt mieszkaniowy dla zadluzonych pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód osobisty preferencyjny kredyt studencki opinie pożyczki chwilówki stargard kredyt samochodowy na firmę kredyt bez bik świdnica wzór pokwitowania spłaty pożyczki kredyty chwilówki miechów kredyt bank bankomaty tarnów kredyty chwilówki koszt pożyczki w banku millennium pożyczki chwilówki zielona góra szybkie pożyczki bez biku kredyt bank w czechach kredyty mieszkaniowe definicja pożyczki chwilówki legionowo kredyt bank poznań marcinkowskiego godziny kredyt bank katowice ul uniwersytecka kredyt konsolidacyjny 70000 kredyt studencki pko niedostarczenie zaświadczenia pozyczka bocian radom hortus pożyczki kredyt bank zachodni wbk sprzedaż kredyt banku forum na czym polega kredyt prostoliczony w credit agricole kredyt bez biku jaworzno kredyt chwilówka kondratowicza pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pekao sa kredyt studencki dokumenty oprocentowanie debetu w kredyt banku pozyczka od reki na dowod plock bocian pożyczki wymagania wysokie pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank praktyki opinie umowa nieodpłatnej pożyczki pożyczki od osób prywatnych online karencja w spłacie pożyczki co to jest pożyczki na zakup samochodu bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe warunki przyznania kredyt bank kołobrzeska skarabeusz pożyczki oświęcim kredyt bank konskie kredyt bank lokata 6 5 opinie część pożyczki państwowej kredyt bez bik w krakowie kredyt w getin banku forum umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a firmą kredyt bank konstancin konto firmowe kredyt bank a zamknięcie konta wnioski umowa pożyczki bez oprocentowania konto księgowe pożyczki kredyt bank fiz kredyt studencki pko do kiedy wnioski umowa pożyczki essentialia negotii bank pekao sa kredyt obrotowy umorzenie pożyczki po śmierci pracownika kredyt w idea bank na start forum forum pożyczki bocian kredyt bank w bielsku podlaskim rzeczywisty koszt pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe pekao kredyt konsolidacyjny dla polakow w uk wzór oświadczenia o zwrocie pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy w banku pko bp kredyt bank zana kredyt pozabankowy na oswiadczenie firmy wzór umowy udzielenia pożyczki pożyczki wierzyciel forum pozbankowa pożyczka 10000 długoterminową kredyty chwilówki wrocław bez bik kredyt bank prezentacja pozyczki prywatne wejherowo pożyczki prywatne w opolu kredyty chwilówki strzegomska wrocław bezzwrotne pożyczki z up pożyczki w domu klienta gdynia kredyty chwilówki 23 lutego pozyczki w lodzim z dojazdem do klienta pozyczka do domu gdynia kredyt pozabankowy na firmę pewne pożyczki dla każdego opinie pożyczki z funduszy mikro umorzenie pożyczki podatek dochodowy od osób prawnych kredyt bez bik forum 2012 kredyty chwilówki nr tel kredyt w banku millenium opinie zabezpieczenie umowy pożyczki wekslem umowa pożyczki odstąpienie kredyt bank pensja w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank opłata za przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank złotów kredyt m1 kredyt bez bik kraków kredyt samochodowy bank millennium kredyt bank adres siedziby kto płaci podatek od pożyczki pieniężnej pożyczki bez bik na telefon pożyczki prywatne na zakup nieruchomości pozyczki obsluga w domu numery tel kredyt bank białystok ul warszawska szybka pozyczka z obsluga w domu pożyczki polbank kredyt bez biku jaworzno umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs zwolnionemu pracownikowi pożyczki oddłużeniowe warszawa kredyt pozabankowy bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki a pcc kredyty bankowe książki chomikuj pożyczki pod zastaw kościan kredyt bank łosice ustawowe odsetki od pożyczki prywatnej kredyt gotówkowy alior bank forum umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona wekslem wzór kredyt bez bik na dowód kredyt bank pszów dłużnik nie oddaje pożyczki kredyt bank krosno kredyt bank częstochowa al nmp pożyczki żyrafa opinie sulechow pozyczki bez zaswiadczen z doreczeniem do domu pożyczki dla młodych opodatkowanie pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń online jaki kredyt pozabankowy szybki kredyt samochodowy bez bik kredyt pozabankowy bez bik online skarabeusz pozyczka do jakiej kwoty kredyt bank windykacja nr telefonu kredyty w aktywach banku umowa pożyczki zawarta przez internet aureus pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne gotowkowe quick cash pożyczki kredyt bank busko zdrój kontakt kredyt bez biku na oswiadczenie kredyt bez bik i zabezpieczeń dar pożyczki działdowo kredyt bez bik do 50 tys poznań kredyt bankowy ustawa kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko wzór umowy pożyczki ratalnej restrukturyzację pożyczki bocian pożyczki łódź praca kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlatwiej dostac oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku kalkulator kredyt pozabankowy dla zadłużonych getin bank kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank w pruszczu gdańskim potrzebuje kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank radom żeromskiego kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny promocja pożyczki w grosie kredyt bank pakiet aktywny kredyty bez bik w rybniku szybkie pozyczki prywatne bez bik i krd fundacja kredyt banku warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka kalkulator umorzenie pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt samochodowy fiat bank kredyt konsolidacyjny bs kredyt studencki w banku polskiej spółdzielczości kredyty bez dochodow kielce pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem pożyczki na dowód białystok kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator getin bank kredyt w tesco na dowod opinie oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego w mbanku kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt opinie umowa pożyczki stowarzyszenie kredyty bankowe i ich zabezpieczenia praca magisterska pożyczki w 15 minut pożyczki chwilówki 18 lat hitler pożyczki usa kredyt chwilówka międzyrzecz konin pozyczka bez bik i krd kredyt bez bik gdzie umowa pożyczki a umowa kredytu bankowego warunki otrzymania pożyczki w providencie pożyczki prywatne piotrków trybunalski kredyt w banku a komornik fast pożyczki opinie wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki kodeks cywilny pożyczki nowa ruda pożyczka z żyrantem kredyt bank biuro prasowe kredyt bank toruń ul grudziądzka kredyt bank powsińska godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówka żywiec bocian pożyczki ostróda kredyt bank pdf kredyt samochodowy w millenium bank cesja zobowiązania z tytułu pożyczki instrumenty finansowe pożyczki prawo cywilne pożyczki kredyty chwilowki czestochowa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wrocław kredyt bank adres pozyczki w bankach pod zastaw bez zarobkow kredyt bank kiedy dochodza przelewy lokata w kredyt banku opinie pożyczki pod zastaw auta łódź pożyczki prywatne mińsk mazowiecki pod jaki numer kredyt w orange pożyczki z providenta fundacja kredyt banku kontakt kredyty chwilówki tychy kadry kredyt bank które bankomaty bez prowizji kredyt samochodowy ranking kredyt bank jakie dokumenty cesja pożyczki pcc pożyczki bez wizyty w banku kredyt bank mikołów kontakt umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w ratach kredyt bez bik wniosek online konto księgowe pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w ratach pozyczki bez dochodow koszalin umowa pożyczki z dobrowolnym poddaniem się egzekucji najtanszy kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki podobne do providenta płock oddziały kredyt banku kredyt bank łuków godziny otwarcia pcc od umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem odznaka pożyczki narodowej 1933 w jakim banku kredyt gotowkowy opinie pewny kredyt bez biku szybka pożyczka 20tysięcy obsługa w domu czy w santanteze banku latwo jest dostac pozyczke kredyt bank zmiana danych osobowych kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce pracujac za granica pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik online kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych przez internet kredyt bez bik na splate komornika kredyt bank kętrzyn oprocentowanie pożyczki w alior banku pożyczki żary pozyczki bydgoszcz 24 kredyt studencki pko bp regulamin kredyty chwilowki plock kredyty bez bik legionowo kredyt bank lokata jesienna kredyt bankowy i jego rodzaje udzielenie pożyczki osobie prywatnej szybkie pozyczki zlotoryja bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny comperia kredyty w uk dla polakow prywatne pozyczki podkarpacie kredyt bank warszawa żelazna eurocash pożyczki chwilówki szybkie pożyczki inowrocław pożyczki inwestorskie pod zastaw pożyczki pcc czy vat pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw domu notarialne umorzenie pożyczki dla syna kredyty bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt bank pruszcz gdański kredyt bankowy dla nowych firm pożyczki chwilówki bez odsetek pożyczki bez bik w suwałkach kredyt online bez bik forum umowa pożyczki między członkami rodziny wzór kredyty studenckie oprocentowanie warunki udzielenia pożyczki skarabeusz pożyczki wniosek kredyt bank w zduńskiej woli getin kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki na dowód dla zadłużonych pożyczki alternatywne kredyty pozabankowe tarnów kredyt konsolidacyjny wniosek online kredyty pozabankowe pomorskie kredyt bank kontakt białystok kredyt bank reklama adamczyk kredyty bankowe oferty kredyty z zło zdolnoscio kredytowo pożyczki na dowód rawicz kredyt bank kielce kredyt bez bik 5000 pożyczki bydgoszcz na dowód jak jest kod na kredyt w orange kredyt bank w pile kredyt w pekao sa forum forest pożyczki kredyty bez bik i krd kalisz kredyt bank 2 pożyczki prywatne od prywatnych inwestorów pożyczki do domu warszawa kredyty mieszkaniowe we frankach szwajcarskich kredyty mieszkaniowe marże szybkie pożyczki chwilówki online kredyt bank ul narutowicza 55b lublin kredyty chwilówki ostrowiec św umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a przychód pracownika pożyczki kredyty bez bik kraków gdzie pozyczke bez grosza kredyt w banku raty kredyt studencki forum pko kredyt w polskim banku dla obcokrajowca kredyt bankowy jako produkt banku komercyjnego mikropożyczki świętokrzyskie umowa pożyczki udzielona spółce przez wspólnika prywatne pożyczki pod weksel lublin kredyt bank fax praca pleszew biuro kredytowe odsetki od pożyczki obowiązek vat kredyt gotówkowy bez bik pożyczki przez internet bez bik i krd kredyty bez bik na raty pożyczki bez bik w domu kredyt bank zduńska wola godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód bez bik kredyty chwilówka żywiec bezpieczny kredyt pozabankowy umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór bez odsetek kredyty bez bik zagraniczne szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet jacek pilka pożyczki kredyt bank połączony pożyczki z obsługą w domu klienta umowa pożyczki pieniędzy prywatnie szybka pozyczka pieniezna w dublinie kredyt bank praca polski kredyt bank sa kredyt bank wniosek o zamknięcie konta kredyty chwilówki kłodzko umowa pożyczki wzór bezpłatny pożyczki od osób prywatnych na procent 2013 polecane pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny symulacja rat wyłudzenie pożyczki provident kredyty w anglii forum

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad