kredyt konsolidacyjny zestawienie banków szybkie pożyczki płock kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najłatwiej dostać pożyczki gotówkowe kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny jaki to jest kredyt samochodowy bez bik pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyty dla malych firm bez bik przedmiotem pożyczki mogą być fundacja kredyt banku razem możemy więcej kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank opinie kredyt bank chałubińskiego pożyczki novum finance kredyt bank raporty bieżące pozyczki uk 24 h na dobe aig bank polska sa kredyt ślimak pożyczki toruń kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomosci kredyt bank regulamin ekstrakonto kredyt bank choszczno jak wziąć kredyt w orange na 5 zł pożyczki chwilówki na dowód olsztyn kredyt bez zaswiadczen jelenia gora kredyt bank wloclawek kredyt bank zadluzenie kredyt konsolidacyjny zadłużonych w zusie i w bankach darmowe bankomaty w kredyt banku kredyt bank warszawa arkadia pożyczki wierzyciel forum pożyczki prywatne wałcz kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu kredyt chwilówka zaświadczenie jak napisać wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs prawo bankowe kredyt bez zgody małżonka kalkulator pozyczek euro providus jaki kod na kredyt w orange kredyt bank produkty strukturyzowane wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki provident szybki kredyt bez bik katowice kredyty helios kredyt remontowy bank pekao sa jacek cybulski pożyczki pożyczki prywatne ogłoszenia alior bank kredyt oddłużeniowy pożyczki ozorków kredyty pożyczki bez bik forum kredyty w fm bank pożyczki od 18 lat pożyczki prywatne toruń gros pożyczki poznań kredyty chwilówki jawor pożyczki od rodziny pcc pożyczki pod zastaw opolskie warunki przyznania kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp bnp paribas kredyt umowa zlecenie kredyt bez bik toruń pożyczki oddłużeniowe poznań kredyty konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej andrzej śmiały pożyczki kredyt bez bik który bank pożyczki pozabankowe leszno kiedy odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem odpłatność pożyczki przedawnienie roszczeń z tytułu pożyczki bankowej na jaki numer bierze sie kredyt w orange udzielenie pożyczki spółce z oo umowa pożyczki konsekwencje kredyt bank świecie bank brodnicki kredyt forum ubezpieczenie pożyczki pekao sa kredyt bank akademia przedsiębiorcy kredyty bez bik rzeszów pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta swidnica kredyt bank w sokółce kredyt pozabankowe poznan pożyczki pieniędzy pożyczki dla nauczycieli w szkole kredyt bank gdansk noskowskiego gdzie można dostać kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik niespłacanie pożyczki w provident bocian pożyczki kontakt najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe ranking pożyczki bez bik 10 000 pożyczki z komornikiem chorzów pożyczki bez erif, pożyczki pod zastaw chorzów kredyt bank piła nowa siedziba pożyczki z dostawą do domu poznań alior bank karta kredytowa na dowod umowa pożyczki jak się zabezpieczyć pożyczki przez internet 2000 w jakim banku pozyczka na dowod pożyczki od osób prywatnych belchatow kredyt chwilowki gdansk alior bank kredyt z komornikiem prodomo pożyczki toruń pożyczki w domu śląsk kredyt bank ochota odsetki od pożyczki pkwiu oprocentowanie kredytu w idea banku pożyczki posłów bank credit agricole kredyt gotówkowy umowa pożyczki z dzieckiem pożyczki bez bik tychy kredyt bankowy praca licencjacka kredyty bez bik w plocku pożyczki pod kontrakt pożyczki w ramach inicjatywy jeremie kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank luboń kredyt bank chełm kontakt kredyt studencki w banku bph oddziały kredyt banku we wrocławiu santander kupił kredyt bank 2012 bocian pożyczki krotoszyn pożyczki chwilówki nowa sól kredyt bank warszawa bielany udzielanie pożyczki z budżetu gminy umowa pożyczki charakter pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik i krd opodatkowanie umowy pożyczki 2012 pożyczki bez bik krd przez internet pożyczki takie jak w providencie kredyt bank borek wlkp kredyty chwilówki radom opinie kredyt bank gdańsk pożyczki unijne dla małych firm dolnośląskie pozyczki prywatne pod weksel zory i okolice kredyt prostoliczony lukas bank kalkulator pożyczki bez bik w lubinie kredyt konsolidacyjny na umowe zlecenie kredyt pozabankowy na start kredyty bez bik i zabezpieczeń pożyczki bez bik internetowe pożyczki dla bezrobotnych online kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania baz kredyt bank siedlce godz otwarcia pożyczki 10000zł kredyt getin bank 30000 umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a prawną witam kredyt bez bik i krd kredyt bank mmz kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 2000 pcc od pożyczki a koszt podatkowy udzielę pożyczki prywatnej poznań udzielę pożyczki na wysoki procent pożyczki chwilówki żywiec kredyt inwestycyjny banku bgż kredyt bank kontakt mailowy bocian pożyczki tczew pożyczki na rok przez internet pożyczki mieszkaniowe sędziów kredyty bez biku płock wzór umowy na udzielenie pożyczki kredyt bank wrocław bielany wrocławskie umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi prawo pozyczki zyrafa aleksandrow lodzki kredyt bez bik nowy sącz kredyt gotówkowy w nordea bank pożyczki posłów pożyczki na procent płock bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2013 kredyt samochodowy idea bank pożyczki pozabankowe olsztyn pożyczki dla zadłużonych 2013 pożyczki dla każdego lombard mikołów pożyczki na dowód chojnów kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku dla zadluzonych szybkie pożyczki firmy kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku śląskim pożyczki pod zastaw pomorskie kredyt bank warszawa ul popularna santander bank kalkulator kredytu samochodowego regulamin pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt bank lwowska tarnów kredyty bankowe w przedsiębiorstwie przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki jaki jest numer na kredyt do orange szybkie pożyczki online opinie kredyt bank oddział bielany wrocławskie w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na samochód umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej a podatek dochodowy umowa pożyczki do wydruku pożyczki podporządkowane w bilansie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez prowizji kredyt studencki pko bp oprocentowanie kredyty gotówkowe dla zadłużonych kredyt bankowy dla zadłużonych kredyt bank lokata ubezpieczeniowa warta gwarancja kredyty chwilówki grochowska 332 pożyczki chwilówki soho kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank wycena pożyczki w euro bankomaty kredyt banku w pile kredyt bank euro kurs umowa pożyczki aneks wzór pożyczki pod zastaw słubice wzór umowy pożyczki z zfron pożyczka pod hipoteke w białogardzie w banku kredyt bank bydgoszcz modrzewiowa decyzja pozyczkowa na telefon lub online pożyczki start up kredyty w bilansie banku pozyczki providus kredyt bank kosiarzy godziny otwarcia bank pko sa kredyt odnawialny umowa pożyczki pieniędzy doc kredyt bank włodawa tel kredyt bez sprawdzania bik i krd umowa pożyczki druk aktywny patrycja nowak pożyczki pożyczki mieszkaniowe w oświacie praca dodatkowa rozdawanie pozyczek pomorskie kredyty chwilówki skok kredyty pozabankowe inowrocław szybkie pożyczki w domu klienta z ok wrocławia kredyty chwilówki bez bik przez internet kredyty bankowe bilans kredyt bank warszawa jana pawła ii kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp rodzina na swoim kredyt bank garibaldiego 4 nowe pożyczki internetowe wyliczenie pożyczki kredyt bank lokata econstans pożyczki bez bik brzeg bank pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki bez bik nowogard jaki jest kod na wzięcie kredytu w orange bankomaty kredyt banku w koszalinie pożyczki chwilówki w lesznie pozyczka na dowodd bez zaświadczeń kamien kredyt konsolidacyjny na dowod online pożyczki na dowód kontakt prywatne pozyczki do domu w ten sam dzien chodziez duomax pożyczki kredyt bank pruszków godziny otwarcia getin bank warunki udzielenia kredytu kredyt bank kosztorys i harmonogram prac budowlanych kod na kredyt w orange one kredyty bankowe książki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń poznań kredyty bankowe dla firm raty pożyczki z zfśs chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki godula jakie jest oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko pożyczki chwilówki bocian kredyt bank kontakt telefoniczny pożyczki z poręczycielem pożyczka dla zadłużonych w big puławy kredyt z komornikiem piekary sl umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki społecznościowe jak kredyt obrotowy idea bank opinie pożyczki pozabankowe garwolin kredyt inwestycyjny w idea bank alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyty bez bik w lublinie umowa pożyczki art 9 pkt 10 kredyt bank wypłata gotówki kredyt bank radzyń podlaski kredyt bank zniwna kredyt bank prezes pożyczki bez bik zielona góra ekstra pożyczki bank dajacy kredyt 30 tys zl na oswiadczenie kredyt chwilówka spłata mikropożyczki przez internet kredyt bez bik 2000 zł kredyt konsolidacyjny na firme kredyt bank nowy sącz kontakt bocian pożyczki wodzisław śląski kredyt bank koszt przelewu oblicz kredyt w credit agricole kredyt bank otwarcie kredyty chwilowki wroclaw drobnera czy można zawiesić kredyt w banku przedłużenie pożyczki w ekspres kasa kredyt bank chałubińskiego warszawa pożyczki na dowód do ręki gdzie dostane kredyt bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny 30 tys kredyt konsolidacyjny nordea bank gros pożyczki poznań kredyt bankowy w rachunku kredytowym takto pożyczki kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie dokumenty potrzebne kredyt bank czarne złoto finan pożyczki legnica szybki kredyt bez big pożyczki bez bik do 50000 centrala kredyt banku warszawa kredyt bank żyrardów kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe w skoku jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank warszawa kabaty kredyty bez biku zielona gora umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziny wzór kredyty pozabankowe i rozne zrudla dochodow mazowieckie szybkie pożyczki przez internet na konto kredyt w wbk na klik pożyczki między ludźmi pożyczki chwilówki brzeg kredyt chwilówka numer telefonu pożyczki gotówkowe kołobrzeg pożyczki chwilówki bez pracy kredyt mieszkaniowy na remont mieszkania bocian pożyczki opinie gowork pożyczki na oświadczenia szukam pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bez bik do 60000 aktulany spis pozyczek dla zadluzonych w jakim banku wziąć kredyt 10000 kredyt bank w dębicy kredyt bank żukowo kredyt bank lomza pilsudskiego bocian pożyczki tarnobrzeg kredyty pozabankowe rybnik oprocentowanie efektywne pożyczki kredyt na mieszkanie bank pekao pożyczki prywatne bełchatów kredyt na start firmy bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe na umowe cywilno prawna prywatne pożyczki w białymstoku kredyt bank tychy godziny otwarcia pożyczki do domu płock kredyty chwilówka bielsko jak wziąć kredyt bez bik kredyt bankowy forum bocian pożyczki grodzisk wlkp pożyczki pozabankowe prywatne w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki pozabankowe w pabianicach pożyczki na dowód świebodzin kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych forum kredyt w orange na jaki nr kredyt bank ken 19 warszawa kredyt bank w jastrowiu pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy wcześniejsza spłata kredyt konsolidacyjny w którym banku bezpieczne pożyczki bez bik kredyty chwilówki wieliczka kredyt bank świebodzin kontakt meritum bank kredyty online kredyt bank sieradz godz otwarcia kalkulator kredytów mieszkaniowych rodzina na swoim pożyczki na dowód staszów pożyczki prywatne szczecin kredyty bez bik w czestochowie firma bocian pożyczki kredyt studencki warunki 2012 kredyt studencki pko kiedy pożyczki zfśs w bilansie kredyt gotówkowy pekao sa opinie kredyty pozabankowe gdańsk kredyt bank wcześniejsza spłata oprocentowanie kredytu w fm bank kredyt w pekao sa forum bocian pożyczki kutno pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik poznań idea bank kredyt dla firm opinie kredyt bank grodzisk mazowiecki pszczółka pożyczki ewidencja umowy pożyczki pożyczki prywatne wzór umowy umowa pożyczki z poręczycielem wzór kalkulator pożyczki bgż lokata w kredyt banku 6 5 pozyczki bez bikikrd umowa pożyczki firma firmie pożyczki bocian praca opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe ranking czerwiec 2013 pożyczki gotówkowe szybko bank pekao sa symulacja kredytu potrzebuję pożyczki bez bik bocian pożyczki formularz pożyczki bez bik do 2000 pożyczki bez bik nowości pożyczki bez biku i zaświadczeń provident nr pożyczki umowa pożyczki jaki podatek pcc kredyty gotowkowe lodz prywatnie szybkie pożyczki śląsk szybki kredyt przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt bank rzeszów godziny otwarcia kredyty 24 h kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat alior bank prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości warszawa pożyczki bankowe dla zadłużonych numery telefonu o pozyczke wrzesnia kredyty dla małych firm 2014 jelenia góra kredyt mieszkaniowy dla bezrobotnych bank bph kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki cash pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych online kredyt chwilówki nowy sącz pozyczki bez sprawdzania baz jaworzno kredyt bank lokaty czerwiec 2013 idea bank kredyt obrotowy oprocentowanie pożyczki w skoku forum kredyt studencki pko przedluzenie kredyty konsolidacyjne zielona góra kredyt lombardowy banku komercyjnego kredyty bez bik i zaswiadczen o zarobkach warunki kredytu w getin banku w jakim banku brać kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczka dla najbiedniejszych kredyt bank lubuskie kredyt bank radzymińska białystok pożyczki pod zastaw świdnica kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pko pożyczki lubartów gdzie moge dostac kredyt bez biku kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2013 pożyczki atut pożyczki pozabankowe rawicz wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez pożyczkobiorcę szybkie kredyty przez internet bez bik przetarg na kredyt bankowy 2012 kredyt pozabankowy z zajęciem komorniczym z banku wzięto kredyt w wysokości 2000 zł w ktorym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotowkowy kredyt na remont mieszkania kalkulator pko kredyt bank doładowanie telefonu kredyt bank bankomat prowizja kredyt z banku pocztowego kredyty pozabankowe tarnów banki które daja kredyt bez bik mariusz dudziński pożyczki oświadczenie spłaty pożyczki kredyt bank pytania długoterminowe kredyty pozabankowe czy niespłacony kredyt w banku ulega przedawnieniu jaki jest kod na kredyt z orange pożyczki tax care opinie marka puławy pożyczki na dowód pożyczki bankowe włocławek pożyczki kasa stefczyka kredyt samochodowy ing kredyt bank przelewy przychodzące pożyczki prywatne rzeszów kredyt bank sa rzeszów pożyczki prywatne bez bik poznań kredyt bank włocławek kontakt pożyczki płock bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe promocje kredyt konsolidacyjny w millenium bank kredyty bez bik i zaswiadczen o zarobkach optima pożyczki zielona góra pożyczki pozabankowe w ciechanowie obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki kalkulator pozyczki bez sprawdzania historii kredytowej ostroda kredyt bank w bielanach wrocławskich jak wziasc kredyt do 25000 pożyczki chwilówki słupsk santander bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator pożyczki bez bik kozienice pożyczki bez bik getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw 2013 firma żyrafa pożyczki lendon pożyczka bez bik warszawa umorzenie pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych prywatne pozyczki na zaswiadczenie o dochodach kredyt bank w kaliszu kredyty studenckie warunki otrzymania pożyczki chwilówki grochowska umowa pożyczki w fundacji korzystny kredyt w banku mikropożyczki dolnośląskie bocian pożyczki wejherowo banknot pozyczki warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe oława pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniężnej z zabezpieczeniem pożyczki w banku kredyt samochodowy dla firmy kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pocztowy opinie banki ktore udzielaja kredytu przez internet pozyczki z komornikiem w starachowicach darmowe pożyczki bez bik kredyt w lukas banku kalkulator alior bank kredyt dla firm pożyczki chwilówki promocje szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd płock elblag pozyczki w domu bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank wilanów czy umowa pożyczki może być ustna pożyczki 4000 kredyt konsolidacyjny oferty pozyczki pozabankowe 7 ledziny kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator mbank kredyt bank kraków królewska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank departament marketingu pożyczki gotówkowe gdzie najtaniej kredyt studencki warunki 2012 umowa pożyczki pkzp wzór na wyliczenie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad