pozyczka pod zastaw kielce umowa pożyczki z ratami bocian ełk pozyczki kontakt kredyt bank ekstrakonto s kredyt w banku pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt w banku w niemczech pożyczki z funduszu pracy kredyt bank rudnickiego godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny bez krd kredyt w banku boś pożyczki bez bik brzeg alior bank kredyt gotówkowy ubezpieczenie kredyt bank powstańców warszawy kredyt bank puck pożyczki internetowe bez prowizji bank pekao sa kredyt obrotowy kredyt bank złotów kredyty chwilówki za darmo pożyczki gotówkowe pozabankowe warszawa kredyt bank warszawa żeromskiego pożyczki bez bik nowa sól kredyty chwilówki zywiec ul dworcowa pożyczki pozabankowe wyszków bocian pożyczki giżycko banki kredyty ekologiczne wzór na odsetki od pożyczki zfśs pozyczki internetowe bez sprawdzania bik i krs kredyt niski procent w santander consumer bank pozyczki bocian gniezno kredyt bank placowka wroclaw kredyt bankowy jako forma finansowania kredyt bank skoczów godziny otwarcia udzielić komuś pożyczki pożyczki toruń pożyczki pozabankowe od 18 lat pożyczki na nieruchomości niespłacony kredyt bankowy kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złym bikiem kredyt bank chmielna tfad pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe forum getin bank kredyt bez zaswiadczen kredyty bez bik lomza bank pko kredyt studencki wniosek sprzedaż kredyt banku 2012 pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa kredyt chwilówka kwidzyn pożyczki prywatne gryfice wrocław pożyczki prywatne kredyt studencki wbk spłata pożyczki pod zastaw legionowo pożyczki bez bik bez meldunku w dowodzie waloryzacja pożyczki mbank pożyczki gotówkowe autokredyt pozabankowo pożyczki pozabankowe duze kwoty pożyczki chwilówki najnowsze pożyczki bez bik szczecin pożyczki chwilówki nowy targ kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator ing kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klijenta swidnica pożyczki chwilówki firmy pożyczki prywatne kto udzieli mikropożyczki 2013 umowa pożyczki pieniędzy koledze wzór alior bank kredyt gotówkowy na dowód pożyczki lidzbark warmiński pożyczki na leczenie szukam pożyczki szczecin pozyczki na oswiadczenie o dochodach pożyczki za 1 grosz kredyt bank turek kredyt na samochód a umowa na czas określony kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredytowy pożyczki bez sprawdzania zatrudnienia pożyczki chwilówki przez internet uk szukam pożyczki prywatnej pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bez bik krd big umowy pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego kredyt bez bik jelenia góra pożyczki dla zadłużonych wrocław pożyczki gotówkowe bez poręczycieli kredyt 5 zł orange pop umowa pożyczki między matką a synem pożyczki o kwocie 8700 kredyty pozabankowe piła kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pekao sa kredyt samochodowy dla firm oprocentowanie getin bank kredyt samochodowy opinie 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millenium opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe wiek pozyczki prywatne wloclawek kto udzieli pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt ratalny w getin banku oprocentowanie kredytów w banku śląskim który bank udziela kredytów bez bik pożyczki dla porozumienia centrum wzory pism umowa pożyczki pieniężnej pożyczki chwilówki nowy tomyśl pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt pod zastaw działki bez bik kredyt 4000 bez bik online pozyczki prywatne przez telefon na terenie lublina hitler pożyczki usa bocian pożyczki nowogard pożyczki pozabankowe wągrowiec uzasadnienie pożyczki remontowej kredyt bankowy bez umowy szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik kredyty pozabankowe bez bik i krd warszawa pożyczki bez bik będzin wzór umowy pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia kredyt bank kody jednorazowe spółka udziela pożyczki udziałowcowi pcc kredyt bank zaswiadczenie o zarobkach pożyczki mieszkaniowe pko pozyczka prywatna bez baz stalowa wola i okolice kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki rekreacyjnej skarabeusz pożyczki krotoszyn kredyty chwilówki ulotkarze kredyt bank wyniki finansowe czy kredyt konsolidacyjny można skonsolidować pożyczki pozabankowe w kaliszu kredyt bank pionki potrzebuje pożyczki pod zastaw pożyczki dla studentów rzeszów umowy pożyczki od rodziny wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny opole prywatne pożyczki na weksel kalkulator kosztów pożyczki kredyt bank lokaty strukturyzowane kredyt bez biku katowice kredyt samochodowy dla rencistów kredyty mieszkaniowe promocja repudiacja pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku kredyt studencki lista banków kredyty bez biku w kutnie pożyczki z budżetu jst kredyt w banku czy u doradcy kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych udzielenie pożyczki osobie prywatnej umowa pożyczki podatek 2011 pozyczka w domu klienta bialystok koszty pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank zwycięstwa koszalin kredyt w banku centralnym bocian pożyczki piła kredyt bank w pabianicach pożyczki prywatne żywiec kredyt online idea bank kredyt bank puławy godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik big krd online pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy forum pożyczki na dowód od 18 pozyczki nasielsk warszawska na oswiadczenie pozyczka online 24h bez przelewu 1 grosza jak zgłosić umowę pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego kredyt bank w żarach kredyt bank warta gwarancja kredyt bank w hrubieszowie pożyczki dla zadłużonych bezrobotnych idea bank kredyt na start oprocentowanie bank w rzeszowie ktury udziela pozyczek bez biku najtańsza pożyczka w płocku konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pko kredyt bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw gryfice kredyt bank kartuska 5 gdańsk prywatne pożyczki dla rolników pożyczki optima praca kredyt bank katowice altus awans pożyczki progresja pożyczki pożyczki bez żadnych zaświadczeń pożyczki direct pozyczki na dowod w domu slask kredyty mieszkaniowe pozabankowe umowa pożyczki w rodzinie podatek umowa pożyczki weksel pożyczki bez biku tarnów kredyt bank łask kredyty bez biku zielona góra kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób w biku kredyt bank filia świebodzice kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie kalkulator umowa pożyczki pisemna pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik przez internet kredyt bank telefon kontaktowy kredyty w domu klijenta jarosław błyskawiczne pożyczki bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator ing szybkie pożyczki bez bik białystok umowy pożyczki wzór kredyt bank karta kredytowa multima kredyt bez bik pruszków szybki kredyt bez bik pożyczki na dowód szczecinek prosper pożyczki wpłatomaty kredyt banku warszawa pomocne pożyczki opinie kredyt bank dąbrowskiego 27 poznań pożyczka na dowód od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank sieradz pożyczki pozabankowe lista firm pożyczki okay udzielam pożyczki szybkie pozyczki bez biku pożyczki prywatne oświęcim pożyczki go pozyczki w domu klienta na dowod kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank opinie symulacja kredytu w banku wbk czas oczekiwania na kredyt w banku pocztowym bank pekao sa kredyt inwestycyjny kredyt bank ror kredyty konsolidacyjne katowice kredyt w uk lloyds kod kredytowy w orange kredyt na otwarcie firmy ze zla historia kredytowa kredyt bank wejherowo kontakt kredyty pozabankowe dla osob z komornikiem pod jaki numer się bierze kredyt orange kalkulator pożyczki gofin pożyczki bez bik elbląg kredyty bez bik do 20000 umowa pożyczki urząd skarbowy kredyt bank bankomaty poznań kredyt dla nowych firm bez biku kredyt bank historia powstania bank pko sa kredyty opinie pożyczki bocian zgorzelec pożyczki ii rp ppozyczka na sam dowod osobisty zabrze pożyczki pozabankowe na samochód kredyt bank kb token pożyczki z komornikiem chorzów getin noble bank regulamin kredytu kredyty konsolidacyjne w jakim banku kredyty chwilówki kraków tanie kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki jak założyć kto płaci podatek pcc od pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i krd pożyczki na projekty unijne bocian pożyczki szczecin opinie kredyt bank leżajsk kontakt kredyt w orange jaki kod kredyty chwilówki w tvn kredyt w banku na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt bank gdańsk kołobrzeska udzielić pożyczki proz kredyt studencki pko bp do kiedy legitymacja kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osoby niepełnosprawnej pożyczki bez bik przemyśl pożyczka 20000 w lesznie bez bik kredyt bank iława pożyczki bez bik śląskie kredyt bankowy to aktywa czy pasywa przeksięgowanie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i big wzór umowy pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym pożyczki favore wypowiedzenie karty kredytowej credit agricole tani kredyt inowroclaw waldemar piechota pożyczki pożyczki prywatne ostrowiec św kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza kontakt pożyczki olsztyn pieniężnego księgowanie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki umowa co lubuskie kredyt bez biku na oswiadczenie kredyty chwilówki net unilink cash pożyczki bez bik oferta kredyt bank łowicz godziny otwarcia pozyczki do domu klienta jaki kredyt konsolidacyjny wybrać pożyczki bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczki społecznościowe jak inwestować kredyt bank poznan oddzialy skarabeusz pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bank oddziały pcc od pożyczki płaci bank pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bank częstochowa kontakt pożyczki dla osób zadłużonych z komornikiem pożyczki na długi okres kredyt bez bik pod zastaw mieszkania kalkulator pożyczki ekspresowej w pekao sa pożyczki chwilówki dla firm kredyt bank kursy walut chf kredyt bank sa iban zwrot pożyczki ang pożyczki unijne kredyt bankowy w spadku kredyt na samochód dla firm bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt studencki pko sa forum wzór umowy pożyczki od znajomych kredyt bank białostoczek pojęcie pożyczki bankowej umowa pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank kredyty bez biku w bydgoszczy private banking w kredyt banku umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs byłemu pracownikowi kredyt bankowy a pożyczka kredyty bez biku grudziadz kredyty chwilówki tychy opinie kredyt bank bankomaty lublin kredyt bez bik raty bydgoszcz pożyczki bez bik big krd kredyt chwilówka ile procent kredyt bez bik na umowe zlecenie bocian pożyczki wniosek online pożyczki bez bik wągrowiec kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz kredyt bank w wadowicach kredyt bankowy ksiazka pożyczki gotówkowe bgż umowa pożyczki między siostrami kredyt bank włoszczowa pożyczki bez bik tablica toruń pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki pod zastaw gruntów rolnych kredyty bez bik i krd warszawa bank pko bp kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank ropczyce kredyty na dowod mielec cesja umowy pożyczki wzór kredyty pozabankowe konin pożyczki do domu gdańsk pożyczki chwilówki grudziądz pożyczka od ręki katowice db kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyty chwilówki skarżysko kamienna pożyczki społecznościowe czy warto inwestować kredyt bez bik bez dochodu co to jest kredyt bez bik pożyczki prywatne bez wpłaty umowa pożyczki a wspólnota majątkowa kredyt od ręki rybnik kredyt bank włocławek kościuszki kredyt bank święty marcin kredyt konsolidacyjny warszawa kredyt bank strzelce opolskie kontakt pożyczki lubin pożyczki podobne jak provident prywatna pozyczka przez 24 h pożyczki repo chwilówki poznań pożyczki poznań chwilówki luboń bezpieczna pozyczka znajomemu formularz kredyt w meritum banku opinie kredyt bank oddział lublin krakowskie przedmieście kredyt na dowod krapkowice bocian pożyczki bytów potrącenie pożyczki z zasiłku chorobowego kredyt konsolidacyjny co to znaczy pożyczki domowe bocian kredyt inwestycyjny getin bank opinie pożyczki dla osób fizycznych szybkie pożyczki przez internet od 19 lat pożyczki tychy kredyt w uk na samochod bankomaty kredyt bank gliwice kredyt bank kętrzyn pożyczki pod zastaw forum kredyt bez bik do 30000 pożyczki chwilówki na dowód warszawa kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości małopolska patryk raczkowski pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnego rodzica pożyczki pod zastaw pkd szybki kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych poznań pożyczki do 100 zł w którym banku najłatwiej o kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki bez zgody współmałżonka obliczanie raty pożyczki ing provident kwota pożyczki kredyt chwilówka debica pozyczki w domu żnin tfad pożyczki kredyt bank iława kredyty bez bik i komornika pozyczki krosos windykacja pożyczki pozabankowe z komornikiem pożyczki z obsługą w domu warszawa termin przedawnienia spłaty pożyczki kredyty i pożyczki prezentacja kredyt z komornikiem ruda slaska pożyczka bez procentu bank pko sa pożyczki na dowód ing odsetki karne pożyczki gorzów pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank oddział marki godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki starogard gdański pożyczki pozabankowe ostrołęka umorzenie pożyczki ze środków obrotowych kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator eurobank pożyczki pod zastaw gorlice umowa pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego pożyczki bez bik we wrocławiu pożyczki bez bik w brodnicy czy warto wziąć kredyt w getin banku pożyczki gotówkowe prywatnie pożyczki do 50000 kredyt bank metro imielin bocian pożyczki gdańsk meritum bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bank szczecin adres pożyczki tise pożyczki domowe pożyczki unijne dla nowych firm alior bank kredyt na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt samochodowy mbank pożyczki w domu klienta polkowice najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bez bik anna kochańska pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości lodz kredyt bez bik cieszyn kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej wbk kredyt bank chrzanów telefon kredyt bank wejherowo godziny otwarcia promesa udzielenia pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór doc umowa pożyczki szablon umowa pożyczki ustna kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b telefon pożyczki dla uczących się kredyt bank zmiana konta kredyt gotówkowy dla firm bez bik pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat na dowód kredyt bank ząbki kredyty chwilówki tychy praca kredyty bez bik i krd radom kredyty bez bik i krd szczecin pożyczki wojciech górski poszukuje pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki chwilówki opole kredyty bez bik w czestochowie kredyt bank placówki warszawa bielany kredyt chwilowka w przeźmierowie getin bank kredyty samochodowe tel umowa pożyczki wzór raty kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator porównanie kredyty bez bik 2013 pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet na dowód pożyczki bydgoszcz fundacja warty i kredyt banku razem możemy więcej pożyczki oscar pożyczki gorzów wlkp kredyt bez bik do 10000 pożyczka 60000 bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw lubelskie kredyt bank pilsudskiego lodz kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2012 maciej ciechomski pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny do jakiej kwoty kredyty pozabankowe kraków uzasadnienie pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki prywatne 24h pożyczki dla jst chorobowe a pozyczka w providencie odsetki od pożyczki koszty podatkowe pożyczki w rachunkowości pożyczki bez wychodzenia z domu bez bik bank pekao sa kredyty kalkulator jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki od ręki gdańsk pożyczki chwilówki 5000 kredyt bez bik w koninie kredyty chwilówki z jakimi bankami współpracują kredyt konsolidacyjny bnp paribas ranking banków udzielających kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyty pozabankowe gdynia kredyt bank plus mikropożyczki z efs kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złą historią kredytową kredyt bank aktualne lokaty kredyt studencki oferty banków szybki kredyt bez przelewu pożyczki pozabankowe mogilno kredyt bank zielonka kolejowa godziny otwarcia ubezpieczenie kredytu w fm banku deutsche bank kredyt bez zatrudnienia pożyczki z dotacji unijnych kredyty gotówkowe bank spółdzielczy kredyt bez bik 200 tys pożyczki bez bik cała polska osoby prywatne udzielające pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bz wbk kredyt konsolidacyjny bez formalności kredyt studencki w pko bp forum kredyt pozabankowy lublin kredyt bank kraków szuwarowa godziny otwarcia udzielę prywatnej pożyczki online kredyt mieszkaniowy na firme

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad