kredyt bank centrala wrocław kredyt bank jak aktywować kartę kredytową mikropożyczki kraków pożyczki z obsługą w domu klienta pożyczki społecznościowe smava kredyt na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki z funduszu świadczeń socjalnych drugi kredyt w innym banku kredyt bank plac powstańców arkadiusz nowakowski pożyczki marka pozyczki ketrzyn kredyt bank lokata 6 5 opinie pozyczki bez biku online alior bank kredyt warunki gwarantowana pożyczka bez bik pożyczki raty kredyt samochodowy santander oprocentowanie skarabeusz pożyczki podkarpacie euro pożyczki pożyczka dla zadłużonych na dowód pożyczki kalkulator ing kredyty bankowe książki kredyt bank lublin tomasza zana kredyt samochodowy idea bank kredyt na mieszkanie bank zachodni szybkie pozyczki w domu kredyt w aib bank pożyczki chwilówki ekspresowe pożyczki na dowód lublin kredyty santander kredyt bez bik ge money bank kredyt bez bik provident kredyt z orange kod pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta kredyt bank godziny otwarcia słupsk pożyczki pozabankowe we włocławku żyrafa pożyczki pożyczki prywatne piotrków tryb banki spółdzielcze kredyty bez bik umowa pożyczki kodeks kredyt w uk tesco pożyczki akcess pro domo pożyczki gdańsk pożyczki prywatne elbląg karencja w spłacie pożyczki co to jest pozyczki torun tablica pożyczki pozabankowe we wrocławiu pożyczki bez krd i big kredyty bank pko sa kredyt bank plac solny opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki wspólnika pokwitowanie zwrotu pożyczki wzór pożyczki w euroexpert pożyczki od ręki online kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp kalkulator wzór umowy pozyczki wyliczenie pożyczki ppozyczka na sam dowod osobisty zabrze pożyczki w banku pocztowym pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd przez internet pożyczki społecznościowe jak kredyt samochodowy dla firmy kalkulator pożyczki pod zastaw diamentów kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firmy pozyczki jredyty zakopane kredyt bank zagiel adres pożyczki kartuzy kredyt konsolidacyjny bs pożyczki dla polaków w londynie parabanki pożyczki gorzów wlkp 6 pożyczki chwilówki ekspres kasa kredyt bank białystok mickiewicz cz bank pocztowy daje kredyty mdm kredyt bank reklama adamczyk w jakim banku wziac kredyt forum pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach i bik mikropożyczki czestochowa kredyt bez bik 2012 kredyt bank inowrocław siwz kredyt bankowy kredyt odnawialny bez bik i krd pozyczka podobna do bocianakielce pożyczki chwilówki na dowód poznań pożyczki pozabankowe cała polska kredyt na konto w 15 minut bez bik krd na dowód kredyt bank wspólnoty kredyt w banku pko sa forum kredyt bank ul wielicka godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki nysa rynek kredyty gotówkowe bez bik kredyt bank b stok tragedia w kredyt banku tempo finanse pożyczki opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe symulacje kredyt bez bik świdnica koszty uzyskania przychodu odsetki od pożyczki tanie pożyczki częstochowa kredyty chwilówki inwestowanie kredyt bank 24 kredyt bank arka kredyt bank janów łódź dpg pożyczki kod kredyt orange udzielone pożyczki w bilansie kasa stefczyka kalkulator pozyczki pożyczka 40000 zl bez biku pożyczki pcc pożyczki pod zastaw gruntów rolnych pożyczki raty pożyczki od osób prywatnych wrocław kredyt bank oświadczenie inwestora pożyczki brodnica wzór umowy umorzenia pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet dobra pożyczki kredyt bank kolegialna 22 pożyczki dorfin pożyczki w domu klienta gorzów wlkp kredyt samochodowy fortis bank najnowsze pożyczki bez biku pożyczki bez bik online kredyt bank komornik pożyczki społecznościowe pożyczki chwilówki ekspresowe forum pożyczki bocian kredyt konsolidacyjny chf potrzebuję ów kredyt kredyt orange kod kredyt bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bez bik 10000 kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolności kredyt bank ekstrapremia dokumentowanie odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki szczecinek kredyt bez bik rybnik bezzwrotne pożyczki dla małych firm 2014 bank pko sa kredyt na dowód pożyczka prywatna białystok ogłoszenia kredyt samochodowy ing mąż bierze pożyczki bez mojej wiedzy pożyczki bez bik zamość poszukuję pożyczki kredyt bank opole sosnkowskiego godziny otwarcia jak wziąć kredyt w banku mikropożyczki definicja kredyty bez bik zielona gora kalkulator rat kredytu pożyczki pożyczki bez bik starachowice kredyty bez bik warszawa pożyczki chwilówki przez internet pozabankowe umowa pożyczki elementy kredyt bank sa żagiel adres credit agricole pożyczki opinie kredyt bank w wbk kredyty chwilówki na spłatę komornika kredyt dla studenta bzwbk kredyt bank fosa staromiejska toruń błyskawiczne pożyczki bez bik pozyczki bez bik pozabankowe odsetki od pożyczki kurs pożyczki bytów umowa pożyczki 2013 pożyczki bez bik toruń kredyt bank w grodzisku mazowieckim kredyt bank stradomska godziny otwarcia kredyt dla ludzi pracujacych w uk szybkie pozyczki w domu prodomo gdzie w rzeszowie można dostać dobry kredyt bez bik kredyty chwilówki w olkuszu kredyt bank żeromskiego 77 umowa pożyczki od wspólnika pozyczki tylko na wyciag z konta wejherowo pożyczki pod zastaw chełm kredyt bank zgubiona karta umowa pożyczki między rodzeństwem wzór kredyt bez bik i krd z komornikiem umorzenie pożyczki a podatek umowa pożyczki pieniędzy na raty kredyt bank warszawa ul popularna pożyczki bytom kredyt bank s a iv oddział w warszawie kredyt bank sa leszno kredyt bez bik 5 tys warrus pożyczki kontakt kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych w uk kredyty bez biku przez internet pożyczki domówki grudziądz kredyty chwilówki tychy kontakt umowa pożyczki spółki powiązane kredyty chwilowki gdansk wrzeszcz kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg 40 tys pożyczki unijne jeremie kredyty chwilówki świecie prywatne pozyczki na weksel kredyt samochodowy bez bik i big pożyczki gotówkowe banki odsetki od pożyczki a koszt uzyskania przychodu umowa przyrzeczenia pożyczki pożyczki do domu włocławek pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu lubuskie dialog pożyczki porównanie kredytów mieszkaniowych maj 2013 kredyt bank praktyki płatne czy kredyt bankowy jest przychodem kredyty chwilówki kierowca pozyczka z bociana dla kogo pożyczki prywatne koszalin kredyty chwilówki biznes kredyty bez bik przez internet kredyt refinansowy w alior banku pożyczki prywatne ostrów wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny invest bank umowa pożyczki spółka z oo kredyt bankowy a kredyt kupiecki kredyt bank żniwna poznań kredyty chwilówki spółka z oo pożyczki activia kredyt bank biuro operacji i windykacji lublin pożyczki gotówkowe bez big kredyt bank zarobki 2012 weryfikacja kredytow tempo finanse pożyczki podporządkowane w bilansie kredyt bank w bielsku podlaskim kredyt bank dabie kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i zaświadczeń podatek od pożyczki darowizny pożyczki na lichwe kredyt bank token problem kredyty chwilówki ostrzeżenie pożyczki dla młodych przedsiębiorców umowa pożyczki pieniężnej między firmami profil aktywny 50 kredyt bank umowa pożyczki nakaz zapłaty kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw mieszkania bank millennium kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyty przez internet bez biku pożyczki na dowód provident kredyt online eurobank opinie ekasa pożyczki getin noble bank przewalutowanie kredytu kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2011 promesa udzielenia pożyczki kredyty bez bik nowy sącz kredyt na orange jaki numer alior bank kredyt samochodowy opinie kredyty chwilówki czy sprawdzają bik pożyczki gotówkowe kołobrzeg umorzenie pożyczki pozew pcc od pożyczki od rodziny kredyty chwilówki dg pożyczki prywatne pod weksel łódź kredyt bank w cieszynie skarabeusz pozyczki pozabankowe dolnyslsask pożyczki chwilówki słupsk pozyczka pieniezna w dublini godziny przelewow kredyt banku oprocentowanie kredytu w nordea bank kredyt chwilówka na telefon kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiany 2014 kredyt na mieszkanie w skoku z zla chistoria kredytowa fundacja warty i kredyt banku razem możemy więcej krs pożyczki do 5000 zł kredyty chwilówki płock sienkiewicza kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg pożyczki pozabankowe kontakt telefoniczny pożyczki kraków kalwaryjska kredyty chwilówki gdańsk kalkulator rat pożyczki pekao kredyt getin bank bez bik pożyczki dla firm bez dochodu pożyczki chwilówki kontakt kredyt bank 3 oddział gdańsk umowa pożyczki wzór odsetki kredyty pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik pozyczyki atiz pozyczki pozabankowe na dowod 4000 zl umowa pożyczki ze spółką kredyty bez bik z zajeciem komorniczym kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim forum mariusz tierling pożyczki bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy oprocentowanie jakie banki daja kredyt w euro pożyczki bez biku kraków kredyt bank radom kontakt funkcje pożyczki kredyt bank świebodzin godziny otwarcia duzy kredyt konsolidacyjny bnp paribas kredyt umowa zlecenie godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w ostrołęce w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi a pcc jak zaksięgować umowę pożyczki między spółkami kredyt bank nowa huta kredyty pozabankowe długoterminowe pożyczki na długi okres umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs kredyt studencki pko sa opinie najtańszy kredyt na 30 tyś bez bik pożyczki na dowód żywiec kredyt bank bz wbk połączenie pożyczki chwilówki starachowice marka pożyczki białystok pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zatrudnieniu bocian pożyczki jastrzębie zdrój kredyt bank w grodzisku maz pożyczki bankier kredyt bank trojmiasto pozyczka zabezpieczona aneksem komorniczym pożyczki w domu klienta optima kredyt studencki deutsche bank pożyczki gotówkowe bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki z narodowego funduszu ochrony środowiska szybkie pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kredyty mieszkaniowe credit agricole pożyczki w różnych bankach pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości toruń pożyczki w bydgoszczy udzielać pożyczki ang kredyt bank sa warszawa kontakt kredyt bank 224 pożyczki z komornikiem wrocław umowa pożyczki przykłady niebezpieczne pożyczki przejęcie kredyt banku przez santander pożyczki bankowe przez internet godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w markach kredyty bez bik lublin getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy jastrzębie zdrój wartość bilansowa pożyczki pożyczki z sektora pozabankowego maksymalne oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki pod zastaw śląskie pożyczki bez bik we wrocławiu kredyty bez biku koszalin kredyt bankowy przedawnienie umowa pożyczki ze środków obrotowych pożyczki od osób fizycznych kredyt bank zary pożyczki bez bik pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki cashper opinie kredyt 5 zł orange odsetki od pożyczki a przychód podatkowy pożyczki od lat 18 getin bank konsolidacja kredytów kredyt bank wrocławska kraków kredyt bank lublin jutrzenki godziny otwarcia czy od pożyczki w banku płaci się podatek udziele szybkiej pozyczki prywatnej zywiec kredyt konsolidacyjny korzyści idea bank opinie kredyt dla firm idea bank oprocentowanie kredytu kredyt konsolidacyjny zadłużonych w zusie i w bankach pozyczki prywatne bydgoszcz kredyt bez bik zamość umowa pożyczki poręczyciel szybkie pożyczki koszalin kredyt bank opole sosnkowskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wymiana walut kredyt bank zarobki 2011 zmiana umowy pożyczki a pcc kredyt w alior bank opinie szybkie pożyczki w szkocji pożyczki prywatne z zagranicy kredyty chwilówki krosno pożyczki bank pko pożyczki wejherowo kredyt bank rodzaje kont kredyt bankowy a pożyczka odsetki od pożyczki obliczenie pożyczki od osób prywatnych katowice adres pozyczki bocian w chelmie pożyczki chwilówki kredytum oferia pożyczki kredyty chwilówki co to jest kredyt bank piekary śl kredyt bank sa płatności masowe kredyt bank 7 procent kredyty chwilówki opole reymonta pożyczki bez bik wielkopolska pozyczki do domu inowroclaw kredyty bez biku wroclaw pożyczki gotówkowe prywatne kredyt preferencyjny banku ochrony środowiska kredyt bank kondratowicza pożyczki prywatne pod weksel poznań kredyty duże na dowód wrocław szybkie pożyczki rzeszów kredyty bez bik bydgoszcz kredyty chwilówki katowice ligota kredyt bank 9 oddział warszawa pożyczki bez bik w białymstoku kredyt bank starogard gdański godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w białej podlaskiej pożyczki gdańsk grunwaldzka bankowy kredyt samochodowy szybkie pozyczki w domu prodomo szybkie mikropożyczki kredyty pozabankowe do 20000 pożyczki do domu opole podatek od odsetek od pożyczki od osoby fizycznej getin bank wniosek o kredyt online pożyczki prywatne w warszawie kredyty i pożyczki w uk kredyt bank koszalin godziny otwarcia pożyczki chorzów kredyt bank w jakich bankomatach kredyt bank patriotów godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik gorzów wlkp kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik i zabezpieczeń kredyt bank węgry pożyczki na oświadczenie warszawa kredyty mieszkaniowe współpraca kredyt bank w piasecznie kredyt studencki bzwbk kredyt samochodowy bez bik na oświadczenie pozyczki dla pracujacych w czechach przelew zagraniczny do kredyt banku kredyty konsolidacyjne w jakim banku pożyczki dla firm bez big wzór aneksu do umowy pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank wyszogrodzka płock przeniesienie pożyczki do innego banku kredyty online bez biku pozyczka jak provident bez big pożyczki dla polaków uk udzielanie pożyczki przez firmę kredyt remontowy duże pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank bielsko sixta podatek od pożyczki kronos pożyczki tychy kontakt prywatne pożyczki kościan pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości jak zaksięgować umowę pożyczki kredyt samochodowy getin noble bank opinie bocian pożyczki myślibórz w jakim banku dostanę pożyczkę przez internet kredyt bank pszczyna telefon kredyty chwilowki warszawa ul grochowska kredyt bank b stok potrzebuję pożyczki łódź pozyczki bez bik forum kredyt mieszkaniowy porównanie banków kredyty chwilówki nowy sącz obligacje pożyczki narodowej 1934 kredyt bank gliwice telefon kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń lokaty w kredyt banku optima pożyczki do domu opinie kredyt bank pleszew wysokie pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki dla pracowników pcc pewne pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank godziny otwarcia szczecin kredyty chwilówki ulotki opinie pozyczki internetowe kredyt gotówkowy skok chmielewskiego bank pko kredyt studencki regulamin kredyt bank call center kredyt w raiffeisen bank umowa pożyczki pieniędzy spółce kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firmy pożyczki bez krd i bez bik kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen przez internet pożyczki bez bik podkarpacie umowa pożyczki osoba fizyczna kredyt samochodowy bez bik 2013 kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kalkulator jaki jest numer na kredyt z orange promesa pożyczki pożyczki z inicjatywy jeremie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez konta w banku pożyczki bez biku w starachowicach kredyt bank oddział lublin żagiel kredyt bank nowy sącz kontakt kredyt bank mielec mickiewicza kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania bez bik wzór oświadczenia o zwrocie pożyczki kredyt studencki warunki uzyskania pożyczki bez sprawdzania bik i big ubezpieczenie pożyczki w ergo hestia kredyt bank lokaty dewizowe kredyt bank mt940 kredyty bez bik na mieszkanie kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum bank opinie przeterminowany kredyt w banku kredyt bank fundacja kto udziela pozyczek bez bik kredyty konsolidacyjne warunki kredyt orange 1zl kredyty chwilówki chorzów pożyczki od gangsterów fundusz pracy pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki nowa sól umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami prawnymi pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw starachowice kredyt w banku pko sa forum kredyt w banku sgb kredyt bank pożyczki gotówkowe

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad