pożyczki ratunkowe lodz bank pko bp kredyty dla wspolnot mieszkankowych kredyt bank opłata za pakiet jaka deklaracja od umowy pożyczki praca dodatkowa rozdawanie pozyczek pomorskie kredyt w getin banku na pit kredyt pozabankowy bez zaświadczeń pożyczki prywatne bytom kredyty w bilansie banku lukas bank kredyt online pożyczki prywatne o2 jak udzielić pożyczki kredyt bank białystok kredyt bank biała podlaska prywatne pozyczki na procent irlandia pożyczki łódź opinie pożyczki świąteczne bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny skok wesola pożyczki bocian ostrowiec kredyt studencki wbk forum bydgoszcz pożyczki bez bik big krd pożyczki morskie kredyt bez bik dla nowych firm czy latwo dostac kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bank wakacje kredytowe kredyt bez dochodów w ktorym banku brac kredyt udziele pożyczki prywatnie kraków kredyt w jakim banku kasa stefczyka pożyczki kredyt bank s a kontakt ltwe kredyty poznan kredyt bank gdańsk godziny otwarcia kredyt bank włocławek kościuszki kredyt bank konkurs kredyty chwilówki chojnice kredyt bank czas przelewu pożyczki gotówkowe bz wbk mikropożyczki dla firm 2012 bydgoszcz pozyczki do domu kredyt getin bank kalkulator pozyczki na oswiadczenie o dochodach pożyczki na dowód w 15 minut pożyczki pod zastaw złota tarnowskie góry kredyt bank wrocławska warunki udzielenia pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy na zaswiadczenieno zarobkach kredyty chwilówki dział kadr uokik pożyczki pożyczki bez bik tarnobrzeg getin bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum kto płaci podatek od pożyczki prywatnej świdwin kredyty wictoria forum pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą bez bik pożyczka kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem poznań idea bank kredyt na mieszkanie opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki od osoby fizycznej umowa pożyczki oświadczenie o poddaniu się egzekucji kredyty bez biku leszno połączenie kredyt banku z bz wbk pożyczki chwilówki łódź pozyczki bez krs i bik na oswiadczenie forum wrocław pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt samochodowy w nordea bank regulamin udzielania pożyczki dla firm w mbanku pożyczki z fgśp szybkie pożyczki w domu klienta kredyty bez bik malbork wonga pozyczki info linia kredyt bankowy regulacje prawne szybki kredyt bez zdolności kredytowej pożyczki ratunkowe opole pożyczki dla firm bez bik i zaświadczeń ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt telefo odsetki od pożyczki przychodem podatkowym umorzenie pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt bank dabie kredyty bez bik lubuskie pożyczki w getin banku kredyty bez bik prywatne kredyty bez bik malbork pożyczki na rok przez internet kredyt mieszkaniowy 3x0 w credit agricole kredyty bankowe i ich ewidencja szybka pozyczka 15 tysięcy opinie dobrej pożyczki pożyczki dla osób pracujących za granicą pożyczki w citibank szybkie pożyczki racibórz kredyt w uk barclays kredyt studencki pekao forum idea bank kredyt inwestycyjny oprocentowanie pożyczki chwilówki praca wzor umowy o kredyt wbk pożyczki chwilówki bez bik gdynia kredyt bank łosice odsetki od pożyczki działalność gospodarcza kredyty w millenium bank pewne pożyczki prywatne restrukturyzacja pożyczki pożyczki dąbrowa górnicza skarabeusz pozyczka do jakiej kwoty mikropożyczki olsztyn pożyczki prywatne dla firm bank w rzeszowie ktury udziela pozyczek bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea banku potrącenia pożyczki z zasiłku chorobowego zmiana umowy pożyczki a pcc umowa pożyczki pieniędzy podatek kredyt bank w gdansku pożyczki łódź opinie kredyt bez bik 100 000 marża w kredyt banku umorzenie pożyczki walutowej standardowa umowa pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez krd kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim 2014 kredyty bez bik w domu klienta pozyczki pozabankowe prywatne uk kredyt bank chałubińskiego warszawa godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik leszno umowa pożyczki od spółki firma uzyskała kredyt w banku 12 kredyt rodzina na swoim w jakim banku najkorzystniej pożyczki z zakładowego funduszu socjalnego jak zaksięgować kredyt w rachunku bankowym pożyczki w banku ślaskim pożyczki chwilówki pozyczki na dowód osobisty capital pożyczki mariusz wasilewski pożyczki kredyt bank 3 marca 2001 kredyt studencki w banku bgż kredyt bank wejherowo godz otwarcia kredyty bankowe oferty kredyty bez bik radomsko szybkie pożyczki toruń kredyt pozabankowy koszalin prywatna pozyczka przez 24 h kredyt mieszkaniowy pierwsze mieszkanie kredyt bank bydgoszcz konwersja pożyczki na akcje kredyt bank lublin zana 38 kredyt bank prowizja opłat kredyt bez biku katowice kredyt bez bik ciechanów bocian pozyczki radom kredyt ratalny przez internet bez bik dobry kredyt kalisz w jakim banku najlepiej brać kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki gotówkowe inowrocław pożyczki pod zastaw tychy kredyt bank 3d secure szybki kredyt elk 24h kredyt bank komentarze wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie kredyt bank sa katowice kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa na czas określony kredyty chwilówki internet najtańszy kredyt samochodowy dla firm kredyt bank godziny otwarcia radlin pożyczki pozabankowe na pit umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z zabezpieczeniem szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki podobne do providenta warszawa kredyt bank połączenie kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż kredyt bank zmiana tokena kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk kalkulator kredyt na umowę zlecenie w banku pocztowym pożyczki prywatne wypelnij wniosek pozyczki w domu klijenta pabianice kredyt bank wrocław sikorskiego kredyt na oświadczenie o dochodach bez bik kredyt pozyczka bez biku pożyczki pod zastaw rtv częstochowa czym różni się kredyt bankowy od lokaty kredyt samochodowy dominet bank pożyczki w aig bocian pożyczki żory kredyt do 15000 bez bik pozyczki na dowod radom kredyty chwilówki kasprowicza kredyt w banku hsbc bank pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie cena pożyczki dokument pożyczki w banku klient zaciągnął kredyt obliczenie rat pożyczki pożyczki naziemne pożyczki bez bik siemianowice kredyt bank bogatynia godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w sygma banku udziele pożyczki prywatnie wrocław kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacje kredyt bank lukow telefon pozyczka bez bik dla zadluzonych opolskie pożyczki od ręki kredyty pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód online prosty kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bez bik łódź pożyczki bez rejestru dłużników kredyt na dom bez biku kredyt bank łódź bednarska kredyty bankowe konto bilansowe kredyt bank bielany cele mieszkaniowe spłata pożyczki biuro dobrej pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole pewne pożyczki bez bik i krd orange kredyt 5 zł kredyt bank lokata 2012 zaświadczenie o zarobkach pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt studencki wbk 2013 szybki kredyt bez bik kalisz kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2006 pożyczki bez biku poznań idea bank kredyt na firme opinie pożyczki od udziałowców w bilansie mikropożyczki kapitał ludzki kredyty chwilówki optima adresy kredyt banku w poznaniu pożyczki pewne pozyczki bez meldunku warszawa potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez biku pożyczki chwilówki w bydgoszczy kredyt bank warszawa srodmiescie księgowanie umowy pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki bez krd obliczenie raty kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim warunki otrzymania kredytu w getin banku kredyt w banku a zgon kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank grajewo pożyczki podobne do provident kredyt bank w gdańsku godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki opinie pożyczki gotówkowe mbank pożyczki agh pozyczka bez bik kraków nh pożyczki ząbkowice śląskie pożyczki 5000 zł kredyt w ge money bank opinie kredyt getin bank na pit kredyt konsumpcyjny w alior banku kredyt samochodowy fortis bank opinie pożyczki dla firm z unii europejskiej kredyt bank profil aktywny 50 kredyty bankowe saldo początkowe kredyt konsolidacyjny w deutsche banku kredyt konsolidacyjny kb umowa pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt bank gdynia witomino godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe dzierżoniów optima pożyczki śląsk skarabeusz pożyczki bez bik kredyt novum bez bik pożyczki akcent umowa pożyczki podmioty powiązane kredyt samochodowy dla lekarza kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin bank pożyczki płock bez bik kredyt bank w lęborku kredyt w santander consumer bank pożyczki gotówkowe porównanie banków partner pożyczki piła kredyt bank lokata terminowa kredyt konsolidacyjny wielka brytania kredyt samochodowy w idea banku pozyczki pila pożyczki nowa ruda bocian numer renata pikuła pożyczki pozyczki na dowód nysa kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank forum kredyt bank kosztorys udzielam pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki kielce kredyt bank wola warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny na 120 miesięcy szybkie pożyczki internetowe kredyty bez bik gliwice kredyty chwilówki online pożyczki dla bezrobotnych i odrzuconych śląskie konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy vat pożyczki bezpłatne kredyt bank grodzisk mazowiecki kontakt plus kasa pożyczki kredyt bank w zgorzelcu umowa pożyczki na przelew alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pożyczki bez umowy o prace łodz pożyczki parabanki pożyczki na działalność bez bik kredyt 5 zł orange pop kredyt orange 5 zl szybkie pożyczki prywatne pod weksel pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej wrocław wniosek o preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko bp pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych na dowód bank pko sa kredyt samochodowy pożyczki pod zastaw szczecin schemat księgowania pożyczki pożyczki dla jednostek samorządu terytorialnego umowa pożyczki przedawnienie roszczeń kredyt bank oddział ursynów kredyt bank warszawa plac powstańców pożyczki gotówkowe dla studentów kredyt bank łodź bednarska pożyczki gotówkowe słupsk krótkie pożyczki pożyczki prywatne pilne kredyty chwilówki rmf kredyt bank oleśnica godziny otwarcia jaki bank 10000 pozyczka na splate komornika kredyt konsolidacyjny zdolność pożyczki na dowód bez bik krd kredyty bez bik tychy kredyt bank wyplata z bankomatu szybkie pożyczki śląsk kredyt w banku bez zaświadczeń pożyczki chwilówki kasprowicza kredyty bez bik w kaliszu oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w eurobanku pozyczki bez sprawdzania baz jaworzno kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń i bez biku udzielenie pożyczki bratu pożyczki komornicze banki które daja kredyt bez bik pożyczki leszno narutowicza rarr pożyczki na start kredyt mieszkaniowy wkład własny 50 anonse kredyty z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej forum kredyt studencki bzwbk 2013 kredyt bank platforma walutowa pożyczki gotówkowe w anglii pożyczki kieszonkowe pożyczki dla pracujących na czarno bgż pożyczki dla rolników kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz kredytypożyczki oddłużenia śląskie kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorców pożyczki bez bik nowości pożyczki lębork kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator 2014 pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik przez internet kredyt bank mościckiego tarnów pożyczki kalkulator bocian pożyczki ełk pożyczki prywatne lubuskie pożyczki pozabankowe na sms pożyczki na dowód lubań atiz pożyczki krotoszyn pozyczki bez biku i krd kredyty chwilowki nowa sol bank kredyt dom lębork kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku umowa pożyczki dla firm kredyty bankowe warunki pożyczki od prywatnych inwestorów na weksel prezes kredyty chwilówki pożyczki przez internet dla bezrobotnych pożyczki agroreg kredyty bez bik tablica jaki jest numer kredyt orange pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz kredyt bank chmielna godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki pracowniczej pożyczki kętrzyn jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt pozabankowy 5000 na 2 lata pożyczki bez bik w warszawie umowa pożyczki elementy umowa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank ustka lokata jesienna w kredyt banku pozyczki bez sprawdzania w bik ostrów wielkopolski kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp opinie bocian pożyczki na dowód pożyczki bez bik z komornikiem pozyczki bydgoszcz 24 kredyt bank wbk kalkulator gdzie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik istota pożyczki 4you pozyczki w uk wzór wniosku o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp kredyt konsolidacyjny dla lekarzy kredyt bank żytnia kredyt bank warszawa ul fieldorfa kredyt bank kasprzaka warszawa kredyt w lukas bank pożyczki mielec kredyt bank wisła kredyt studencki pko bp sa kredyt konsolidacyjny z zadłużeniem umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego a podatek kredyty bankowe bez prowizji pożyczki unijne pożyczki pod zastaw słubice kredyt samochodowy w jakim banku najlepiej pozyczka od zaraz warszawa kredyty chwilówki porównanie kredyt bank lublin windykacja adres umowa pożyczki podatek pcc kredyt w banku czy przez doradcę pożyczki krótkoterminowe bilans kredyt w banku dla zadłużonych pożyczki 60 dni pożyczki krecik oświadczenie pożyczki pieniędzy wzór pożyczki bez bik do 20000 umowa pożyczki bez zgody małżonka jak uzyskać kredyt bez bik prywatne udziele pożyczki w kościanie kredyt bank wadowice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lokaty terminowe oprocentowanie kredyt bank ostrow wlkp kredyty chwilówki mikołów kredyt bank wpłata kredyt bank zgorzelec kontakt pożyczki prywatne lubuskie kredyty chwilówki szczecin opinie praca pozyczki bez biknowa sol gdzie otrzymam kredyt bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw ogłoszenia opodatkowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej pożyczki chwilówki w domu klienta getin noble bank ubezpieczenie kredytu alior bank kredyt na dowód kredyt 150tys bez bik kredyt bank w lezajsku promocyjne pożyczki kredyt bank w kepnie kredyt bank legionowo godziny otwarcia kredyt bank mieszkaniowy kto daje pożyczki z komornikiem pożyczki w domu klienta głogów odsetki od pożyczki cienka kapitalizacja kredyty mieszkaniowe 2014 rok kredyt bank sa oddział w pile umorzenie pożyczki a darowizna kredyt bank kod banku warunki pożyczki na dowód pożyczki w bedford pożyczki na dowód lębork bocian pożyczki bytom kredyt obrotowy w idea bank opinie pozyczka miedzylllll kredyt bez bik bez zgody małżonka pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik lublin kredyt bank w gryficach pożyczki online bez prowizji kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2012 umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona zastawem skarabeusz pożyczki rzeszów lista firm pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt orange free wypowiedzenie ubezpieczenia pożyczki mariusz dudziński pożyczki pożyczki z najniższym oprocentowaniem kredyt mieszkaniowy w ing forum pożyczki wonga kredyt bank tychy pożyczki bez bik pożyczki bez bik i krd pozabankowe kredyt bez bik w skoku stefczyka kredyty bez bik oswiecim kredyt bez bik nowy tomyśl kredyt bank warszawa czynne w sobote kredyt mieszkaniowy w credit agricole opinie kredyt samochodowy mbank symulacja kredyt studencki pko procent pożyczki pod zastaw kwidzyn kredyt bank junior pożyczki pomiędzy podmiotami powiązanymi preferencyjne pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami a pcc atut pożyczki opinie kredyt bank w brzegu pożyczki ebroker kredyt gotówkowy w santander kalkulator pożyczki do 500 zł bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe bgż pożyczki pozabankowe na działalność gospodarczą konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy pcc pożyczki chwilówki jana pawła umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki księgowanie skarabeusz pożyczki kontakt kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 186 kredyt mieszkaniowy dla jednej osoby pożyczki na telefon opinie kredyt 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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad