prolongata pożyczki kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus opinie kredyt bank morcinka kredyt bank lidzbark warmiński umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a składki zus jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki gotówkowe comperia umowa pożyczki dla spółki jawnej wzór kredyt bank słubice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank inowrocław godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki skawina prywatne pożyczki w lublinie nowakka pożyczki kredyt bank w świeciu pożyczki pozabankowe we wrześni kredyt konsolidacyjny 30 lat kredyt bank białą podlaska kredyt chwilówka lodz niskoprocentowe pozyczki uk pozyczki na procent plock kredyt bank warszawa ursynów godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe kredyt bank vi oddział w warszawie pożyczki bez bik big pożyczki bez zaświadczeń na dowód kredyt konsolidacyjny firmowy pożyczki na dowód bank kredyt mieszkaniowy pko czas oczekiwania pozyczki bez bik wegrow pożyczki prywatne pod weksel śląsk kredyt bank sa praca pożyczka od ręki katowice kredyty gotówkowe bph kalkulator pożyczki dla małych firm chojnice pozyczki internetowe na dowod ostrow wlkp idea bank oprocentowanie kredytów kredyty bez bik krd kredyt bank mieszkanie kredyt konsolidacyjny w innym banku kredyt bank wypłaty bez prowizji umowa kredytu pożyczki kredyt chwilówki żywiec umowa pożyczki z ustanowieniem zastawu pożyczki darłowo kredyt mieszkaniowy w kb opinie pro domo pożyczki praca kredyt za 5 zł w orange przedłużenie umowy pożyczki a pcc kredyt bez bik do 50000 wzór na obliczenie pożyczki kredyty bez bik i krd katowice pożyczki bezpośrednie kredyt samochodowy dla firm kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki spis oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej alior bank wzór umowy pożyczki dla rodziny kredyt bank wroclaw plac solny szukam pożyczki prywatnej umowa kredytu bankowego a pożyczka udzielę pożyczki pod weksel warszawa kredyty chwilówki zabrze 3 maja pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kraków szybki kredyt w banku millennium pożyczki przez internet oszustwa kredyt w banku pbs kompensata pożyczki kredyt bank działdowo kredyty bez bik i krd tychy pożyczki chwilówki przez internet forum pożyczki sezam wieluń deutsche bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum kredyt bank swarzędz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lipowa 4 białystok bocian pożyczki lublin pożyczki na dowód w bydgoszczy kredyt bank filia pożyczki prywatne opodatkowanie kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pekao sa umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej z funduszu socjalnego pcc od pożyczki wspólnika spółki osobowej mikropożyczki dla małych firm kredyt 15tys bph wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat na dowód pożyczki bez zaświadczeń warszawa pożyczki od osób prywatnych łódzkie pozyczki z obsługą domową warszawa kredyty chwilówki puławska 71 kredyty bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt bank radom ul żeromskiego pożyczki bocian starogard gdański kredyty bez bik gdańsk getin bank kredyt samochodowy forum faktura za odsetki od pożyczki wzór kredyt bank warszawa mapa pożyczki chwilówki w warszawie pożyczki w banku pekao sa kredyt bankowy warunki pożyczki sl pożyczki internetowe opinie kredyt bank kurs chf kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator bph kredyt bank pl powstańców warszawy kredyt bank canada pożyczki prywatne wołomin kredyt bank sa lokaty tani kredyt samochodowy ranking kredyt konsolidacyjny w wbk pożyczki pod weksel warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki dla firm pko pożyczki koło pożyczki na chwilę pożyczki chwilówki sochaczew pożyczki bez bik kasiora kredyt bank wiceprezes kredyt bank konto osobiste 7 kredyt konsolidacyjny ang kredyt chwilówka międzyrzecz kredyt bank liczba klientów pożyczki domowe gdynia kredyt bank klienci indywidualni kredyt bank wejherowo telefon kredyt bank w chorzowie kredyt chwilówka na dowód warszawa pozyczks bez erif bik krd wrocław kredyt na mieszkanie jaki bank forum kredyt konsolidacyjny niskie oprocentowanie kredyt bank kradzież karty kredyt tarnobrzeg kredyt bank zadłużenie przeterminowane pożyczki prywatne sanok kredyt bank rabka usługa udzielenia pożyczki kredyty chwilówki czerwionka pożyczki akcess kredyt bank sa ii oddział w olsztynie kredyt bank gora kalwaria mennica pozyczki 2014 rok kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pocztowym kredyt bank niepodległości 54 kredyt bank bankomat bez prowizji pożyczki bez podatku podatek kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego w banku pocztowym kredyt pozabankowy cechy pożyczki wikipedia kredyt bank pruszków godziny otwarcia oprocentowanie kredytu w banku pekao sa wzór umowy pożyczki bankowej kredyty mieszkaniowe czy warto umowa pożyczki zfśs premium pozyczki opinie pożyczki sł margonem kredyty mieszkaniowe zmiany 2014 jak zaksięgować kredyt bankowy kredyt bank warszawa nowy świat pożyczki bez bik z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki dla bardzo zadłużonych udzielę pożyczki prywatnej poznań pożyczki prywatne w gorzowie wlkp pożyczki społecznościowe wrocław wzór umowy pożyczki od wspólnika pożyczki pozabankowe wołomin kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao karty debetowe w kredyt banku kredyt bank w olsztynku umowa pożyczki z obcokrajowcem natalia kowalczyk pożyczki eden pożyczki opinie kredyty bez bik brodnica pożyczki na wysoki procent pożyczki bez bik wałbrzych pożyczki na pit 11 kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bank zachodni szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa pozyczki niebankowe podobne do providenta w jakim banku najkorzystniej wziąć kredyt kredyt bank warszawa oddzialy pożyczki żory kredyt konsolidacyjny bank polski czas oczekiwania na kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyty chwilowki czestochowa kredyt samochodowy ranking listopad 2013 kredyt bank focha 4 bydgoszcz podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs w jakim banku pozyczka bik potrzebuję pilnej pożyczki dzisiaj ekspresowe pożyczki ełk szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówki a knf kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń szczecin pożyczki na firme bez bik pożyczki na weksel poznań kredyty chwilowki strzegomska kredyt bank łódź godziny otwarcia przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał zakładowy kredyt bez bik do 50000 czy kredyt konsolidacyjny jest kredytem konsumenckim kredyt bank wymiana kart pożyczki dla osób zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt studencki pko rezygnacja eurobank kredyt bez bik opinie dobrej pożyczki pożyczki od osób prywatnych białystok kredyt bank wałbrzych kredyt samochodowy dla policjantów kredyt bank warszawa marszałkowska kredyty chwilówki toruń opinie kredyt bank sieradz kontakt kredyt bez bik lubuskie pożyczki prywatne bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank bonifacego rezygnacja z karty kredytowej kredyt bank wzór kredyt bank płock kolegialna telefon kredyt chwilówki żywiec kredyty konsolidacyjne na 10 lat getin bank pożyczki na oświadczenie kraków kredyt studencki w pko bp forum pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard pożyczki od ręki pieniądzie ostrowiec św pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki w formie ustnej pożyczki chwilówka od ręki gdzie kredyt bez bik kredyt bez bik lublin kredyty gotówkowe bez bik bydgoszcz kredyt studencki pko jakie dokumenty pożyczki prywatne cała polska kredyt bank parkiet forum jak otrzymać kredyt bez bik szukam pożyczki pozabankowej w jakim banku brać kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki pozabankowe wejherowo kredyt mieszkaniowy ile wkładu własnego kredyt remontowy w banku pekao sa kredyty chwilówki w łodzi pożyczki nbp kredyt samochodowy w toyota bank opinie firmy udzielające pożyczki bez bik kredyty bez bik opolskie szybkie pożyczki białystok ubezpieczenie pożyczki od śmierci pożyczki bez udokumentowanych dochodów pożyczki chwilówki od 20 lat kredyt w banku czeskim kredyt banku kursy walut kredyt studencki bank bph kredyt konsumpcyjny eurobank pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka na podobe providenta pożyczki bez bik z komornikiem umowa pożyczki dla spolki alior bank kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt bank żeromskiego 77 godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik gorzow pożyczki prywatne wielkopolska kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy alior bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez big pożyczka do domu podkarpacie kredyt bank token zmiana telefonu pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyt bank na 120 miesiecy kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki prywatne żyrardów kredyty chwilówki wolbrom kredyt bank włocławek meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie wzór pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pozyczka bez zdolnosci kredytowej pozyczki bez bik krd kredyty gotówkowe w deutsche banku kredyt bank ostrołęka godziny otwarcia kredyt bez biku gliwice kredyty chwilówki gliwice matejki pożyczki doorfin pożyczki starogard gdański umowa o spłatę pożyczki przedawnienie pożyczki w providencie prywatne pożyczki pod weksel warszawa pożyczki chwilówki warszawa puławska wzór pokwitowania zwrotu pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bank 3 maja podatek od pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt na mieszkanie bez banku kredyt bez bik bgż kredyt bank wrocław sikorskiego umowa pożyczki konsensualna pożyczki dla absolwentów pożyczki bez bik gliwice pożyczki przez internet vivus termin przedawnienia zwrotu pożyczki kredyt bank wrocław plac solny umowa pożyczki pieniężnej z wekslem abis pożyczki dla każdego opinie gdzie najłatwiej uzyskać kredyt mieszkaniowy provident pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt gotówkowy chwilówki idea bank kredyt na firme opinie kredyt bank zabrze wolności alior bank kredyt na dowód kredyty bank santander pożyczki na lichwe kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp symulacja pozyczki z komornikiem sosnowiec kredyt bez bik w skok kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyty komornicy czy pcc od pożyczki jest kosztem uzyskania przychodu umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi podatek kredyty bez biku toruń eurocent pożyczki opinie pożyczki chwilówki warszawa jana pawła ustawowe odsetki od pożyczki prywatnej pekao sa kredyty studenckie wzór umowy pożyczki pienieżnej kredyt bank rakowicka godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe piekary slaskie ola uzyskała kredyt w banku w wysokości 2000 zł umowa pożyczki według kodeksu cywilnego pożyczki społecznościowe wiki pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku częstochowa pożyczki prywatne pożyczki chwilówki kalkulator kredyt bank kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt na dowód w domu klijeta w łodzi kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firmy w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank suwałki kontakt kredyt bank wrocław strzegomska godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw zielona góra kredyt samochodowy w getin banku opinie getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego kredyt pozabankowy kalisz pozyczki pozabankowe plock na dowod kredyt bank mieszkanie czym różni się kredyt bankowy od lokaty pożyczki kalkulator rat pożyczki pozabankowe świętokrzyskie zwrot pożyczki english kredyty gotówkowe bph kalkulator pozyczka 20000 bez bik i zabezpieczen kredyt konsolidacyjny marża kredyt bez bik iz komornikiem szybkie pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank w kraśniku gdzie najlepiej wziąć kredyt bez biku mikropożyczki 2013 kredyty mieszkaniowe bankier kredyt w ikano bank wycena otrzymanej pożyczki na dzień bilansowy pożyczki pod zastaw auta śląsk kredyt bank lokaty maj 2012 kredyt bez bik do 25 tys preferencyjny kredyt studencki forum umorzenie pożyczki a koszt podatkowy pożyczki chwilówki wałcz kredyt bez biku rybnik pożyczki bez bik września kredyt w deutsche bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kredyt pozabankowy bez zaświadczeń kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kielce pożyczki bez krd na dowód extra kasa pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw sprzętu rtv warszawa kredyt bank wyszogrodzka płock uczciwe pożyczki bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim opinie kredyty chwilówki librowszczyzna konwersja pożyczki na kapitał 2013 wonga pożyczka od reki pożyczki gotówkowe dla studentów kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadluzonych w bik kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat pożyczki novum kredyt na wyciag bankowy kredyt bez zaświadczeń bez bik kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki w euro koszt przelewu zagranicznego w kredyt banku kredyty chwilówki na firme kredyty bez bik pruszków santander kredyt samochodowy prowizja kredyt bank lokaty opinie pożyczki dla rolników pożyczki mielec pożyczki gwarantowane oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w eurobanku pozyczka bez bik dla zadluzonych opolskie kredyty mieszkaniowe symulacja pożyczki od prywatnych inwestorów na weksel kredyt ok chwilówka kredyty pozabankowe poznan kredyt bank lublin zana 39a kredyt bank konsolidacyjny kredyt mieszkaniowy sierpień 2012 pożyczki bez bik w brodnicy prywatne kredyty staszow kredyt mieszkaniowy a umowa na czas określony kredyt gotówkowy dla firm bez bik kredyt bank certyfikat w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt inwestycyjny kredyt bank tomaszów maz szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe lublin pożyczki oddłużające kredyty mieszkaniowe dla osob pracujacych w uk pozyczka na weksel wlasny na slasku pożyczki pozabankowe stalowa wola kredyt konsolidacyjny firmowy kredyty chwilowki z dojazdem do domu kredyt na samochód bez bik poznań kredyt bank koło pożyczki chwilowki warszawa przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny rata pożyczki na sam dowód myszków kredyty bez bik prywatne pożyczki prywatne tablica umorzenie pożyczki zmarłemu pracownikowi kredyt z banku hofman pożyczki kredyt bez biku siedlce kredyt bank sa oddział łódź pożyczki pozabankowe wągrowiec kredyt bank gdanska bydgoszcz postea pożyczki optima pożyczki lębork nowe pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe ślimak szczecin kredyt bank czechowice pcc od pożyczki kosztem pożyczki licytacja pożyczki bez zaświadczeń dla firm pożyczki dla doktorantów mikropożyczki przez internet pożyczki dla bankowców kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kredyt samochodowy dla emerytów kredyt bank borek wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny z ubezpieczeniem kredyty dla zadłużonych bez biku kredyt bank w zielonce godziny otwarcia kredyt bank koszalin kontakt kredyt bank w pruszczu gdańskim umowa pożyczki od spółki kredyt bez bik na samochód kredyt bank myślenice kontakt pożyczki bez bik ostrów mazowiecka kredyty pozabankowe w łodzi kredyt bank biała podlaska brzeska 21 pożyczki od ręki łódź kredyt w postbanku alior bank kredyt gotówkowy konsolidacyjny kredyty bez bik pabianice kredyt konsolidacyjny najtańszy kredyt bank bławatna gdynia kredyt bank rachunek depozytowy pożyczki pod zastaw puławy pożyczki pozabankowe białogard kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolność kredytowa kredyty pozabankowe gliwice pożyczki gotówkowe vivus pożyczki prywatne wieluń kredyt bank s a iv oddział w warszawie kredyty chwilowki walbrzych koszty pożyczki w provident kredyty chwilówki brzeg kredyt konsolidacyjny 30 lat mikropożyczki unijne pożyczki chwilówki na sam dowód kredyty chwilówki jakie oprocentowanie konwersja pożyczki na kapitał 2013 pożyczki chwilówki na konto pokwitowanie spłaty pożyczki bocian pożyczki czarnków bilans pożyczki udzielone oprocentowanie pożyczki pracowniczej umowa pożyczki podatek zwolnienie kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2006 udzielać pożyczki english umorzenie pożyczki pismo umowa pożyczki między najbliższymi pożyczki na dowód bank pocztowy kalkulator kredytowy jelenia góra banki kredyty bez bik siedlce koszty odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki unijne dla małych firm pożyczki na telefon bez bik lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 pożyczki dla zadłużonych koszalin godziny pracy kredyt banku w warszawie pożyczki książka spłata kredytu studenckiego w pko kredyt samochodowy idea bank opinie kredyt bank belgia wniosek o kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór kredyty gotówkowy bez biku kredyt bank oświęcim godziny otwarcia pożyczki społecznościowe na dowód kredyt bank mościckiego tarnów kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator wkład własny alior bank kredyt na auto pożyczki pod weksel gdańsk

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad