zawieszenie działalności a kredyt w banku kredyty pozabankowe bez bik poznań kredyt bank łączy się z wbk kredyt pozabankowy od reki kredyty santander kredyt od ręki bez bik i zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki pracownik wzór kredyty chwilówki fundacja potrzebuje pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt chwilówki nowy sącz jaki jest kod w orange na kredyt kredyt bank ikze kredyt konsolidacyjny charakterystyka kredyt bank potwierdzenie przelewu kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kraków banki kredyty gotówkowe ranking kredyt konsolidacyjny get in bank kredyty pozabankowe olsztyn najtańsze pożyczki online witam kredyt bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki bocian kredyt konsolidacyjny opłaca się czy w pozyczce bocian udzielaja kredytu na24 miesiace udziele pożyczki prywatnie wrocław pożyczki bez bik kutno umowa pożyczki urząd skarbowy kredyty mieszkaniowe irlandia kredyt bank godziny otwarcia koszalin pożyczki chwilówki chodzież kredyt bank zespół zajęć komorniczych kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt bank junior pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik big krd kredyty chwilówki kędzierzyn kredyt z banku w uk kredyt bank lokaty internetowe kredyt samochodowy w jakim banku kredyt bank lokata internetowa umowa pożyczki a urząd skarbowy kredyty i pożyczki prezentacja kredyt bank lokaty inwestycyjne umowa pożyczki zfron kredyt bank wbk szczecin kredyt samochodowy dla mundurowych kredyty bez bik kielce pożyczki gotówkowe marka umowa o zwrot pożyczki wzór pożyczki z ebi kredyt bank sa ciechanów optima pożyczki lublin oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego dla firm ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych marzec 2012 pożyczki lubin pożyczki bocian olsztyn kontakt kredyt bank raport roczny 2009 kredyt bank wisła przelew własny w kredyt banku jak otrzymac kredyt bez biku pożyczki prywatne ostrołęka alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt bank gdańsk ul chałubińskiego pożyczki pozabankowe piaseczno odsetki od pożyczki wht kredyt bank poznań kontakt kredyt studencki pko urlop dziekański szukam szybkiej pożyczki kredyt na mieszkanie kalkulator zdolności kredytowej kredyty pozabankowe siedlce kredyt bankowy statystyki pozyczki kronos pożyczki bez bik na zakup mieszkania umowa pożyczki właścicielskiej księgowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim opinie kredyty chwilowki swidnica kredyty chwilówki regulamin umowa pożyczki a zwolnienie z pcc gdzie najłatwiej o kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank lomza pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych bank wbk pozyczka indywidualna wymagane dokumenty lodz ing bank śląski kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt bank sa w koninie w którym banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty gotówkowe bez bik dla firm kredyt bank lomza dworna pożyczki bez bik działdowo umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej wzór pożyczki chwilówki nakło umorzenie pożyczki a kup oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp kredyty konsolidacyjne z bik kredyt bank pożyczka konsolidacyjna kredyt bank sa kod swift kredyt bez biku rybnik kredyt chwilówka staszów bocian pożyczki turek pożyczki będzin kredyt studencki pko dyplom udziele drobnej pozyczki zywiec kredyt od ręki rybnik kredyty chwilówki oprocentowanie lombard pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości umowa pożyczki od rodziców a pcc kredyt bank ekstrapremia kredyt wspólnota mieszkaniowa odpowiedzialność kredyt bank nasielsk kredyty chwilówki sieradz pożyczki bez bik na dłuższy okres kredyt bank adresy warszawa kredyt bank bez prowizji bankomaty kredyty mieszkaniowe ranking banków kredyt bez biku szczecinek bocian pożyczki nip restrukturyzacja przeterminowanego kredytu wbk pożyczki z małym oprocentowaniem firma optima pożyczki pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez konta bankowego od 18lat kredyt samochodowy bez bik kredyt bank fundusz nieruchomości ii pożyczki na sam dowód osobisty pożyczki chwilówki kutno warunki otrzymania pożyczki kredyty chwilówki tomaszów mazowiecki pożyczki gotówkowe dla rolników warszawa kredyt bank problem pożyczki na działalność bankowy kredyt samochodowy pożyczki inwestorskie umowa pożyczki między udziałowcem a spółką kredyt bank centrum obsługi biznesu kredyt bank millenium opinie kredyty pozabankowe wrocław cechy pożyczki wikipedia zwrot pożyczki pokwitowanie wzór kod na kredyt w sieci orange pożyczki bez zaświadczeń szczecin bocian pożyczki warszawa pozyczki poznan umowa zlecenie pozyczki pozabankowe atiz krotoszyn umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu prawo pożyczki chwilówki poznań kredyt w banku pocztowym dla funkcjonariuszy cesja pożyczki a pcc pożyczki gwarant opinie kredyty konsolidacyjne z opóźnieniami w bik kredyt bank brzesko kredyt dla mundurowych w banku pocztowym jakie banki daja kredyt w euro kredyty bez bik chwilówki szybkie pożyczki w 15 minut przez internet kredyty gotówkowe chwilówki umowa pożyczki zamiast darowizny umowa poręczenia pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe sochaczew kredyt bank pszczyna kontakt kredyty chwilówki jaki procent najtańsza pożyczka w płocku raty pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank mobilny kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw pko kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiany 2013 kredyt refinansowy eurobank pozyczki skarabeusz kredyt bank w olsztynku kredyt bank psie pole zwrot pożyczki proz pozyczki bez bik praga południe kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kredyt bank zastrzeżenie dokumentów kredyt na pit 11 w getin banku optima pożyczki zielona góra kredyt bank radom żeromskiego 41 pożyczki na dowód porównanie eurobank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bez bik w inowrocławiu lukas bank kredyt przez internet kredyt bank sa lublin żagiel praca pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki gotówkowe prominent pożyczki pod zastaw srem kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2012 umowa pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym wzór kredyt bank rozwiązanie umowy kredyt bank sa lublin pożyczki bez bik ratalne kredyt bank wyplata z bankomatu kredyt bank pszów godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe na zakup nieruchomości kredyt w banku co potrzebne kredyt bank w nowym targu pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez zdolności kredyt bank reklamy pożyczki prywatne holandia kredyty bez bik kraków prywatne pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania w bik umowa pożyczki z poręczeniem kredyty chwilowki piekary sl bank pko sa oprocentowanie kredytów pożyczki na dowód pozabankowe umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od osoby prywatnej wzór umowy pożyczki między członkami rodziny business consulting pożyczki szybki kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyty chwilówki impreza firmowa 2013 kredyt bank zagiel kredyt bank kiedy wychodzą przelewy pozyczki do domu bydgoszcz kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę komornika umorzenie pożyczki z zfss kredyt bank konto odsetki od pożyczki jako koszt uzyskania przychodu pożyczki bez bik pomorskie poręczenie pożyczki z urzędu pracy pożyczki wekslowe kredyt bez bik ogłoszenia udzielenie pożyczki członkowi zarządu bank spółdzielczy kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie umowa pożyczki walutowej kredyt na mieszkanie w uk forum udziele pożyczki prywatnie kredyt bez bik 2012 kredyt bank bogatynia telefon kredyt bankowy dokumenty kredyt gotowkowy bez big i krd kredyt bez bik dla bezrobotnych nazwa pożyczki udzielonej przez bank kredyt bank dąbrowskiego 129 kredyt konsolidacyjny reklama daily finance pożyczki kredyt bank rodzina na swoim 2012 pożyczki na nowy biznes kredyty mieszkaniowe porównanie ofert banków kredyt bank zaswiadczenia pożyczki głogowska marża banku kredyt w euro kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i krd pożyczki prywatne 30000 oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego pko kredyt bank ząbkowice śląskie kredyty chwilówki płock opinie ubezpieczenie pożyczki skok radom pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank rating alior bank kredyt dokumenty pożyczki pozabankowe dla malych firm pożyczki pod zastaw auta lublin odstąpienie od umowy pożyczki profi credit kredyt bez biku dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank w starogardzie gdańskim udzielę pożyczki prywatnej śląsk kredyt bank dział marketingu kredyt gotówkowy eurobank warunki pracy w kredyt banku pożyczki chwilówki ryzyko pożyczki bez bik przez telefon dobry kredyt pozabankowy forum kredyt bank sa nowy sącz pożyczki prometeusz bocian skarabeusz provident finan pożyczki orange jaki numer na kredyt kredyt bank wielkokacka umowa pożyczki przedawnia się kredyt bank marcinkowskiego oprocentowanie kredytu gotowkowego w santander bank kredyt bank myślibórz kredyt bank swidnica karta kredytowa splata pożyczki dla zadłuzonych kontakt kredyty pozabankowe rybnik kredyt oddłużeniowy w banku potrącenie pożyczki z zfśs z zasiłku chorobowego w ktorym banku dostane dlugoterminowa pozyczke kredyty chwilowki opole kredyt w idea bank forum unijne mikropożyczki dla firm ruszą bocian pożyczki nowa sól kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp oprocentowanie pożyczki chwilówki limanowa pozyczki w domu klienta bez bik pożyczki bocian polkowice standardowa umowa pożyczki pozyczka bez bik w getin banku kredyt konsolidacyjny długi okres kredytowania rola kredytu w działalności banku kredyty pod zastaw bez bik umowa pożyczki a weksel universum pożyczki kredyt bank mokotów limit pożyczki kredyty prawo bankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli rodzina na swoim kredyt bank sa kontakt kredyty bez biku bielsko biała kredyty bankowe ksiazki kredyt bank w jaworznie pożyczki bez bik praca pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank kredyt bank godziny otwarcia włocławek umowa pożyczki pienięznej kredyt bank warszawa conrada kredyt przez internet bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki gotówkowe od reki pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na raty szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd kredyt bank centrum warszawa kredyt bez bik gdzie można dostać pomóżcie kredyt bank wirtualna karta kredytowa pożyczki chwilówki kłodzko kredyt bank matejki szczecin kredyt bank tczew kontakt umorzenie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca kredyty chwilówki brzozów kredyt bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny opis kredyt bank bialystok ul radzyminska pozyczku raty tygodniowe kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior banku pożyczki dla firm kielce pożyczki długoterminowe wikipedia kredyt w santander bank opinie wniosek o kredyt bankowy wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 wartości 2013 pożyczki dla budżetówki pożyczki prywatne gdynia pożyczki pod zastaw domu pozyczki prywatne cywilno prawne na 30000 olesnica pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic visset pożyczki bez bik na dowód kredyt bank garbary 71 kredyt konsolidacyjny 150 tys kredyt za kredyt w getin banku kredyt bank ełk słowackiego profit pożyczki opinie kredyt bank godziny otwarcia rumia wzór umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem kredyt bank sieradz pod jaki numer kredyt do orange kredyt bank zabezpieczenie lokat kredyt w postbanku kod kredyt w orange pożyczki gotówkowe dla rolników warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy bez małżeństwa kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca kredyt bez zdolności 10000 kredyt na samochód bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank pyskowice uzasadnienie pożyczki na remont kredyty chwilówki tychy jana pawła ii kredyt bank piła adres kredyt bank w rawiczu potrzebuję pożyczki łódź pożyczki chwilówki chorzów kredyt bank włodawa telefon pożyczki od rodziny pcc optima pożyczki wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny bez wychodzenia z domu kredyt bank w krynicy kredyt bank wypłata bez prowizji pożyczki chwilówki nowy sącz kredyty chwilówki oferty kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta zarobki pożyczki pozabankowe na zakup samochodu kredyty bez biku opole kredyt bank koniec kredyt bez bik slupsk udzielone pożyczki długoterminowe w bilansie kredyt bank godziny kredyty dla rolników bez biku bank pocztowy pozyczka pod zastaw kredyt bank opis pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania poznań kredyt na dowód getin bank pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem online kredyt bank kod pocztowy pożyczki w profi credit forum pożyczki chwilówki porównanie pożyczki od 18 lat na dowód umowa pożyczki gotówki dla spółki kredyty pod zastaw auta bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniężnej dla spółki opodatkowanie umowy pożyczki 2012 szybkie pozyczki pieniezne w irlandii kredyty chwilówki logowanie pożyczki pod zastaw tychy koszty pożyczki kredyt bank chełmno godziny otwarcia kredyt gotowkowy bez big i krd kredyt bank zajęcia kredyty chwilówki świdnik pożyczki prywatne szczecin pożyczki prywatne pod weksel łódź pożyczki parp kredyt bank zana pożyczki bez biku w tomaszowie maz pożyczki kolno pożyczki wieloratalne bez bik kredyt bez bik tychy kredyt samochodowy dla ludzi w bik umowa pożyczki dla szpitala kredyt bank kontakt pro invest pożyczki kredyt bank sa centrala warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny chwilowki pożyczki bez bik bez sms udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez wkładu własnego pożyczki bez bik bełchatów kredyt bank lokata na 6 5 pożyczki w domu klienta zielona góra kredyt bank radosc kredyt bank obsługa kart kredytowych kredyty online bez bik kredyt bank karta kredytowa multima umorzenie pożyczki z zakładu pracy kredyt bank warszawa wlochy najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny na rynku pożyczki agricole kredyt bank bankowy fundusz gwarancyjny pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank warszawa ciołka profit pożyczki opinie pozyczki od prywatnych osob kredyt bank szczecin starzyńskiego godziny otwarcia najkozystniejszy kredyt gotowkowy dla policjanta pożyczki prywatne od osób prywatnych bocian pożyczki goleniów kredyty bez bik ostrów wielkopolski kredyt studencki zasady przyznawania 2012 kredyt bank leszno tel prywatne pozyczki lichwiarskie slask profil aktywny 50 kredyt bank kredyt bank włocławek promienna szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń w uk oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w banku pko bp kredyt bank promienna kredyt bez bik torun kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank kantor pożyczki pod zastaw piastów kredyt bankowy przeterminowany wzór umowy pożyczki pcc kredyt gotówkowy w banku spółdzielczym pozyczka bez oplat i krs kredyt bank chorzów godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wejherowo kredyty chwilówki piotrków tryb kredyt bank poznań żniwna godziny otwarcia pożyczki wieluń oferta kredytową firmy optima duże pożyczki kredyt bank myszków kredyt bez bik opole pekao sa kredyt wpis w big pożyczki od brata kredyt samochodowy bez bik wrocław szybko i bez umowy pożyczki skarabeusz pożyczki przemyśl pożyczki bez bik w skok kredyt konsolidacyjny dokumenty kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank polecacie pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem pożyczka chorzów kredyt bank kępno godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zabrze jak otrzymać kredyt bez bik kredyt bank korporacje kredyt w orange na numer pożyczki udzielone spółce przez udziałowca pożyczki na procent od osób prywatnych katowice pożyczki prywatne podkarpacie optima namysłów pozyczki kredyt w jakim banku najtaniej kredyt bank numer telefonu kredyt w banku zachodnim forum pożyczki bez bik oława pożyczki online dla bezrobotnych pożyczki na weksel toruń umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a podatek pożyczki kraków szlak pożyczki księgowanie otrzymanie pożyczki a vat bocian pożyczki online pożyczki pod zastaw krosno kredyt bez bik pila kredyt na swieta bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator 2014 pożyczki z komornikiem ruda śląska kredyt bank wrocław chrobrego kredyty pozabankowe bez bik forum kredyty chwilówki lublin kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt mieszkaniowy banki najkorzystniejszy kredyt w banku kredyt samochodowy alior bank kalkulator kredyt bank borek wlkp pozyczki osoby prywatne bydgoszcz alior bank kredyt bez bik kredyt bank gdańsk król pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe walutowe pozyczki dla kazdego 48

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, November 27, 2014

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad