kredyt bez bik bank kredyty chwilówki wszystkie aig pożyczki gotówkowe banki kredyt bez bik kredyt bank grójecka pozyczki bez bik erif krd opłata za przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku pożyczki chwilówki buk kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bph pożyczki dla zadłużonych rolników renata pikuła pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny odstąpienie od umowy kredyt bez bik włocławek kredyt konsolidacyjny bez prowizji pożyczki bez biku kraków pożyczki chwilówki współpraca credit agricole pożyczki kalkulator umowa pożyczki bez odsetek w rodzinie kredyt samochodowy dla 20 latka kredyt bez biku online bocian pożyczki toruń kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk bank zachodni kredyty płock bez bik kredyt bank łowicz telefon pożyczki natychmiast pożyczki 10000 pożyczki bez bik nowogard pożyczki tarnów pożyczki bez bik i krd lublin kredyty chwilówki gniezno pozyczki chwilowki jaslo siedziby w jakim banku kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pożyczki chwilówki lubań pożyczki pozabankowe w płocku lokata kredyt banku 6 5 kredyt bank godziny otwarcia koszalin kredyt bank busko zdrój godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lokaty 2011 kredyty chwilówki przez internet bez bik pożyczki bez bik wejherowo pożyczki na firme bez bik kredyt chwilówka lodz pszczółka pożyczki opinie kredyt bank pl kursy walut premium pozyczki opinie przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał zakładowy kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem pożyczki bez bik ostrów wlkp pożyczki bankier pożyczki gotówkowe 24h pożyczki jeremie łódzkie pożyczki bez bik gliwice bocian pożyczki piotrków trybunalski pożyczki bez bik raty w jakim banku dostane kredyt na dowod kredyt bank warszawa kondratowicza godziny otwarcia podatek od umowy pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami poszukuję pożyczki najniżej oprocentowane pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki jasło kredyt w pekao sa opinie umowa pożyczki essentialia negotii pożyczki bez krd kredyt konsolidacyjny 2014 ranking kredyt konsolidacyjny najtańszy pożyczki akcent szybkie pozyczki nysa bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank główny ekonomista eures pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniężnej doc pożyczki remontowe kredyt studencki bankier umorzenie pożyczki z zfron jak zaksięgować pożyczki online bez bik i krd i przelewania grosza jak zwiększyć kredyt odnawialny pekao pożyczki prywatne na podkarpaciu pożyczki wewnętrzne w jakim banku wziąć najlepiej kredyt pożyczki online na dowód bez bik pożyczki finan kredyt studencki pko żyranci kredyt chwilówka sierpc tczew pożyczka z bankomatu prywatne pozyczki w koszalinie kredyty w banku pocztowym forum pożyczki bez bik chorzów pożyczki pozabankowe z bikiem pożyczki w ostrołęce kredyt bank krasnystaw godziny pracy umowa pożyczki wg kodeksu cywilnego pożyczki pozabankowe gryfice kredyt w banku bez sprawdzania bik kredyt bank jastrowie godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe bytom kredyty chwilówki ranking kredyt bank hrubieszów godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki 2013 kredyty chwilówki miechów kredyt bank warszawa godziny otwarcia w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na budowe domu kredyt bank wejherowo kontakt pożyczki umowa co lubuskie kredyt bank władze kredyt konsolidacyjny open finance kredyt bank nowy targ kontakt udziele pożyczki prywatnej forum ewidencja kredytów w banku komercyjnym kredyt bankowy dla małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych z komornikiem udzielę pożyczki prywatnej szczecin pozyczki gotuwkoiwe prywatne firmy potrącanie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia odsetki od pożyczki kiedy przychód kredyt bank bialystok ul warszawska pożyczki prywatne całą polska formulaz pożyczki na mieszkania kredyt bank żniwna poznań godziny otwarcia kredyt bank grochowska kredyty konsolidacyjne 2013 bocian pożyczki śrem szybkie pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych szybkie pożyczki bez bik forum ile kosztuje przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku pożyczka pawinski krzysztof warszawa departament windykacji mala pozyczka pozabankowe pożyczki pod zastaw auta kredyty pozabankowe bez bik z komornikiem kredyt w nordea bank deklaracja wekslowa do pożyczki kredyt bank lodz zgierska kredyt bank prowadzenie konta kredyt samochodowy otomoto forum pożyczki bez bik i krd w domu oświadczenie o zwrot pożyczki kredyty chwilowki klobuck opodatkowanie umów pożyczki alior bank kredyt bez bik oprocentowanie pożyczki wibor 3m pożyczki w domu klienta zielona góra pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank poznań krauthofera kredyty bez bik erif krd kredyty prywatne pod weksel kredyt pozabankowy bez bik forum pozyczki pod zastaw leszno kredyty chwilówki starogard gdański pożyczki bez dochodu na dowód pożyczki start up kredyt na dowód w alior banku pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik bydgoszcz pożyczki udzielane w domu kredyty chwilówki ranking pożyczki piekary poznań bocian pożyczki pomorskie gdzie w rybniku dostane kredyt bez biku pożyczki chwilówki świebodzin kredyt bank placowki w gdansku kredyt dla firmy bez bik kredyt samochodowy bez sprawdzania w biku kredyt bank bankomaty za granicą kredyty bankowe wady i zalety kredyt bank warszawa marki banki ktore udzielaja kredytu przez internet wartość godziwa pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe bartoszyce pożyczka bez bik udzielam pozyczek do reki kontakt slask pozyczka dla firm bez oprocentowania dotacje białystok eurocash pożyczki poznań wykop pożyczki kredyty chwilowki janosik kredyt na dowod od reki pożyczki pod zastaw telefonów warszawa kredyt prywatny zagraniczny akcje spółki kredyt bank sa w warszawie praca w bocian pożyczki forum kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank oprocentowanie alior bank kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego pożyczki bez biku na telefon pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu lubuskie kredyt bank w zabrzu kredyty w uk dla polakow pożyczki dla udziałowców kredyt banki mikołów kredyty konsolidacyjny z komornikiem bank pko kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyty bez bik ostroleka w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki bez bik i krd szczecin opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki od osoby fizycznej pożyczki dla osób zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyty samochodowe dla firm bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny zadłużonych w zusie i w bankach pożyczki pozabankowe legnica kredyt bank wlodawa pozyczki od reki na dowod bez zadnych oswiadczes kielce kredyt konsolidacyjny najmniejsze oprocentowanie kredyt bank mafia kredyt bez bik na 10 lat pożyczki bez bik do 20000 pożyczki w domu klienta nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny w żaglu kredyt bank platforma walutowa pożyczki prywatne tarnowskie góry maksymalne oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki bez bik 4000 kredyt bank w zamościu pożyczki na dowód częstochowa pozyczka na procent opole kredyty i pożyczki prezentacja kredyt samochodowy na firme forum pożyczki wewnątrzkorporacyjne pożyczki optima praca pożyczki pozabankowe kościan deutsche bank kredyt bez zatrudnienia kredyt bez bik samochodowy pro domo toruń pożyczki kredyt w pekao sa opinie kredyty bez bik lubin pożyczki kredyt dla zadłużonych pko bp sa kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń 2012 umowa pożyczki niedozwolone klauzule kredyt bank lista haseł jednorazowych koszt pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt konsolidacyjny kielce pożyczki bez bik 4000 bank pekao sa kredyt dla firm kredyt bank w bochni kredyty w millenium bank wniosek o przyznanie pożyczki z zakładu pracy kredyt bank zambrów umowa pożyczki provident pdf kredyt bank przejęcie pożyczki porównanie kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus opinie kredyt samochodowy bez bik kalkulator kredyt bez bik i krd z komornikiem szybkie pożyczki cieszyn kredyt gotówkowy w nordea bank kredyt samochodowy bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki lendon opinie pożyczki bocian online kredyt w wbk forum pożyczki pozabankowe żywiec kredyt bank łódź ketlinga umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w ratach kredyty chwilówki pracuj pl kredyt bank sa wikipedia niezgłoszenie pożyczki od rodziców pożyczki na dowód pozabankowe pro domo pożyczki gdańsk alior bank kredyt konsolidacja czy mozna wziasc kredyt na dowod w uk udzielę pożyczki na procent 2013 pożyczki ursynów kalkulator pożyczki pocztowy pożyczki na firmę kredyt konsolidacyjny w londynie pożyczki chwilówki wrocław kołłątaja pożyczki pozabankowe dla bezrobotnych kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator porównanie kredyt studencki pko wniosek kredyt pod zastaw bez bik pożyczki optima kontakt kalkulacja pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki gostyń kredyt bankowy w rachunku bieżącym bank pożyczki na dowód umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs finan pożyczki kredyt bank wpłaty gotówkowe pożyczki z ubezpieczeniem kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kopernik kredyt getin bank na pit kredyt bank myślenice kontakt kredyty i pozyczki bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny w sygma banku pożyczki na mały procent deutsche bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum kredyt w getin noble bank kredyt bank program praktyk wakacyjnych prywatne pozyczki do domu w ten sam dzien chodziez pan kowalski otrzymał kredyt w banku pożyczki bez dochodów forum kredyt bank lista darmowych bankomatów preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko regulamin szybkie pożyczki pleszew pożyczki prywatne ostrowiec kredyt bez biku łódź pożyczki na inwestycje pożyczki prywatne sprawdzone kredyt bank wpłatomat warszawa pożyczki ekspresowe bez bik pożyczki bez bik krd erif komornik pożyczki społecznościowe cesja pożyczki księgowanie kredyt studencki wbk 2014 kredyty pozabankowe pomorskie kredyty pozabankowe i rozne zrudla dochodow mazowieckie kredyt bank jana pawła 12 kredyt bez bik kraków kredyt bez bik bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki radom kredyty daiglob pożyczki pożyczki na dowód bocian kredyt bank godziny otwarcia łomża kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bgz kredyty pozabankowe ing bank pozyczki na zalozenie firmy eurolan pozyczki kredyt w orange na jaki nr kredyty chwilówki lubin kredyt bank warszawa kosiarzy kredyty bez bik wroclaw kredyty bez biku grudziadz pożyczki od osób prywatnych 2012 pożyczki społecznościowe porównanie kredyt bank rezygnacja z konta kredyt bank konsolidacyjny kredyt bank karta kredytowa mastercard world kredyt bank rachunek bankowy kredyt samochodowy boś bank kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kalkulator pożyczki chodzież umowa pożyczki udzielona spółce przez wspólnika pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych kredyt mieszkaniowy na singla kredyt samochodowy w credit agricole wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank śledziewski kredyt bank tygrysy europy kredyt mieszkaniowy ltv kredyt bank w iławie parabanki pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank kredyt w orange pod jaki nr optima pożyczki śląsk kredyt bank w debicy kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator mbank pożyczki gotówkowe koszalin kredyty gotówkowe bez bik bydgoszcz kredyt bank spółdzielczy kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe krosno kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób samotnych pomocne pożyczki kredyt bank lodz godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy mbank regulamin umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi prawo pożyczki radom kredyty najtańsze pożyczki online pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz na dowód bocian pożyczki wieluń kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole opinie restrukturyzację pożyczki pożyczki na pit bez bik kredyty bankowe msp kredyt bank krucza godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne w toruniu uni cash pożyczki kredyt bocian pożyczki od osób prywatnych łódź kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny wady i zalety pożyczki świdnica pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą pozyczki bez zaswiadczen w uk kredyt bank czarne złoto pożyczka chwilówka bez potwierdzania konta kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108a alior bank kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku szybkie pożyczki ostrołęka pożyczki gotówkowe w banku pocztowym kredyt bankowy a pożyczka bankowa abis pożyczki kontakt kalkulator pożyczki pko bp prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa pożyczki w średniowieczu umowy pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu eu2 pożyczki czy idea bank daje kredyt pod zastaw kredyt bank pko bp kalkulator kredyt bank gdańsk suchanino godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki częstochowa umowy pożyczki pieniędzy druk pożyczki ostrzeszów kredyt gotówkowy przez internet bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny bank zachodni wbk księgowanie pożyczki podporządkowanej kredyt bank krosno bankomaty kredyt bank jaslo kredyty chwilówki bez bik getin noble bank centrum kredytów samochodowych kredyt bank opinia pożyczki optima kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy bez bik forum pożyczki chwilówki chełm kredyt bez bik rybnik kredyt samochodowy getin bank infolinia kredyt bez zaświadczeń i bik warszawa pożyczki online bez bik i big deutsche bank kredyt opinie 2013 kredyt studencki pko niezaliczony semestr bocian pożyczki legnica umorzenie pożyczki byłemu pracownikowi pożyczki bez bik i krd opinie kredyt bank wcześniejsza spłata kredytu gotówkowego kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania wrocław umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego zus kredyt bank w nowym sączu pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń bik kredyt bank wloclawek godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę karty kredytowej pożyczki społecznościowe bez bik i krd kredyt w uk dla polakow kredyt konsolidacyjny 5 tys kredyt bank w białobrzegach kredyt bank łomża praca kredyt w orange na karte 2 zł zabezpieczenie pożyczki ang ankieta bezpieczeństwa osobowego pożyczki kredyt chwilówka getin bank obligacja 6 pożyczki narodowej kredyty chwilówki feniks kredyt chwilowka pruszcz gdanski pożyczki udzielone przez jst kredyt w wbk kalkulator umowa pożyczki in blanco pożyczki bez bik tczew pozyczki u klienta w domu dolny śląsk kredyt idea bank ze wsparciem unijnym pożyczki pod zastaw przemyśl kredyt mieszkaniowy nadpłacanie udzielenie pożyczki akcjonariuszowi kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rolnika opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki osoby fizycznej kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator getin bank umowa pożyczki z wekslem profi credit warunki otrzymania pożyczki pożyczki świnoujście kredyt banku sa kredyt mieszkaniowy dla bezrobotnych kredyt studencki pko termin składania wniosków pożyczki tylko na dowód kredyt w millenium banku opinie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z wekslem ankieta pożyczki alior bank kredyt kalkulator pożyczki prywatne zabrze podatek od pożyczki czynny żal kredyt na mieszkanie w banku pko bp pożyczki dla firm jeremie jak udzielić pożyczki pracownikowi umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi wzór pożyczki bocian bez bik pożyczki dla zadłużonych pod zastaw kredyty w domu klijenta jarosław kredyt na prawo jazdy kod kredytowy orange kredyt samochodowy w fiat bank gdzie najlatwiej o pozyczke pod zastaw domu wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt bez bik krd big pozyczki prywatne bez zaswiadczen bez bik i krd tczew pożyczki dla małych firm na start pożyczki społecznościowe online pożyczki ostrzeszów karty płatnicze w kredyt banku kredyt w rachunku bieżącym getin bank kredyty bez bik w rzeszowie kredyt bank łomża praca pożyczki na dowód bez bik i krd kredyt bank call center forum szybki kredyt w banku millennium wzór umowy pożyczki z członkiem zarządu umowa pożyczki art 777 pożyczki parp kredyt w aib bank kredyt bank sa regon nip kredyt bez bik dla firm gdzie mogę dostać kredyt bez bik kredyt na dowód bez bik i zaświadczeń duze pozyczki pod weksel praktyka w kredyt banku pożyczki hajnówka pożyczki w domu klienta radom kredyt bank w strzelcach opolskich getin bank kredyt kontakt pożyczki ranking banków potrącenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki pod zastaw forum kredyty online bez bik umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami prywatnymi potwierdzenie salda pożyczki pożyczki bez bik krd wrocław mennica pożyczki opinie kredyt chwilówki windykacja

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad