pcc od pożyczki udzielonej spółce przez udziałowca kredyt bez bik złotów pożyczki prywatne stargard szczeciński udzielać pożyczki proz pożyczki od osób prywatnych leszno umowa pożyczki w języku angielskim pożyczki od osób prywatnych kredyt bank wirtualny doradca pożyczki bez bik tychy kredyt bank kołobrzeska kredyt mieszkaniowy w uk forum pożyczki chwilówki nowy targ kredyt bank rachunki bankowe pożyczki pozabankowe gostyń mikropożyczki dla firm 2013 szybkie pożyczki bochnia kredyty bez bik oferty pożyczki bydgoszcz pożyczki bez dochodu udzielenie pożyczki udziałowcowi a pcc pożyczki bolesławiec optima pożyczki piła pożyczki bez biku online kredyt w banku szwajcarskim kredyt bank warszawa otwarty w sobotę umowa pożyczki kara umowna kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking 2012 kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa 8 c pozyczki pozabankowe garbary kredyt konsolidacyjny bez badania zdolności kredyty banki spółdzielcze kredyt bank piaseczno tel pożyczki bez bik suwałki biedronka pożyczki dla pracowników alior bank kredyt przez telefon pożyczki dla bezrobotnych pila pożyczki chwilówki bez bik warszawa kredyt bankowy forum kredyt bank nowa lista haseł pożyczki bez weryfikacji kredyt bank wspólnoty mieszkaniowe kredyt bank pożyczka konsolidacyjna lloyds kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczka całkowicie przez internet kredyt bank marki godz otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe we wrocławiu kredyt bank s a kontakt umowa pożyczki bez oprocentowania kredyt bankowy prezentacja cesja umowy pożyczki wzór najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking deutsche bank kursy walut kredyt kredyt bank w kluczborku umorzenie pożyczki wfośigw kredyt bank osiedle kazimierzowskie kredyt bank w strzelcach opolskich kredyt konsolidacyjny koszty pożyczki prywatne opinie getin noble bank kredyt gotówkowy max pożyczki w bankach bez bik kredyt bank myślenice kontakt windykacja pożyczki wzory dokumentów pożyczki kredyty chwilówki warszawa opinie kredyt studencki bank wbk bank pekao sa kredyty studenckie providus ostrow pozyczki kredyt w banku pocztowym dla pracowników kredyt mieszkaniowy we frankach kalkulator umowa pożyczki po angielsku wzór kredyt bank kraków ul królewska 55 kredyt oddłużeniowy w banku optima pożyczki kołobrzeg potrącenia pożyczki mieszkaniowej w którym banku najtańszy kredyt kredyt bank rakowicka kraków kredyt bank legionowo kontakt pożyczki chwilówki przez internet od 18 lat podatek pcc od pożyczki udziałowca umowa pożyczki od udziałowca wzór umowa pożyczki podpisana za granicą pozyczki walcz bez bik pożyczki creditpol kredyty chwilówki pod jaki numer się bierze kredyt orange kalkulator pożyczki gofin kredyt bank 15 oddział gdańsk kredyt bank wikipedia kredyt bank oddział łomianki kredyty chwilowki lask kredyt chwilówka 0 pożyczki gotówkowe na 30 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny dla każdego pożyczki chwilówki dzierżoniów kredyt bankowy wikipedia pożyczki na dowód mińsk mazowiecki umowa pożyczki odstąpienie kredyt bank grójecka 186 godziny otwarcia kredyt bank warszawa chełmska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wałbrzych godziny otwarcia gdzie kredyt bez bik warszawa pożyczki dla młodych małżeństw kredyt konsolidacyjny w getin banku jakie sa pozyczki w domu na oswiadczenie pozyczki internetowe kredyt bank lublin centrala pożyczki gotówkowe chwilówka pożyczki puławy kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rolnika dwa kredyty w jednym banku pilne pożyczki bez bik udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę wspólnikowi kredyty bez bik zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a osobą fizyczną kredyt konsolidacyjny na karty kredytowe kredyt samochodowy ranking czerwiec 2012 do jakiego odzialu nalezy kwidzyn w prodomo pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy ile wkładu własnego pro domo pożyczki opinie parabank kredyt bocian pożyczki provident kredyt w banku aib kredyt bank rachunek bankowy kredyt bank adresy w warszawie pożyczki bez udokumentowanych dochodów pożyczki prywatne ostrołęka pożyczki prywatne piaseczno import usług pożyczki pożyczki preferencyjne wikipedia dziedziczenie pożyczki pożyczki multibank kredyt bank 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dochodowy pożyczki bez banku bez bik i krd pożyczki dla uczących się luban sl prywatna pozyczka kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego getin bank dcf pożyczki pozyczki z obsluga w domu lask prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa wczesniejsza spłata kredyt na dowód bez bik kielce bocian pożyczki z komornikiem czy latwo o kredyt w skok kopernik jaki jest kod do kredytu w orange umowa pożyczki bez weksla spółka udziela pożyczki prezesowi kredyt bank zaświadczenie o zarobkach pdf pożyczki pod zastaw bielawa pożyczki bez bik bik i krd pożyczki gotówkowe dla nowych firm pożyczki kamienna góra kredyt bank maestro w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy forum pożyczki gotówkowe przez sms maksymalny okres pożyczki kredyty chwilówki wrocław bez bik kredyty chwilówki mysłowice grunwaldzka pożyczki prywatne w czestochowie kredyt bank transfery kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej getin bank kredyty chwilówki chorzów pożyczki kalisz umowa pożyczki u notariusza kredyt bez bik gliwice kredyty chwilówki przemyśl kredyty pozabankowe bez biku sosnowiec kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób zadłużonych pożyczki pozabankowe lublin pożyczki chwilówki stargard szczeciński kredyt bank zgłoszenie zagubienia karty kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców łódzkie kredyt mieszkaniowy w ing forum przeksięgowanie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kredyt samochodowy w toyota bank opinie pożyczki chwilówki inwestowanie szybkie pożyczki gdansk kto udzieli kredytu bez bik kredyt w banku żubr pożyczki żagiel kredyt w postbanku kredyt mieszkaniowy bez małżeństwa kredyt bank przelicznik rat kredyty chwilówki zwolnienia gdzie można otrzymać kredyt bez bik pozyczki bez bik i krd dekretacja pożyczki od udziałowca wniosek o kredyt w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki w 15 minut kredyty bez bik jaworzno kredyt bank kasprowicza kredyty bez bik elblag kredyt na mieszkanie w banku pocztowym pożyczki prywatne częstochowa kredyty mieszkaniowe 2013 ranking pozyczki w domu klijenta jarocin kredyt konsolidacyjny w jst kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najłatwiej kredyty chwilówki jak założyć kredyt w banku bez bik pożyczki dziesiątka bocian pożyczki piła pożyczki na dowód nowy sacz pewne pożyczki prywatne wzór umowy pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank biała podlaska rywal gdzie dostane kredyt bez sprawdzania w biku kredyt bank rekrutacja kredyt bank gostynin konin pozyczka bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny oferty banków kredyty studenckie jakie banki kredyty chwilówki praca windykacja kredyt bank grojecka 186 kredyt bank gdynia witomino kredyt bank krasnystaw godziny pracy pożyczki prywatne jaki procent sprawdzone pożyczki prywatne warszawa pożyczki bez biku zielona góra cz bank pocztowy daje kredyty mdm pożyczki bez bik kutno banki udzielajace kredyty bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator wbk www wbkpożyczki srem kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit 2013 meritum bank kredyt opinie pożyczki chwilówki gotówkowe pozyczka pozabankowa 20000 kredyt bank kutno kredyty bankowe gdzie w bilansie kredyt bank fundacja nowakka pożyczki online pożyczki do domu puławy interpretacje podatkowe pożyczki kod na kredyt w orange pop kredyt studencki w banku pekao sa pożyczki bez bik sms teorie pożyczki publicznej getin bank kredyt samochodowy na oświadczenie otrzymanie pożyczki a vat gdzie szukac kredytu bez bik akcje spółki kredyt bank sa kredyt studencki pko bp warunki bcs gwarant pożyczki pożyczki dla uczących się kredyty chwilówki częstochowa mikropożyczki opole kredyt konsolidacyjny w nordea pożyczki bez bik wawa pożyczki dla radców prawnych kredyty chwilówki toruń kredyt bank moje konto pożyczki prywatne w luton bip pożyczki opinie umowa pożyczki między małżonkami wzór pożyczki w banku bez bik kredyt bank godziny otwarcia leszno jak księgować pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank wrocław godziny otwarcia gliniana kredyt bank pożyczka kalkulator pożyczka przez internet pozabankowa bełchatów kredyt bank warszawa lokaty pozyczki poznan gros capital,tempo pożyczki prywatne bez bik kraków kredyty chwilówki zabrze kredyt walutowy deutsche bank kredyt stargard szczecinski kredyty w idea bank kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli bez wkładu kredyt bank warszawa tel umowa pożyczki ustna universum pożyczki pożyczki przez internet 30000 kredyt bank warszawa al ken pożyczki chwilówki skok wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości legnica kredyty bez baz szybkie mikropożyczki bocian pożyczki gniezno kredyty bez bik na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bez biku krakow fundacja kredyt banku kontakt kredyt bank starachowice kontakt pozyczki od prywatnych osob kredyt konsolidacyjny na umowe zlecenie umowa pożyczki oprocentowanej pozyczki prywatne w bialymstoku kredyty bez bik w plocku kredyt bank forum 2012 pożyczki chwilówki białystok kredyt bez bik na dowód ewidencja pożyczki w walucie obcej kredyty chwilówki dla kogo pożyczki oddłużeniowe na dowud kredyty chwilówki białystok praca kredyt gotówkowy w meritum bank pożyczki chwilówki bartoszyce kredyty chwilówki wymagania udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę komandytową kredyty chwilówki praca katowice kredyt bez bik raty miesięczne dłużnik nie oddaje pożyczki kredyty od 18lat na dowod olsztyn kredyty bez bik erif krd kalkulator wierzytelności kredytu kredyt bank zaswiadczenia formularz umowy pożyczki pożyczki osobiste kredyt konsolidacyjny zielona góra kredyt w rozumieniu prawa bankowego pożyczki bez bik przeworsk pożyczki pozabankowe na rok getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczeń 458 punktów bik kredyt w eurobank pożyczki długoterminowe przez internet pożyczki atiz kredyt bank okulickiego szczecin pożyczki od osób prywatnych oferty kredyt konsolidacyjny co to jest poszukuję pożyczki pożyczki bez bik działdowo umowa pożyczki zwolniona z pcc kredyt bank w krynicy zdroju kredyt pozabankowy lublin pozyczki pozabankowe kartuzy kredyt bank filie kredyt bank bialystok sklodowskiej lokata junior w kredyt banku kredyty chwilówki bolesławiec szybkie pożyczki elbląg pożyczki gotówkowe vivus dcf pożyczki kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta opinie ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt telefo szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe pozabankowe kredyt bez biku 25000 pozyczki bez zaswiadczen bielsk podlaski kraków pożyczki na dowód szybkie pożyczki bez bik opole pożyczki kraków kredyt bank ruda śląska godziny otwarcia kredyt ratalny pozabankowy umowa pożyczki pisemna kredyt bank łódź ul ketlinga godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki w walucie niespłacane kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bank wrocław kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe piaseczno kredyt bank opole krakowska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank piła plac konstytucji windykacja pożyczki prywatnej optima pożyczki ciechanów pożyczki radziejów patryk raczkowski pożyczki kredyt bez bik dla firm forum pożyczki pozabankowe płock umowa pożyczki brak spłaty pożyczki bez biku tarnów kredyt konsolidacyjny plock kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator banków pożyczka prywatna 15000 bez weryfikacji warszawa kredyty i gwarancje bankowe pdf kredyt konsolidacyjny i dodatkowa gotówka kredyt bankowy przedawnienie bank ing czynny udzielanie kredytu kredyty 24 h umowa pożyczki dla spółki od wspólnika wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku spółdzielczym opinie pożyczki pozabankowe bielsk podlaski kredyt bank w wieliczce pozyczki typu skarabeusz czestochowa kredyt bank oddziały w białymstoku mg finance pożyczki kredyt w banku bps kredyt konsolidacyjny wniosek online kredyt pozabankowy przez internet pożyczki dla firm bielsko kredyty dla zadluzonych w biku poznan kredyt bank w dabrowie tarnowskiej kredyt w banku agricole kredyt bank raport roczny 2010 pożyczki bez bik i krd i big chwilówki kredyty gotówkowe w którym banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki pruszcz gdański potwierdzenie zawarcia umowy pożyczki kredyt bank żywiec godziny otwarcia pożyczki w provident w ktorym banku brac kredyt kredyty bank pko bp dpg pożyczki umowa zwrotu pożyczki wzór pożyczki bezzwrotne dla mikrofirm szybkie pożyczki katowice kredyt studencki w wbk kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pożyczki bez bik dąbrowa górnicza bank pko kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bank augustów kontakt kredyt bank wrocław gliniana pożyczki ekspresowe pożyczki od ludzi kredyt bank abrahama orange jaki jest kod na kredyt pożyczki alwernia kredyty pozabankowe ranking kredyty chwilówki oszuści kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank przelew zagraniczny do kredyt banku kredyt bank kod aktywacyjny kredyt mieszkaniowy deutsche bank forum kierowca kredyty chwilówki opinie kredyty chwilówki tychy tel kredyt konsolidacyjny dla dłużników pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych kredyt bez bik zywiec kredyty konsolidacyjne na 10 lat pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu katowice leszno pożyczki bez bik pożyczki bez bik wrocław forum pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet bez bik kredyt bank warszawa plac zbawiciela kredyt bank rydla szczecin bydgoszcz pozyczki do domu na alimenty kredyt bank darłowo przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank druk oprocentowanie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca pozyczki bez bik i krd w domu klienta ruda slaska jak wziasc kredyt w orange na 5 zl pożyczki od 18 lat kredyt pozabankowe online kredyty chwilówki ostrów wlkp umowa pożyczki zfśs pożyczki prywatne żory małe pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank psie pole odsetki od pożyczki kosztem pożyczki pod zastaw głogów pożyczki gotówkowe bez wychodzenia z domu pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach wroclaw pozyczki na oswiadczenie ichwilowki kredyty chwilówki warszawa pożyczki bez bik ratalne kredyt bank warszawa plac zbawiciela sprzedaż wierzytelności pożyczki kredyt bank kalwaryjska godziny otwarcia pożyczka w domu bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik łódź pożyczki od udziałowców księgowanie kredyt bank czestochowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wolomin godziny otwarcia wzór umowy pożyczki koleżeńskiej kredyt bez bik do 10000 zł pożyczki bez banku bez bik i krd kredyt mieszkaniowy pracujac za granica jakie banki w stargardzie udzielaja kredyty umowa pożyczki bocian pożyczki umk szybkie pożyczki kłodzko kredyt w banku hsbc odsetki od pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach przez internet kredyt bank olawa godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik tychy kredyt studencki pko warunki spłaty kredyt bank sprzedaż 2012

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad