kredyty bez bik długoterminowe pożyczki bocian gorzów wlkp godziny przelewow w kredyt banku kredyt bez bik 3 tyś kredyt w banku eurobank pożyczki lukas udzielenie pożyczki innej firmie kredyty chwilówki na dowód pożyczki na jaki procent kredyt studencki pko informacja pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet odsetki pożyczki czy trudno dostać kredyt w getin banku umowa pożyczki ratalnej wzór kredyt bank ul mickiewicza białystok optima pożyczki jelenia góra kredyt w pko bank polski kredyt bank rakowicka kraków kredyt studencki pko bp wymagane dokumenty pozyczki bez umowy o prace kredyt bank nowa huta kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking pożyczki a podatek pcc kredyt bez bik kontakt pożyczki bez bik banki kredyt na dowód w jakim banku kredyt w banku pocztowym online pożyczki dla zadłużonych feniks pożyczki opinie umowa przedłużenia pożyczki pożyczki prywatne a prawo leasing czy kredyt samochodowy forum w jakim banku najłatwiej o kredyt samochodowy kredyty bez bik do 20000 pożyczki międzyrzecz kredyt bez bik 25000 czy citi bank daje kredyt pracujacym w czechach kredyt bank katowice ul szafranka kredyt konsolidacyjny łódź pożyczki bez bik z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki w domu klienta gorzów wlkp pcc od pożyczki wspólnika spółki komandytowej pożyczki bez bik zus us kredyt na start w idea banku opinie pożyczki bez bik online kredyt bank jumper 3 pożyczki białystok pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik pożyczki w kredyt banku kredyt na remont mieszkania kalkulator pko kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rozwodnika pożyczki bez bik na dłuższy okres kredyty chwilówki tychy tel kredyt bank kraków pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik poznań kredyt bez bik dla każdego pożyczki na dowód głogów kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego alior bank umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs wzór pożyczki bez odsetek kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk opinie zwrot pożyczki udziałowcowi wzór oświadczenia o zwrocie pożyczki kredyt samochodowy bez bik rzeszów opty pożyczki koszalin pożyczki direct pożyczki kredyty bez historii kredyt prywatny zagraniczny alior bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt konsumencki banki kredyty dla rolników bez biku pozyczka na pit bez bik w bydgoszcz pożyczki pod zastaw płock pożyczki udziałowców kredyt bank łuków godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki czebotar prodomo pożyczki nowe mia pożyczki pod zastaw auta legnica pożyczki w średniowieczu kredyt chwilówka 0 pożyczki konsorcjalne pożyczki jst bank pko sa kredyt rodzina na swoim pożyczka pod zastaw samochodu warszawa ul grochowska kredyt bank katowice godziny otwarcia reklama pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki świętochłowice pożyczki bez bik dla rencistów kredyt bank kalisz górnośląska 50 kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i zabezpieczeń pożyczki chwilówki nakło kredyt bez bik mbank oferta pożyczki ing pożyczki na dowód bez umowy o prace meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyty chwilówki numer konta kredyt konsolidacyjny wysokość raty czym różni się kredyt bankowy od lokaty kredyty mieszkaniowe sierpień 2012 pożyczki gotówkowe dla każdego kredyt bank wieliczka kontakt kredyty dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych banki kredyt mieszkaniowy bz wbk forum kredyt bank bialystok radzyminska kredyt bank międzyzdroje pożyczki dla młodych małżeństw kredyt bank tomaszów mazowiecki telefon umowy pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego kredyt bank piaseczno warszawska 1 kredyt samochodowy dla policjantów kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego bank bph pozyczka bez bik pozabankowa lublin oprocentowanie rynkowe pożyczki kredyt samochodowy mbank dokumenty kredyty bez bik duze kwoty nefis pożyczki udzielenie pożyczki a pcc umowa pożyczki między członkami rodziny lokata kredyt bank opinie pożyczki dla rencistów wrocław pożyczki pracownicze pożyczki na dowód 2013 kredyty chwilówki praca tychy kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku forum pożyczki chwilówki umowa umowa pożyczki o czym pamiętać podatek od pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bankowy literatura kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea banku kredyt bank wpłatomaty poznań kredyty pozabankowe olsztyn kredyt konsolidacyjny zalety kredyt studencki pko sa regulamin pożyczki szczecin na umowę niemiecką santander consumer bank kredyt bez bik umowa pożyczki w rodzinie podatek pożyczki bez bik wysoka przyznawalność kredyt ratalny eurobank pożyczki pozabankowe wejherowo kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodego małżeństwa kronos pożyczki olkusz pożyczki chwilówki szczecin dobra pozyczka warszawa dla zadluzonych kredyty chwilówki ostrów wielkopolski pożyczki od rodziny pcc wzór weksla pożyczki money now pożyczki pożyczki na dowód lubań pożyczki dla zadłużonych lubin najtańsze pożyczki bez bik pozyczka pozabankowa mazowiecki bez dochodow pożyczki dla uczących się pożyczki dla osób bez dochodów umowa pożyczki między rodziną pożyczki prywatne mielec kredyt bank przelicznik walut kredyt bank popularna godziny otwarcia kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania millenium pożyczki pod zastaw radom kredyt pozabankowy kredyt bank lokata jesienna kredyt unijny idea bank opinie kredyt bankowy gdzie w bilansie pożyczki od gangsterów pożyczki chwilówki grójecka pożyczki bez bik wodzisław śląski w jakim banku wziac kredyt gotowkowy kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank visset pożyczki bez bik na dowód kredyty bez bik w domu pożyczki bezzwrotne dla firm pożyczki olsztyn na dowód pożyczki bez bik big i krd poznań pożyczki pod zastaw gołdap kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń na 10 lat pożyczki na procent gdańsk pozyczki chwilowki gorzow wlkp alior bank kredyt dla emeryta pozyczki bydgoszcz 24 pożyczki bez bik jarosław kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2013 pożyczki co to jest kredyty chwilówki akcja znicz pożyczki online od 18 lat kredyty bez bik stargard kredyt w ing bank śląski forum pożyczki abis forum pożyczki w policji kredyt bank godziny otwarcia warszawa kredyt bank legnica telefon kredyt bank w bełchatowie kredyt bank trojmiasto kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie banków bank pko sa kredyty kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen dla firm kredyty bez bik i krd slask pożyczki gotówkowe sezam pożyczki pozabankowe świdnica pożyczki ranking banków bank bgż pożyczka gotówkowa umowa zlecenie pożyczki gotówkowe dla niepracujących kredyt mieszkaniowy 250 tys jaka rata pozyczki bez bik wloclawek kredyty bez bik w kaliszu umowa pożyczki między rodziną wzór gdzie otrzymać kredyt bez bik kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji lublin pożyczka pod zastaw samochodu warszawa ul grochowska opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny pocztowy bank legnica jaki jest kod do orange na kredyt finan pożyczki do domu pożyczki kronos zawiercie kredyty samochodowe dla firm ranking kredyt bank zadluzenie kredyt bankowy gdzie w bilansie kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorców pożyczki z niską ratą kredyt bank notowania akcji kredyt bank tarnobrzeg godziny otwarcia kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank opinie udzielę pożyczki prywatnej szczecin pożyczki pod zastaw gliwice amortyzacja pożyczki kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pko pożyczki najtaniej jak síe robi kredyt orange uk bgk pożyczki dla absolwentów kredyt bankowy wbk pożyczki provident kontakt db kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank kredyt chwilówka getin bank kredyt bank zolnierska olsztyn kredyt bank radosc umowa pożyczki jako umowa wzajemna pożyczki pozabankowe bezrobotnych finan pożyczki wrocław pożyczki na raty tygodniowe pożyczki prywatne krotoszyn maksymalny okres pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób niepełnosprawnych kredyt studencki pko transze kredyt bank warszawa filie kredyt bank bankomaty kraków kredyt dla policjantow kredyt bez bik na dowód marka puławy pożyczki na dowód umowa pożyczki cesja kredyt bank swift iban kredyt w banku warunki kredyty chwilówki legionowo wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki alina waclawek kredyty prywatne kredyt bank wymiana karty bocian pożyczki ełk kredyty chwilówki wrocław powstańców śląskich kredyt bank w leborku pożyczki i kredyty detaliczne umowa pożyczki literatura ubezpieczenie pożyczki po co pożyczki bez bik bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt studencki pko umorzenie pożyczki dla radców prawnych bocian pożyczki opinię pekao sa kredyt studencki dokumenty pożyczki na własny biznes pożyczki długoterminowe dla bezrobotnych pożyczki bez bik i krd katowice oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego w deutsche bank pozyczki pozabankowe 7 ledziny kalkulator pożyczki alior zwrot pożyczki przychód kredyt bank grudziądz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank krakowska opole optima sa pożyczki opinie kredyt bank regulamin ekstrakonto mikserek pożyczki pożyczki bez bik do domu kredyt bank koszalin piłsudskiego 85 pożyczki chwilówki starachowice pożyczki nielegalne kredyty chwilówki inowrocław pożyczki chwilówki jarocin pożyczki bez big i bik kredyt bank lokaty terminowe oprocentowanie potrącenia pożyczki z wynagrodzenia kredyt bank karolkowa kredyty chwilówki myslenice umowa pożyczki bez oprocentowania kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę kart kredytowych pożyczki łódź opinie bocian pożyczki jakie dokumenty potrzebne kredyt bank w kołobrzegu kredyt bank wrocław chrobrego tel pożyczki bez bik w czestochowie kredyt bank warszawa bielany kredyty banku bph alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator udzielenie pożyczki po angielsku kredyt bank gdzie wyplacac bez prowizji kredyt konsolidacyjny firmowy kredyt bank warszawa komisji edukacji narodowej pozyczki z komornikiem sosnowiec pcc od umowy pożyczki od wspólnika bydgoszcz pożyczki bez bik big krd umowa pożyczki wolna od podatku pożyczki na dowód jastrzębie zdrój ikko projekt pożyczki kredyt bank starachowice telefon kredyt bank morawskiego kredyty pozabankowe krakow pożyczki natychmiast kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat pko kredyt inwestycyjny eurobank pko bp kamień pomorski kredyt odnawialny w którym banku najłatwiej wziąć kredyt kredyt ok siedlce godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny z małżonkiem kredyty mieszkaniowe a umowa na czas określony kredyty w idea banku forum oprocentowanie kredytów w banku pko bp kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2012 santander kredyt samochodowy prowizja kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie stałe czy zmienne udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel getin noble bank kredyt konsumpcyjny pożyczki chwilówki wady umowa pożyczki w spółce akcyjnej pożyczki marka pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorstw pożyczki gotówkowe gorzów kredyty chwilowki warszawa ul grochowska czy w skok stefczyka można wziąć kredyt bez bik pożyczki na dowód toruń przelew internetowy pożyczki 1500 umowa pożyczki od wspólnika banki udzielające kredytów bez bik średnia wartość pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki bez biku białystok kredyt bank piła sikorskiego kredyt bank różana godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy w getin banku forum pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kraków kredyty bez bik do 5000 kredyt bank pułtusk godziny otwarcia kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko kredyt studencki pko sa dokumenty pożyczki do 1200 zł szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych pożyczki od rodziny i znajomych kredyt bank w borku wlkp pożyczki chwilówki bez krd kredyt bank warszawa śródmieście kredyty poza bankowe lublin adresy i nr tel kredyty mieszkaniowe wymogi pożyczki na oświadczenie dla firm pożyczka na procent pod mieszkanie kredyt bank sa oddział w sieradzu umowa pożyczki druk aktywny getin bank kredyt na mieszkanie opinie potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki wzór kredyt bank wymagane dokumenty kredyty pozabankowe oferty pko pożyczki gotówkowe funkcje pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjny w2014 r kredyty bankowe w przedsiębiorstwie kredyt bank sa rybnik kredyt bank ostroleka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank janów pożyczki pozabankowe wałbrzych regulamin pożyczki dla pracownika pożyczki prywatne podatki kredyty chwilówki koscierzyna kredyt bank włocławek gdzie kredyt z krd mińsk mazowiecki wzór umowy pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki do 12 miesięcy kredyt bez bik toruń kredyt bank dekabrystów częstochowa kredyty bankowe forum pożyczki bez bik i krd kielce kredyt mieszkaniowy a firma na ryczalcie pożyczki lubartów eden pożyczki warszawa pozyczki pozabankowe kartuzy kredyt bank tomaszów mazowiecki godziny otwarcia pożyczka pozabankowa merritum bank kredyty chwilówki nowy targ pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet bez bik gdzie mozna uzyskac kredyt bez bik eurobank kredyt bez biku kredyt bank łeba pożyczki aleksandrów kujawski centrum finansowe pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny minimum formalności kredyty gotówkowe bez bik łódź kredyt bank wielicka 181 pożyczki online bez weryfikacji pożyczki dla osób zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millenium opinie private banking w kredyt banku pożyczki polska różne polska usługi kredyt bank święty marcin nowość pożyczki do domu kredyt bez bik na dowod sosnowiec umowa przedwstępna pożyczki wzór kredyt bank osiedle polan poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank zmiana wysokości oprocentowania pożyczki umowa pożyczki spłata w ratach kredyty chwilówki pit konwersja pożyczki na kapitał odsetki kredyt bank m1 kraków pożyczki transfer kredyt pozabankowy łódź jaki jest numer na kredyt do orange kredyt bank wpłatomat pozyczki na weksel u klienta w domu mazowieckie kredyt bankowy pcc kredyt bank pyskowice kredyt bank warszawa ken 57 mikropożyczki na rentę socjalną pozyczki na wysoki procent od ludzi prywatnych pwr pożyczki kredyt bank nowy targ kontakt kredyty chwilówki konsolidacja pożyczki w domu klienta opole kredyt bank białobrzegi radomskie kredyt bankowy a podatek kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej ing pozyczka na dom uk bank pko kredyty bez bik puławy kredyt bank sulechów kontakt pożyczki prywatne opolskie kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego kredyt bank pożyczki 15 min kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowy kredyty chwilówki logowanie system partner kredyt bank warszawa radość pożyczki bez bik na umowe zlecenie kredyt bank godziny otwarcia placówek kredyt konsolidacyjny jak go dostać kredyt w getin banku bez bik pożyczki z dostawą do domu wrocław pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka wzór umowy pożyczki cywilno prawnej pożyczki od udziałowców a pcc kredyt studencki wbk warunki centrum finansowe pożyczki kredyt bank zumi pożyczki pod zastaw kłodzko kredyt dla firm bez bik i krd kredyty bez bik białystok kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób w bik umowa pożyczki ceny transferowe neobank pożyczki kredyt bez bik świebodzin kredyt bank warszawa zoliborz kredyt bez biku i poreczycieli pożyczki prywatne bez opłat wstępnych kredyt bank nazwa kredyt bez biku do 5000 kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kredyt bank gdynia chwaszczyńska godziny otwarcia pożyczki online na dowód bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw bielsko kredyt bank oddziały warszawa wola kredyt bankowy a pożyczka kredyt bank katowice kościuszki pożyczki w getin banku opinie kredyt bank godziny otwarcia gdańsk wzór pisma o udzielenie pożyczki bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator szybki kredyt online bez bik kredyt bank franciszkanska warszawa kredyty mieszkaniowe belgia pożyczki prywatne mogilno kredyt upadłość banku pożyczki pozabankowe w zielonej górze ogloszenia prywatnych pozyczek zywiec w jakim banku wziąc kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa pożyczki opłata pcc oferta kredytową firmy optima pożyczki 1000 zł kredyt bank ul narutowicza 55b lublin kredyt bank w dąbrowie tarnowskiej kredyty chwilówki siemianowice kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń alior bank optima pożyczki bez sprawdzania bik bank bph da kredyt jak mam komornika pożyczki bez bik płock pożyczki na dowód bez umowy o prace kredyt studencki pko na rok kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank polecacie pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu kredyt bank wcześniejsza spłata kredytu pożyczki dla emerytów bez ograniczeń wiekowych kredyt remontowy bank pekao sa pozyczki na umowe zlecenie pruszcz gdanski współpraca pożyczki bez bik

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad