zabezpieczenie pożyczki wfośigw pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank żuromin pożyczki bez bik piła kredyt bank zmienia nazwe pozyczki dla zadłuzonych w banku pko finanse kredyty bankowe i ich ewidencja kredyt mieszkaniowy w millenium forum kredyt bank działdowo kredyt bez bik olkusz pożyczki chwilówki janosik kredyt bank kolo pozyczki na procent tarnow rafał kania pożyczki wykop objawy pożyczki fines pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny zabezpieczenia kredyty bankowe rodzaje kredyt konsolidacyjny jak go dostać szybkie pożyczki bez bik białystok kredyty chwilówki wrocław jedności narodowej pożyczki gotówkowe 2013 kredyt bank łódź zgierska 42a kredyt mieszkaniowy na singla gdzie kredyt pozabankowy bez bik kredyt bank polecenie zapłaty kredyt bank białystok warszawska prywatne pożyczki pod weksel warszawa pokwitowanie odbioru kwoty pożyczki provident pożyczki na dowód meritum bank kredyt opinie pożyczki prywatne ruda śląska koszty umowy pożyczki kredyt bank karty zbliżeniowe kredyty chwilówki w płocku pozyczki z komornikiem w starachowicach szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez prowizji kredyt bank bankomaty bez opłat regulamin pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs getin bank pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki bez bik rybnik kredyt bank adres lublin umowa pożyczki koleżeńskiej kredyt w lukas bank pożyczki dla firm skok chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki orzegów kredyty chwilówki mińsk mazowiecki kredyt bank włocławek kredyt bank zielonka telefon umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi zus trudne pozyczki warszawa tomek zaciągnął w banku omb kredyt pożyczki pożyczka dla rencistów kredyt bank iv o warszawa kredyt bank toruń telefon symulacja kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy kredyt bez bik oświęcim kredyt bank prywatyzacja szybkie pożyczki żagań kredyt mieszkaniowy starego portfela kredyty gotówkowe w banku pko sa kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku najlepiej forum pożyczki na weksel poznań kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie porównanie pozyczki z komornikiem miedzyrzec podlaski umowa pożyczki wysokość odsetek kredyt banki grudziądz pożyczki jak w provident umowa pożyczki wzajemna kredyt bank wypowiada umowy na życie kredyty pozabankowe długoterminowe kredyty w pko bp sa kancelaria finansowa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny kielce kredyt bank nowe konto oszczędnościowe kredyt bank zakopane waldemar piechota pożyczki oszust alior bank kredyt dla pracujacych za granica pożyczki bez bik i krd bydgoszcz pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej bydgoszcz czy pożyczki pozabankowe są bezpieczne pożyczki dla firm porównanie kredyt dla firm bez bik big kredyty bez bik starogard gdański getin bank kredyt samochodowy telefon kredyt w banku millennium forum pożyczki z zajęciami komorniczymi szczecin kredyt studencki pko termin składania wniosków 2012 udzielę pożyczki prywatnej kraków umowa pożyczki kto płaci pcc kredyt bank kołobrzeska gdańsk godziny otwarcia pożyczki z funduszu efs kredyt chwilówka kłobuck konwersja pożyczki na kapitał obligacja 6 pożyczki narodowej pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania bydgoszcz szybka pozyczka kwidzyn bank kredyt konsolidacyjny z zadłużeniem kredyty w santander bank umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs zmarłego pracownika umowa pożyczki według kodeksu cywilnego nieoprocentowane pożyczki dla firm pożyczki social lending pożyczki bez sprawdzania zatrudnienia przykładowa umowa pożyczki szybkie pożyczki gdansk marcin adler pożyczki pożyczki dla firm forum pożyczki do 40000 pożyczki prado provident pożyczki online kredyty chwilówki radom udzielę pożyczki prywatnej na procent pożyczki z dostawą do domu pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla nauczycieli pożyczki chwilówki poznań 23 lutego umowa pożyczki odnawialnej wzór pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości dla zadłużonych mariusz patrowicz pożyczki bocian pożyczki świnoujście umorzenie pożyczki walutowej pożyczki chwilówki elbląg preferencyjny kredyt studencki w pko bp kod na kredyt w orange go pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania wrocław kredyt bank w pile obliczanie wysokości pożyczki kredyt w alior banku jakie dokumenty kalkulator kredytu samochodowego w mbanku pozyczki prywatne wrocław pożyczki bez bik i krd białystok jak księgować pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki bez bik do 20 tys kredyt bank trzebnica egzekwowanie pożyczki pożyczki z obsługą w domu kiedy odsetki od pożyczki nie są kosztem podatkowym marża banku kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty samochodowe bank zachodni bocian pożyczki bydgoszcz dobry kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt bank arkadia pożyczki ekspresowe legnica kredyt gotówkowy w banku millenium opinie kredyt w banku eurobank kredyty bez bik walbrzych kredyt samochodowy w idea bank jaki jest numer do bociana zeby wziasc pozyczke pożyczki bez bik zawiercie kokos pożyczki santander kredyt ratalny a bik pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód wrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy lukas bank kalkulator pożyczki z unii dla firm kredyty chwilówki forum pracowników kredyt bank warszawa ul żytnia czy umowa pożyczki podlega vat kredyty mieszkaniowe bank millenium pożyczki kalkulator pko bp pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów lublin pozyczki bez baz gdansk kredyt konsolidacyjny bank wbk kredyt bank niepodległości warszawa umowa pożyczki kwoty bank pko bp kredyt studencki dokumenty pożyczki dla uczących się szybkie pożyczki legnica pożyczki internetowe opinie kredyty gotówkowe chwilówka kredyty chwilowki pl bez bik wzór umowy pożyczki w rodzinie pozyczki na procent słupsk pożyczki bezpośrednie pożyczki pod zastaw złota katowice pożyczki prywatne śląskie pożyczki pozabankowe legionowo umowa pożyczki pomiędzy wspólnikiem a spółką udziele prywatnej pozyczki swidnica pozyczka dla zadłużonych kredyt bank rezygnacja z karty kredytowej wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki rekreacyjnej kredyt na mieszkanie w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki godziny otwarcia potrzebuję ów kredyt prywatne pożyczki na sam dowód lokata strukturyzowana kredyt bank opinie pożyczki ślimak opinie pożyczki pozabankowe bez zaświadczeń o dochodach wzór umowy pożyczki pienięznej pożyczki na dowód kołobrzeg kredyt bank warszawa praga kredyt bank nowy sącz lwowska pożyczki chwilówki przez telefon jak dostac kredyt w banku w uk kredyty mieszkaniowe toruń pcc od umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem pożyczki z parabanków kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiany 2014 pożyczki chwilówki od zaraz umowa pożyczki wspólnika do spółki pożyczki pozabankowe 5000zl umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej a podatek dochodowy pożyczki chwilówki poznań pożyczki chwiłowki kredyty chwilówki windykator opinie cesja praw z umowy pożyczki kredyty chwilówki wrocław powstańców alior bank kredyt dla emerytów kto udzieli kredytu bez bik pozyczki gotowkowe holandia 2014 pożyczki bez meldunku chwilówka stargard pożyczki prywatne zawiercie kredyt konsolidacyjny multibank jak dostac kredyt bez biku kredyt bank w wyszkowie getin bank konsolidacja kredytów spłata pożyczki podporządkowanej kredyt bank w żarach pożyczki chwilówki chełm kredyty chwilowki pila kredyt bank sa centrala pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla prokuratorów kredyt bank online 24 kredyt bank centrum jaka kwota pożyczki jest wolna od podatku pko sa pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki prywatne kalisz kredyt bank bankomaty siedlce wyliczanie odsetek od pożyczki kredyt odnawialny w alior banku opinie pozyczka pko 5000 zl banki udzielające pożyczki bez bik pożyczki profi credit kalkulator kredyty chwilówki brzeg prawdziwe pożyczki prywatne kredyt w euro które banki wycena pożyczki od udziałowca na dzień bilansowy opłaty za przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bez bik katowice skok pożyczka bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy w getin banku forum kredyt samochodowy getin bank jastrzębie ing bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator pozyczka na dlugi pod weksel szybki kredyt bez bik i big pożyczki wierzyciel forum kredyt studencki pko forum bocian pożyczki jakie dokumenty potrzebne kalkulator odsetkowy pożyczek miszkaniowych z zfŚs kredyty chwilówki kierownik regionalny pożyczki ing niespłacanie pożyczki kredyt ratalny santander consumer banku kredyt konsolidacyjny w bnp paribas gros pożyczki poznań kredyt bank włoclawek pożyczki bez bik śląsk kredyt w getin banku forum kredyt bank włocławek kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny encyklopedia umowa pożyczki charakter udziele pożyczki prywatnie łódź oprocentowanie kredytu w nordea bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń inowrocław pożyczki prywatne umowa cywilno prawna kredyt bank laczy sie pracownik pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank katowice ul uniwersytecka pożyczki pozabankowe żagań pożyczki dla firm na oświadczenie konto pożyczki udzielone pożyczki domowe na dowód sandomierz kredyt mieszkaniowy tczew optima pożyczki praca forum kredyty bankowe msp kredyt mieszkaniowy w kb opinie pożyczki gotówkowe pozabankowe pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw kredyt bank kolejowa białystok kredyty bez bik gorzów pożyczki bez bik 10 000 optima pożyczki słupsk pożyczki przed świętami pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu łódź praca w kredyt banku 2012 kredyt bank wrocław plac solny godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki w walucie pożyczki na dowód gdynia pożyczki na dowód świdnica kredyt w orange pop numer kredyt bank warszawa powstańców kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank investor relations pożyczki zielona góra kredyt na samochód w getin banku opinie kredyt bankowy cechy pożyczki bez bik rybnik pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank cesja umowy pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny do 30 lat kredyt bank godziny otwarcia placówek kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt samochodowy santander oprocentowanie kredyt bank legionowo telefon pożyczki domowe gdynia kredyty chwilówki zamość partyzantów kredyty pozabankowe radomsko kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2013 podatek od pożyczki dla najbliższej rodziny kredyt bank kondratowicza warszawa kredyt bank dęblin kredyt bank zaspa skarabeusz pożyczki olkusz amber gold pożyczki opinie 2012 santander bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank olsztyn aura pożyczka na rente socjalna krakow prywatne udziele pożyczki w kościanie pożyczki prywatne łowicz kredyt bez bik słupsk pożyczki od ręki opinie kredyt bez biku gliwice reklama pożyczki przez internet bank śląski kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małych firm wycena pożyczki na koniec roku kapitalizacja pożyczki kredyt bank lubin kontakt reklama pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki holandia magdalena lis pożyczki kredyt bez bik łódź kredyt w bos banku kredyt konsolidacyjny pko opinie kredyt bank adresy warszawa kredyt bez bik na pit udzielę pożyczki prywatnej łódź 458 punktów bik kredyt w eurobank pożycze prywatnie bez przedpłat kredyty bez bik pozabankowe umowa pożyczki znajomemu pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pożyczki kalkulator pko bp pożyczki bez bik 20 000 oprocentowanie kredytów w banku śląskim ślimak pożyczki kraków luban sl prywatna pozyczka kredyt mieszkaniowy obliczenia pożyczki polbank kredyt bank krzeszowice kredyt bank kiedy sesje pożyczki udzielane w domu pko bp kredyt studencki oświadczenie poręczyciela umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pod zastaw kredyt bank w międzyzdrojach pożyczki od zaraz kredyt bank karmelicka pożyczki bez bik pod zastaw kredyty bez bik lubin okam pożyczki uk ekf pożyczki kredyt bank kontakt pożyczki dla firm pko kredyt bank przelewy online kredyt bank aukcje kredyt bank zachodniopomorskie kredyt orange jaki numer w jakim banku kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt bez bik nowy sącz bocian pożyczki praca kierownik pożyczki jst pozyczka bez bik z obsluga w domu warszawa pożyczki do domu łódź umowa pożyczki między rodziną wzór pożyczki kredyty dla zadłużonych forum biedronka pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe dla osob z komornikiem kredyt bank warszawa konstancińska pozyczka pieniedzy plock rodzaje kredytów w banku komercyjnym kredyt bank kartuska pożyczka bez bik bez zaświadczeń puck umowa pożyczki download pożyczki payu kredyt bank zakopane godziny otwarcia kredyt bank mielżyńskiego poznań kredyt na start dla nowych firm bez bik pożyczki dla mikrofirm bez bik kredyt w uk gdzie najlepiej kredyt bank wrocław telefon kredyt bank w kluczborku kredyt w banku zagranicznym dostępne pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez biku kredyt w get in bank opinie alior bank kredyt obrotowy kredyt 4000 bez bik online dar pożyczki działdowo kredyt bez bik w skok kredyty bocian zywiec kredyt bankowy a kredyt kupiecki podatek od pożyczki udzielonej firmie kredyty chwilówki wikipedia getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu pozyczki na dowod osobisty kredyt w banku bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach pożyczki atiz kredyt bank olsztyn wojska polskiego godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki kędzierzyn chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki orzegów oświadczenie o zwrocie pożyczki wzór kredyt chwilówki kalkulator pożyczka przez internet bez bik i zaświadczeń oblicz kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim ing bank online kredyty z komornikiem pozyczki niebankowe podobne do providenta pożyczki bez bik w krakowie umowa pożyczki pod zastaw prawo umowa pośrednictwa pożyczki umowa pożyczki druk pozyczki tylko na wyciag z konta wejherowo kredyt bez biku krakow kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku kredyt bank warszawa ul kasprzaka kredyt bankowy a emisja obligacji pożyczki ogłoszenia warunki kredytu getin bank kredyt w paribas bank opinie agito pożyczki pożyczki kredyty bez historii kredyty chwilówki pracuj pl pożyczki bez zaświadczeń dochodach kredyt bank oferta udzielając pożyczki pokwitowanie pewne pożyczki dla każdego kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kredyt bank w grudziądzu kredyt w banku pocztowym kalkulator kredyt bank z siedzibą w warszawie kredyty chwilówki lubin kredyty chwilówki impreza firmowa 2013 szybkie kredyty przey internet w niemczech kredyty chwilówki opole pożyczki w warszawie pożyczki niski procent pożyczki internetowe bez prowizji kredyty chwilówki opinie forum szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyt bez bik gumtree kredyt bez bik wejherowo kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator getin bank kredyty bez bik kwidzyn bank pko kredyt 20000zł umowa pożyczki ze spółką zależną bank millennium kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator potrzebuję pożyczki od osoby prywatnej czy kredyt w banku ulega przedawnieniu chwilówki poznań pożyczki poznań chwilówki luboń warunki otrzymania pożyczki w pko bocian pożyczki złóż wniosek bocian pożyczki gliwice pożyczki bez bik szybko i prosto pożyczki mieszkaniowe ranking kredyt konsolidacyjny opole kredyt bankowy klasyfikacja pozyczka krakow na weksel kredyt w alior banku kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy pko wymagania kredyt dla nowo otwartych firm bez bik kredyty bez biku i krd na sam dowów w kielcach pożyczki bez bik w domu klienta kurs euro wg kredyt bank sa kredyty bankowe ksiazki najprostszy kredyt przez internet bez bik kredyt bank deutschland umowa ramowa pożyczki kredyt bez sprawdzania biku kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulatory kredyty pozabankowe koszalin pożyczki bez bik 15000 kredyt bank zarobki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a pcc pożyczki olesnica kredyty bez bik wałbrzych kredyt bank w brodnicy kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kalkulator kredyty pozabankowe 50000 kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciami komorniczymi kredyt bez bik zaswiadczen pożyczki porównanie kredyty preferencyjne banki kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego lukas bank pożyczki chwilówki kielce kredyt w banku a urzad skarbowy pożyczki z kruka kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku pożyczki prywatne łódż kredyt bank biskupiec

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad