umowa pożyczki ze wspólnikiem spółki bocian pożyczki stargard szczeciński kredyt bank franciszkanska warszawa kredyty bez bik chełm czy pcc od umowy pożyczki jest kosztem podatkowym pożyczki bankowe pod zastaw nieruchomości umowa pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia kredyt konsolidacyjny bez krd kredyt bank lukow telefon euromedia pożyczki pozyczka wonga uk niesplacone pozyczki bocian kredyty gotówkowe dla zadłużonych kredyt bank wschowa pożyczki typu provident bocian alior bank kredyty pożyczki bankowe oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki między pracodawcą a pracownikiem kredyt bank wrocław placówki czy citi bank daje kredyt pracujacym w czechach pożyczki od osób prywatnych belchatow kredyty instytucje pozabankowe optima pożyczki słupsk pożyczka w domu poznań kredyt bank ostrobramska godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik olecko kredyt bank opole godziny otwarcia pozyczki on laine bez biku na 15000 pożyczki płock kredyt bank poznań krauthofera godziny otwarcia potrzebuje pinie pożyczki u prywatnej osoby krakow pożyczki i kredyty bez bik chorzów katowice kredyty chwilówki chojnice kredyt bez bik dębica limit pożyczki od rodziny umowa pożyczki wraz z poręczeniem kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki chwilowki w krakowie pożyczki pozabankowe z bikiem kredyt bank leszno konstytucji 3 maja kredyt pozabankowe poznan kredyt bank nysa szopena umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór drugi kredyt w innym banku pożyczki bez badania zdolności kredyt na dowód getin bank umowa pożyczki co to jest pożyczki bez bik duże kwoty kredyty pozabankowe ciechanów kredyt konsolidacyjny 300 tys kredyt w banku na mieszkanie kredyt bank iban kredyt bank zapomniałem pin pożyczki urząd skarbowy kredyt konsolidacyjny korzyści banki ktore udzielaja pozyczek na dowod pożyczki pozabankowe z komornikiem kredyt bank w polkowicach kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole pożyczki na otwarcie działalności gospodarczej kredyt chwilówka lodz pożyczki prywatne szukam w jakim banku wziąć kredyt obrotowy kredyt bank olsztyn wojska polskiego pożyczki bez bik pruszków w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowy kredyt na otworzenie dzialalnosci bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2013 kredyt bez biku na umowe zlecenie pożyczki umowa o dzieło pożyczki prywatne gryfice kredyty pożyczki dla bezrobotnych warunki ubezpieczenia kredytu w getin bank roszczenia z umowy pożyczki przedawniają się kredyty bez bik miedzyrzecz podatek od pożyczki pienieżnej umorzenie pożyczki zfśs a podatek kredyt w banku spółdzielczym forum pożyczki na oświadczenie bocian kredyt bank kupiony przez kredyty bez bik i krd katowice kredyty bez komornika biku kredyt bez bik 70000 udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel mikro pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank warszawa kredyt gotówkowy pekao sa opinie kredyt bankowy mieszkaniowy pożyczki 7 pożyczki pomarańcza kod na kredyt z orange kredyt konsolidacyjny najtaniej finan pożyczki najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 wzór umowy pożyczki osobie prywatnej jak dostac kredyt w uk na dom kredyt bank praca opinie kredyty dla małych firm bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny co potrzeba kredyty bez bik i zabezpieczeń kredyt w kredyt banku forum pożyczki z urzędu pracy pożyczki na dowód poczta kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim warunki przyznania kredyt pozabankowy warszawa umowa pożyczki do spółki komandytowej podatek od pożyczki ustawa pożyczki dla mikrofirm pożyczki w domu klienta bytom kod na kredyt w orange mix pożyczki prywatne pod weksel warszawa pożyczki chwilówki żyrafa odpowiedzialność poręczyciela pożyczki pozyczki bez bik gliwice gotowka do reki kredyt bank gryfino godziny otwarcia kredyt w uk forum pożyczki bez bik na rok ile kosztuje kredyt w banku pożyczki prywatne pozabankowe kredyt bank kursy walut chf umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki a vat kredyt bankowy jako źródło finansowania pożyczki prywatne będzin pożyczki bez bik świnoujście kredyt bank liczba pracowników ekspresowe pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta pożyczki 24 na dobe kredyt bez bik na umowe zlecenie alior bank kredyt forum szybkie pożyczki legnica pożyczka bez zdolności kredytowej kredyty bez bik jastrzebie umorzenie pożyczki po śmierci pracownika podporzadkowanie pożyczki bocian pożyczki chojnice pożyczka bez bik i krd z komornikiem udzielanie pożyczki przez firmę kredyt bez bik z poręczycielem renta wojskowa a kredyt gotówkowy pko bp kredyt bank pochodzenie jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki wzór kredyt bank lipowa białystok godziny otwarcia kredyt bankowy na dowód kredyt mieszkaniowy marże umowa pożyczki a podatek kredyt bank ceny walut pożyczki do 8000 kredyt bank windykacja nr telefonu kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim singiel pozyczki prywatne kredyt pozabankowy kredyt bank ul żytnia kredyty bez zdolnoci kredytowej sosnowiec łódź pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt prywatny świdnica forum kredyty konsolidacyjne 2013 kredyt bank przemyśl ul dworskiego odsetki od pożyczki koszt podatkowy kredyty mieszkaniowe symulator lokaty w kredyt banku pożyczki w lombardach pozyczka pieniezna w dublinie nr telefonu pozyczka na dowod bez biku w wieku 18 lat czy kredyt konsolidacyjny jest kredytem konsumenckim wałbrzych pożyczki prywatne kredyty chwilówki kalkulator kredyt bankowy w księgach rachunkowych umowa pożyczki wzór chomikuj kredyt chwilówka ile procent ile sie czeka na kredyt w getin banku jak splacic komornika jaki bank udziela kredytu restrukturyzację pożyczki kredyt bank bankomat euronet umowa pożyczki pieniędzy word pożyczki z funduszy pożyczkowych kredyt bank przeworsk kontakt szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń przez internet sprzedaż kredyt banku santander 2012 kredyt bank warszawa czynny w sobotę pożyczki dla firm pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz kredyty pozabankowe zabrze pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu koszalin pożyczki pozabankowe wieluń pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik warszawa umowa pożyczki a weksel warunki kredytu w banku millenium pożyczki chwilówki nakło pro domo pożyczki praca kielce pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy walutowy kredyt bank lukow telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny kiedy pożyczki chwilówki 24 pozyczka na umowe zlecenie pruszcz gdanski szybkie pożyczki panda kredyty studenckie warunki przyznania kredyt bank warszawa nip konsekwencje niespłacenia pożyczki pozyczki bez bik ciechanow koszty pozwu o zwrot pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy bank pocztowy forum kredyt konsolidacyjny pojęcie kredyt bank fieldorfa umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a składki zus kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator umowa pożyczki między rodzeństwem wzór kredyt na oświadczenie bez bik bocian pożyczki wałbrzych pożyczki online bez dochodów kredyt bank wolontariat pracowniczy w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy benefit pożyczki bydgoszcz regita pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilówki w warszawie kredyty pozabankowe siedlce kredyt bank profil aktywny pożyczka bez zdolności kredytowej bocian ełk pozyczki kontakt kredyt bank zgora kredyt na dowod olawa ulica umowa pożyczki od siostry wzór kredyt orange 5 zł pożyczki bocian łódź przez internet kredyt bank tychy godziny otwarcia kredyt bank warszawa białołęka pożyczki na dowód bez umowy o prace wzór umowy pożyczki udziałowca kredyt studencki jakie jest oprocentowanie kredyty bez bik lubuskie pożyczki bez bik tarnobrzeg kredyt konsolidacyjny w euro szybkie pożyczki grudziądz kredyt bank żołnierska pożyczki w domu klieta kołobrzeg kredyt bank lokaty wrzesien 2012 kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2013 kredyt bank piaseczno godz otwarcia spółka udziela pożyczki udziałowcowi kredyt bank swift adres kredyt bank oddział w bełchatowie pożyczki pozabankowe bez biku odsetki od pożyczki właściciela kredyt bank adekwatność kapitałowa bocian pożyczkisanokkontakt pożyczki unijne dla nowych firm jak udzielić pożyczki rodzinie pożyczki bez bik żnin pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów lublin kredyt bez bik chełm kredyt pozabankowy z komornikiem umowa pożyczki forma pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej forum opodatkowanie pożyczki 2012 kredyty mieszkaniowe warunki przyznania kredyt konsolidacyjny wysokość raty szybkie pożyczki bez bik kredyt w pekao sa opinie flisak pożyczki opinie kredyt bank 24 pozyczka od 19 lat bezrobotny online umorzenie pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych kredyt gotówkowy bez bik sosnowiec kredyt bank wrocław gliniana umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca księgowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny długi okres kredytowania kredyt bank w tyszowcach pożyczki kredytowe kredyt bank branches kredyt studencki jakie odsetki umorzenie pożyczki na zakup środka trwałego kredyt bank kto jest wlascicielem kredyt bank czestochowa godziny otwarcia lew pożyczki pożyczki na dowód bez krd kredyt bank otwock karczewska umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu doc wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy doc pożyczki od osób prywatnych nowy dwór mazowiecki kredyt bank dietla godziny otwarcia pozyczka z komornikiem numery telefonu kalkulator rat pożyczki gotówkowej pozyczka bez wykazywania dochodów dobre pozyczki przez internet wzory umowy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez krd księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki kredyt studencki bank wbk umowa pożyczki od siostry kredyty pozabankowe sosnowiec pożyczki pod zastaw domu w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla działalności gospodarczej jakie banki w stargardzie udzielaja kredyty dlugoterminowe pozyczki z komornikiem na slasku kredyt w idea banku forum kredyt bank lokata forum wypowiedzenie ustnej umowy pożyczki pożyczki grodzisk mazowiecki ubezpieczenie pożyczki ing konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy a pcc kalkulator kredytów mieszkaniowych pko bp kredyty chwilówki gorzów wlkp umowa pożyczki dla spółki osobowej kredyt bank gdynia świętojańska godziny otwarcia kredyty bez zaświadczeń o dochodach i bez bik eurocent pozyczki księgowanie pożyczki z bgk kredyt studencki pko umorzenie czy kredyt bank jest otwarty w sobote kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm bez zabezpieczeń pcc od pożyczki od rodziny pożyczki w domu klienta białystok pożyczki bez bik krd wrocław pożyczki bez biku w bydgoszczy kredyty dla nowo powstalych firm bez bik kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego getin bank kredyt w banku spółdzielczym kalkulator pożyczki filarum pożyczki najkorzystniejsze nazwa pożyczki udzielonej przez bank pożyczki bez bik i krd konin kredyty bez bik brodnica pożyczki pozabankowe wągrowiec pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank mońki szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pożyczki gotówkowe opole pożyczki kredyty bez biku kredyt w banku zachodnim wbk pożyczki od osób prywatnych szczecin kredyt bank aplikacja kredyt bez bik ostrów wlkp aktualizacja wartości pożyczki pożyczki długoterminowe na dowód kredyt studencki warunki otrzymania kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobank duże pożyczki prywatne kredyty chwilówki numer konta pożyczki online nowe kredyt konsolidacyjny dokumenty umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne wzór pożyczki pod zastaw wszystkiego wrocław jaki bank da pozyczke bez biku pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wejherowo oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank kupiony przez santander kredyt bank godziny otwarcia placówek kredyt studencki pko bp warunki pożyczki prywatne starogard gdański kredyt pozabankowe online kredyty chwilówki ostrów mazowiecka pcc umowa pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt konsolidacyjny bankier pozyczka na dowod inowroclaw kredyt bez bik zawiercie pożyczki bez big alior bank proba wyludzenia kredytu szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet kredyt bank 24 godziny otwarcia wylicz ratę pożyczki najtanszy kredyt w banku kredyt bank sanok telefon kredyty dla bezrobotnych kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator mbank kredyty konsolidacyjne dla zadłużonych bez bik pożyczki bez bik zdunska wola kredyt bank osiedle kazimierzowskie alior bank kredyt ratalny kredyt bank gdańsk kołobrzeska 12 wniosek o kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bez bik prywatny reklama pożyczki pożyczki krecik opinie kredyt bez bik będzin kredyt konsolidacyjny 30 tys optima pożyczki tczew umowa pożyczki pcc 2012 kredyty chwilowki lomza ekspres kredyt dla firm bez bik us i zus kredyt online podatek od pożyczki kara kalkulator pożyczki w alior banku pożyczki piotrków trybunalski zarobki kredyt bank 2012 kredyt bank jastrowie godziny otwarcia pożyczki online od 18 lat pożyczki kredyty dla zadłużonych pożyczki poznań czy mozna wziasc kredyt na dowod kredyt chwilowka czestochowa pilsudskiego kraków pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank żywiec godziny pracy umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie weksel koszt pożyczki pożyczki internetowe opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe symulator kredyt odnawialny bank pko jak dziala kredyt bez biku kraków kredyt mieszkaniowy jaka waluta umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a zus mikropożyczki opinie kredyt na mieszkanie oferty banków kredyt mieszkaniowy bps kredyty bankowe ekonomia zwolnienia grupowe w kredyt banku kredyt bez wizyty w banku pożyczki olesnica kredyt bank pocztowy slupsk czy latwo dostac auto na kredyt z komisu kredyt bank a wbk kredyt studencki pko kiedy decyzja kredyt bank płatności masowe umorzenie pożyczki dla pracownika kredyt obrotowy w getin banku czy można zawiesić kredyt w banku poznań pożyczki chwilówki kredyt chwilówki kalkulator kredyt studencki 2013 bank spółdzielczy pożyczki przez internet dla firmy szybkie pożyczki online w uk pożyczki gdzie najtaniej prywatna pozyczka przez 24 h pożyczki przez internet w 15 minut umowa pozyczki ze wsteczna data pożyczki na dowód szybko kredyt samochodowy bankier pożyczki dla widniejących w krd pozyczka chwilowka w 15 min wroclaw kredyty bez bik warszawa pożyczki i kredyty detaliczne potrzebuję pilnej komentarz kredytu klient maj 2014 bocian pożyczki zabrze kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pekao sa niespłacenie pożyczki w providencie bocian pożyczki wieluń kredyty pozabankowe definicja pożyczki bocian numer telefonu szybkie i tanie pożyczki przez internet kredyt online idea bank kredyt bez bik ostrołęka kredyt bank rabka w jakim banku kredyt na dom uk kredyt mieszkaniowy dla studenta 2012 getin noble bank sa kredyty duze pozyczki pod weksel getin noble bank kredyty ratalne kredyty chwilówki giżycko pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw warszawa pożyczki do domu optima kredyt bank w gorzowie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm kalkulator kredyt chwilówka jastrzebie kredyty bez bik erif krd kredyt bank bierz co chcesz kredyty chwilówki lokaty kredyt bank krapkowice kredyt bank bok pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem pożyczki bez bik bochnia potwierdzenie oddania pożyczki kredyty bez bik gorzów wlkp małgorzata iwańska pożyczki pożyczki do 50000 kredyty chwilówki uokik kredyty konsolidacyjne oblicz rate kredyt bank rzeszow rejtana umowa pożyczki chwilówka kredyty chwilówki dla kogo duet pozyczka numer tel kredyt bank gorzów wlkp pożyczki dla zadłużonych wrocław umowa pożyczki raty ubezpieczenie kredytu w getin noble bank podatek od pożyczki termin kredyt bank oplata za przelew pożyczki prywatne mazowieckie pożyczki 24h opinie kredyt pozabankowy zielona góra kredyt bank lokata na 6 miesięcy kredyt bankowy dla mśp pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu koszalin pożyczki tylko na dowód prowizja pożyczki pożyczka przez telefon na dowód gdzie wziac kredyt kielce pożyczki na 60 dni kredyt odnawialny w mbanku dla studenta pozyczka na dowod kwidzyn kredyt konsolidacyjny czy warto forum kredyt bez bik pod weksel pożyczki żuromin kredyty pozabankowe bez bik poznań bocian pożyczki śrem kredyt bank w suwałkach kasa jowisz pożyczki kredyt bank problemy kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp forum kredyt bank opole krakowska kredyt konsolidacyjny na poczcie

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

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funny sayings

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Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad