kredyty mieszkaniowe dla polakow pracujacych za granica umowa pożyczki paliwa pożyczki bez bik w olsztynie pożyczki oprocentowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking 2012 santander bank kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości andrychów kredyt bank rybnik plac wolności godziny otwarcia pożyczki skok piast pożyczki chwilówki olkusz pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet bez bik i krd pożyczki wałbrzych kredyt firmowy idea bank opinie pozyczka pod weksel bialystok kredyt bank kosiarzy godziny otwarcia umowa o zwrot pożyczki wzór pożyczki dla firm warszawa kredyt bank karmelicka kredyt bankowy a konsumencki poszukuję pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik forum pożyczki gotówkowe grudziądz kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm 2013 pożyczki świecie kredyt z banku a pcc pożyczki bez bik tychy oddanie pożyczki kredyt bank depozyty kredyt bank gorlice godziny pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik online kredyt pozabankowy koszalin kredyt bank wrzutnia kredyt studencki pko bp żyranci szybkie pożyczki bez bik wrocław pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw domu pożyczki online bez przelewu kredyt bank giżycko szybkie pozyczki pieniezne w irlandii umowy pożyczki wzór kredyt bank tychy godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki ekspresowe kredyty i gwarancje bankowe dobosiewicz pdf chomikuj pożyczki chwilówki bez baz kredyt bez bik ostrów wlkp prywatne pozyczki w londynie umowa pożyczki wzór przelew getin bank warunki ubezpieczenia kredytu pożyczki z dofinansowaniem postea pożyczki pożyczki komornikiem kredyt bank lease kredyt bank częstochowa al nmp pozyczka dla mlodych bez bik kredyty chwilówki warunki kredyty pozabankowe łódź kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób niepełnosprawnych podatek od pożyczki udzielonej spółce kredyt bank katowice ul szafranka idea bank opinie kredyt na start pożyczki w domu klienta opole pożyczki bez bik jarosław getin noble bank kredyty samochodowe kredyt bank lubin godziny pracy kredyt bank chałubińskiego gdańsk godziny otwarcia oprocentowanie pożyczki dla firm pożyczki prywatne olkusz pcc od pożyczki dla firmy pożyczki ekspresowe elbląg umowa pożyczki dowód ze świadków kredyt bank kwidzyn godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki proz pozyczka jak provident bez big umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs 2012 pożyczki brzesko kredyt bank warszawa centrum godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw łódź kredyt bank pko bp kalkulator pożyczki bez bik konin szybki kredyt pozabankowy kredyty chwilówki trzebinia wiarygodne pożyczki poza bankowe forta pożyczki opinie kredyt bank sieradz kontakt jak wziąć kredyt w credit agricole podatek od pożyczki od wspólnika pożyczki barcin kredyty mieszkaniowe singiel na swoim pożyczki katowice banki kredyty ekologiczne pożyczki prywatne opinie kredyt bank w świdniku kredyt bank w rzeszowie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank ryki kredyt bez bik dla emeryta kredyt 20000 umorzenie pożyczki po jakim kursie kredyty bez bik czestochowa kredyt mieszkaniowy oplaty pozyczki z komornikiem bank pko bp kredyt dla firm gdzie wziac kredyt bez biku kredyt bank włodawa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank świebodzin pożyczki pozabankowe we wrocławiu pożyczki prywatne podatek pożyczki pozabankowe ostrów wielkopolski kredyty chwilówki kłobuck umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne podatek umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej a podatek dochodowy pożyczki łobez bankomaty euronet pozyczka idea bank kredyt bezzwrotny opinie wypowiedzenie umowy kredytu credit agricole umowa pożyczki ile podatku kredyt pozabankowy na raty kalkulator kredytu samochodowego alior bank kredyt bank nr rozliczeniowy umowa pożyczki pomiędzy pracownikiem a pracodawcą kredyty chwilówki w słupsku kredyt w banku za granicą kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku bgż kredyt bank gdynia chwaszczyńska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank dalekowschodni kredyty mieszkaniowe czerwiec 2013 pożyczki prywatne biała podlaska kredyty bankowe w bilansie pożyczki tygodniowe kredyty chwilówki kutno przedłużenie pożyczki w wonga udzielanie pożyczki przez firmę kredyt studencki pko sa forum pożyczki kępno jak dostac kredyt bez biku odsetki od pożyczki od osoby prywatnej kredyty chwilowki bez bik bez krd rybnik pożyczki w ramach bgk kredyty bez bik na raty pożyczki jednostek samorządu terytorialnego bezpieczne pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy kalkulator kredyt bank 1500 kredyty chwilówki na liście knf pożyczki chwilówki turek kredyty mieszkaniowe wiek justyna liszka pożyczki alior bank kredyty kalkulator w jakim banku kredyt online getin noble bank zawieszenie kredytu kredyt bankowy jest stosunkiem ekonomicznym getin noble bank kredyty ratalne na czym polega umowa pożyczki szybkie pożyczki inowrocław akcje spółki kredyt bank sa w warszawie kredyt samochodowy santander consumer bank alior bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum odsetki od umowy pożyczki a vat kredyt bez bik stalowa wola ustna umowa pożyczki orzecznictwo umowa pożyczki koszty pożyczki chwilówki warszawa puławska alior bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum pożyczki pozabankowe bez dochodu pożyczka z komornikiem kredyt bank wyplata z bankomatu za granica pożyczki chwilówki bez bik online oprocentowanie pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny 8 lat kredyt bank konsultant aktywny druk umowy pożyczki pożyczki na dowód w skoku pożyczki gwarantowane okam pożyczki koszt przelewu w kredyt banku kredyt bez bik sanok kredyt bank wroclaw powstancow udzielę pożyczki prywatnej gdańsk szybkie kredyty przez internet bez bik pożyczki na krótki termin pożyczki bocian ostrowiec kredyt bank legionowo kontakt kredyty santander consumer bank nowe pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik kredyt bez bik nowy sącz pożyczki nbp pożyczki lombardowe oprocentowanie kredyt bank łomża ul dworna kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank kalkulator kredyt bank grybów umowa dotycząca pożyczki kredyt bank wydruk potwierdzenia kredyt bank blonie kredyt bank cena akcji kredyt na mieszkanie w banku wbk umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór bez odsetek czy kredyt w banku ulega przedawnieniu szybki kredyt bez bik poznań skarabeusz pożyczki przemyśl pożyczki na dowód działdowo pożyczki chwilówki gdzie najlepiej kredyty bez bik w płocku parkmar pozyczki kredyty chwilówki brzeg kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pożyczki pod zastaw jawor getin bank kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczka dla zadłużonych warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw lublin pożyczki w ramach grupy kapitałowej umorzenie pożyczki dla emeryta nowe pożyczki bez bik i krd ceny transferowe pożyczki kredyt bez bik i krd szczecin banki udzielajace kredyt na pit krakow firmy udzielajace kredytu bez sprawdzania bik i krd pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank zawiercie telefon pożyczki prywatne gumtree obligacja tymczasowa pożyczki ogólnej narodowej gdzie można dostać kredyt bez bik kredyty chwilówki dąbrowa górnicza kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złym bik pożyczki na dowód w banku przedawnienie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej kredyt bank sa żagiel adres pożyczki pozabankowe rybnik kredyt gotówkowy bez bik katowice banknot pożyczki opinie pozyczki bez biku online bocian szybkie pozyczki w domu kredyt bez bik racibórz kredyt bank fundusz global partners pożyczki pozabankowe ostróda pożyczki bez bik wrocław forum pożyczki od osób prywatnych bez bik oprocentowanie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank opłaty za prowadzenie rachunku pożyczki bez krd na dowód pożyczki gotówkowe bank kredyt konsolidacyjny jaki bank forum warunki kredytu w kredyt banku wzór umowy pożyczki od znajomych kredyt bank lokaty 3 miesieczne darowizna zamiast pożyczki pożyczki na założenie działalności gospodarczej kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior banku kredyty pozabankowe konsolidacyjne kredyt bank oddziały warszawa wola godziny przelewow w kredyt banku umowy pożyczki pieniędzy druk kredyt bank białobrzegi kontakt pożyczki bocian wągrowiec umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pracownikowi pożyczki w domu śląsk santander consumer bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt w banku spóldzielczym szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe online kredyt bank godziny otwarcia tczew pożyczki konsolidacyjne pko pożyczki ekspresowe elbląg pewny kredyt bez biku jakie oprocentowanie pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredytypożyczki oddłużenia śląskie kredyt bank lódź alior bank kredyt roszczenia z umowy pożyczki przedawniają się kronos pożyczki kraków pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen i przelewania grosza kredyt samochodowy ranking 2011 kredyt bank lwowska gdzie w rzeszowie można dostać dobry kredyt bez bik kredyt na dom pozabankowy kredyt bank 1 oddział wrocław pożyczka bez bik i krd mława uzasadnienie pożyczki na remont kredyt na mieszkanie w banku pko kredyty chwilówki tychy system partner pożyczki w ramach grupy kapitałowej pożyczki na dowód jaworzno pożyczki dla msp pożyczki olesnica kredyt rns banki obligacja 6 pożyczki narodowej prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław kredyt bez bik bielsko kredyt na mieszkanie bank millenium pozyczki chojnice spłata pożyczki walutowej w pln kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank opinie kredyt samochodowy na oświadczenie bez bik księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki w jst pożyczki money kredyt konsolidacyjny w allianz banku betgang pożyczka pożyczki pod zastaw diamentów kredyt bank wroclaw plac solny kredyt bez biku zabrze kredyt bank zmiana limitu dziennego kredyt konsolidacyjny boś pozyczki dla osob krd i pracujacych na czarno szczecin kredyty chwilówki kołłątaja wrocław pozyczki wonga won pożyczki inwestycyjne dla firm kredyt pozabankowy bytom pożyczka dla kazdego lubin umowa pożyczki jak zaksięgować kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt optima kontakt pożyczki dla firm łódź pożyczki poza bankowe turek szybkie pożyczki online uk waloryzacja kwoty pożyczki pożyczki z unii europejskiej kredyt bank abrahama telefon kredyt bank warszawa marki profit pożyczki zielona góra szybkie kredyty bez bik przez internet pożyczki urząd pracy santander consumer bank kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego kredyt samochodowy deutsche bank kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy pko kalkulator kredyty chwilówki na dowód szczecin pożyczki wieloratalne bez bik wzór poręczenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyty chwilówki praca oświęcim kredyt konsolidacyjny w deutsche banku pożyczki pozabankowe gliwice czy pożyczki są opodatkowane pożyczki na dowód nysa kredyt bank w ostrowcu świętokrzyskim kredyty chwilówki dla zadłużonych wierzyciel pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank kozienice kredyt bank placówka gdańsk getin noble bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank wroclaw powstancow pożyczki prywatne pod weksel lublin czy kredyt bankowy jest zawsze oprocentowany kredyt bank ranking pozyczki z krd w starachowice kredyt samochodowy porównanie banków bartek pożyczki udzielę pożyczki pod weksel koscian pożyczki chojnice bocian pożyczki przemyśl pożyczki na dowód łódź bankomat kredyt bank sieradz lloyds kredyt konsolidacyjny pomysł na biznes pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bez bik zielona gora kredyty mieszkaniowe z dofinansowaniem pożyczki pod zastaw racibórz pozyczki od osob prywatnych w bialymstoku umowa konwersji pożyczki kredyt bank marketing kontakt kredyt studencki warunki spłaty kredyt mieszkaniowy w 2014 roku szybkie pożyczki poznań pożyczki chwilówki internetowe pożyczki chwilówki praca umowa pożyczki dla spolki kredyt w anglii dla polaków forum oprocentowanie pożyczki w skoku stefczyka odsetki od pożyczki koszty uzyskania przychodu umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki wzór kredyty chwilówki dla firm kredyt bank starogard gdański godziny otwarcia pożyczki między najbliższymi pożyczki gotówkowe zadłużonych chwilówki kredyty gotówkowe szybkie pozyczki dla zadluzonych w uk pożyczki 3000 kredyt bez bik bank warszawa pożyczki dla udziałowców kredyt na start w idea banku forum kredyt bank ile kosztuje przelew kredyty mieszkaniowe dla singli forum kredyty pozabankowe na oświadczenie spłata pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank krotoszyn rynek formularz spłaty pożyczki kredyty chwilówki franczyza kredyty chwilówki infolinia pożyczki prywatne brzeg pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych bydgoszcz umowa pożyczki z przewłaszczeniem w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa przedłużenia pożyczki kredyt bank marki piłsudskiego kredyt bank moje konto kredyt bankowy przez internet w jakim banku kredyt rodzina na swoim pod jaki numer kredyt w orange kredyt bank raszyn pożyczki z niską ratą pożyczki lukas elbląg umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw samochodu kredyty bez biku szybko umowa pożyczki między matką a synem kredyt bank w oświęcimiu kredyt mieszkaniowy pekao sa forum pożyczki kraków chwilówki kredyt mieszkaniowy belgia wzory umowy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt z komornikiem piekary sl na weksel kredyty chwilówki partner opinie kredyt bez bik do 60000 pożyczki bez krd i big umowa pożyczki a użyczenia pożyczki pozabankowe bielsk podlaski kredyt bank zmiana nazwy pożyczki pod zastaw udziałów kredyt bank sa tarnobrzeg optima pożyczki praca opinie kredyt chwilówka 20000 kredyt bank dabrowa górnicza kara za niezgłoszenie umowy pożyczki gdzie kredyt bez bik i krd bocian pożyczki wałbrzych kredyty pozabankowe poznań tfad pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie banków umowa pożyczki przez udziałowca kredyt bank zwolnienia grupowe pozyczka getin bank w 5 minut wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki od udziałowca bank pekao sa kredyt inwestycyjny kredyt bank gdansk targ drzewny kredyty mieszkaniowe bez bik kredyt pozabankowy lodz pożyczki prywatne umowa kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pocztowy opinie pożyczki od prywatnych firm bocian pożyczki zielona góra kredyt samochodowy bez bik na oświadczenie kredyt bez biku świdnica transfery w kredyt banku konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy dla jednej osoby firma żyrafa pożyczki kredyt bank profil aktywny 50 kredyt bank cz reklama pożyczki pożyczki na dowód żywiec szybkie pożyczki w uk opinie pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla sędziów konwertowanie pożyczki kredyt bank obecna nazwa pożyczki społecznościowe wikipedia kredyt bank przelewy wewnętrzne kredyt na firmę obrotowy bez poreczycieli oblicz oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku pożyczki gotówkowe w skoku kredyty chwilówki rzeszów rejtana w jakim banku wziac kredyt na mieszkanie umowa pożyczki notariusz cena kredyt bank przelewy natychmiastowa wymagalność pożyczki z zfśs warunki otrzymania pożyczki pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt z orange jaki numer oprocentowanie kredytu fm bank bocian pożyczki przez internet konsolidacja kredytu w bz wbk pożyczki bez bik i krd radom pozyczka na dowod osobisty numer tel chełm kredyty oddłużeniowe pozabankowe kredyty bankowe bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe ełk oprocentowanie efektywne pożyczki pożyczki w 15 minut kredyty pozyczki bez bik big krd kredyt bank lezajsk kontakt kredyty bez bik w poznaniu kredyty chwilówki parabank umowa pożyczki referat w jakim banku brac kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki z funduszy mikro pożyczki internetowe bez biku kredyt samochodowy na firmę odliczenia kredyt bank ustka godziny otwarcia naliczanie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego getin bank udzielę pożyczki na wysoki procent pożyczki chwilówki łódź przedawnienie pożyczki w providencie pożyczki na dowód kutno pozyczki z komornikiem z dostawa do domu pożyczki prywatne prawo kredyt bank żytnia warszawa godziny otwarcia udziele pożyczki prywatnie kraków kredyty bez biku jaworzno kredyt bank fundusze kredyt orange kod kredyt bez bik w koninie kredyt bank częstochowa bankomaty pożyczki z zajęciami komorniczymi banki kredyt online

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad