kredyt bank nr regon provident nr pożyczki umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem pożyczki dla firm ranking kredyty chwilówki szczecin jakie odsetki od pożyczki udziałowca pożyczki z dostawą do domu wrocław kredyty chwilówki starogard gd kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2011 pozyczki bez dochodow koszalin jak dostac kredyt w uk na mieszkanie kredyty chwilowki lomza pozyczka online w niedziele pożyczki chwilówki artykuły prodomo pożyczki toruń kredyt konsolidacyjny zabrze pożyczki janosik sosnowiec kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2011 pożyczki chwilówki ostróda kredyty chwilowki bez bik bez krd rybnik kredyt na sam dowód miosk maz bez sprawdzania krd pożyczki pozabankowe w częstochowie szybki kredyt gotówkowy przez internet bez bik wniosek o restrukturyzację pożyczki kredyt bank łęczna pozyczka w domu klients czechowice kredyt bank plac solny jaki kod na kredyt w orange kredyt bank dąbrowskiego 129 kredyt samochodowy fortis bank kredyty bez bik mazowieckie pożyczka od ręki dla 18 latkow kredyt w niemieckim banku dla polaka kredyt bank centrum korporacyjne pożyczka chwilówka bez potwierdzania konta pulawska kredyty chwilowki warszawa bez bik i krd pożyczki wysokooprocentowane kredyt bank oddział w dębicy pożyczki kraków chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń 2012 kredyty bez bik tychy dobranie pożyczki w skok kredyt bank rodzina na swoim kalkulator kredyt bank oferta pracy pożyczki żuromin pożyczki z nigerii kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych przez internet kredyt na oświadczenie w credit agricole firma udzielająca pożyczki bank bgż kredyty konsolidacyjne szybkie pożyczki w uk czy banki udzielają pożyczek pod weksel alior bank kredyt dla zadłużonych pożyczki prywatne lębork kredyt bank warszawa mapa kredyt bank warszawa filie najtanszy kredyt w ktorym banku getin bank kredyt samochodowy kredyt bank zumi pożyczki chwilówki w płocku pożyczki chwilówki zachodniopomorskie kredyt w banku agricole umowa pożyczki pod zastaw pdf pożyczki pod zastaw augustów pożyczki bez bik bydgoszcz pozyczki dla kazdego 48 krzysztof pawiński pożyczki pożyczki na dowód krosno mikropożyczki w polsce umowa pożyczki spółka z oo pożyczki bez bik od 10000 pożyczki między osobami prywatnymi kredyt studencki pko potrzebne dokumenty kredyt bank żołnierska pożyczki pozabankowe duże kwoty kredyty pozabankowe zawiercie kredyt bank piłsudskiego łódź godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki we wrześni pożyczka zdunska wola bez bik do 6000 pożyczki 30000 pożyczki bez krd na dowód kredyt bank sa logowanie szybki kredyt bankowy bez bik pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz oddziały dobrej pożyczki kredyt bank blawatna atiz pożyczka umowa pożyczki spółka komandytowa umowa pożyczki w rodzinie podatek szybki kredyt bez biku i krd grudziadz kredyty bez zaświadczeń o dochodach i bez bik santander kupuje kredyt bank 2012 kredyt bank lokaty luty 2013 pożyczki prywatne busko zdrój pożyczki bez dochodów i bik wymagalność rat pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe wikipedia kredyt bank otwock praca kredyt bank grupa kapitałowa udzielenie pożyczki bratu kredyt bank włodawa tel kredyty chwilówki żyrafa optima pożyczki słupsk kredyt pozabankowy toruń kredyty chwilówki fordon kredyty bez bik kraków warunki spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko bp polecana pozyczka w systemie ratalnym bez bik kredyty bez bik dla emerytów pożyczki kołobrzeg pożyczki pozabankowe goleniów kronos pozyczki piotrkow kredyt bank fuzja kredyt bank rumia godz otwarcia oprocentowanie pożyczki w pko sa jak wziasc kredyt do 25000 oddział kredyt banku w łodzi kredyt bank pocztowy kalkulator eurocash pożyczki umowa pożyczki na zakup towaru wzór kredyt bank śląskie oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank pożyczki dla nauczycieli w szkole pożyczki 100 przyznawalności kredyt bank wychodzące kredyt bank warszawa powstańców śląskich kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku slaskim pozyczka getin bank w 5 minut kredyt na mieszkanie w banku pko bp obliczenie pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy na zarobki w uk kredyt studencki pko warunki pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw nieruchomości mikropożyczki opole kredyt bank kraków rakowicka godziny otwarcia czy od pożyczki płacimy podatek pożyczki chwilówki odsetki od umowy pożyczki a vat pożyczki bez bik i krd warszawa pożyczki bez bik 4000 kredyty chwilówki opinie pożyczki tempo finanse kredyt pozabankowy bez bik online pożyczka na sam dowód bez przelewania pieniazków kredyt bankowy a emisja obligacji pożyczki bez przedpłat kredyt samochodowy fiat bank pożyczki pozabankowe piotrków trybunalski kredyt bez bik do 150 tys pożyczki social lending umowa pożyczki jak zaksięgować retencja pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk grunwaldzka pozyczki dla bezrobotnych bialystok oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku pożyczki na dowód porównanie wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki ekspresowej pko sa restrukturyzacja pożyczki w skok kredyty w getin banku opinie pożyczki z komornikiem pożyczki prywatne pod weksel warszawa kredyt bankowy to aktywa czy pasywa kredyt bank sopot kontakt pszczółka pożyczki kredyt samochodowy bez biku bocian pożyczki giżycko kredyt bank szczecinek godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód głogów pożyczki bez bik gdynia ekspreskasa pożyczka na dowód umowa pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym pożyczki gotówkowe 5000 getin bank warunki pożyczki które banki udzielają kredytu bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód warszawa bocian pożyczki oddziały pożyczki dla firm kraków kredyt chwilówka kraków pożyczki cash kredyty i pożyczki dla gmin kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm kalkulator getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy jastrzębie zdrój pożyczki dla młodych rolników kredyt bank romera pożyczki biznes forum kredyt bank konta osobiste kredyt bank miechów pożyczki bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt studencki pko czy warto fundusz mikro – pożyczki dla małych firm pożyczki na dowód eurobank kredyt odnawialny w getin banku pożyczki chwilówki tarnów kredyty bez biku wrocław umowa pożyczki us poznań pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty chwilówki dział marketingu szybkie pożyczki kielce pożyczki pod zastaw kłodzko kredyt konsolidacyjny pojęcie kredyt w rachunku bieżącym bank spółdzielczy kredyt konsolidacyjny zagiel kredyt pozabankowy olsztyn udzielone pożyczki w bilansie umowa pożyczki od spółki kredyty chwilówki grójec kredyt bank mariusz kaczmarek kredyt bank mielec mickiewicza pożyczki na dowód chwilówki konto pożyczki udzielone kredyt bank kapelanka kraków godziny otwarcia idea bank konsolidacja konsolidacji kredytu kredyt samochodowy w fiat bank kredyty w uk forum kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku kalkulator szukam pożyczki pozabankowej prywatnej czy do kredytu chwilowki potrzebne jest zaswiadczenie wzór umowy pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym kredyty chwilówki bytom odsetki od pożyczki nkup kredyt bank kantor pozyczki bez biku pożyczki społecznościowe co to jest pożyczki kruk sa przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki ekspres kasa kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kopernik kredyt konsolidacyjny do 10 lat pożyczki mieszkaniowe sędziów kredyty nordea bank pożyczki chwilówki provident kredyty pozabankowe dla firm bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe ranking 2013 karty kredytowe online z krd kredyt gotówkowy bez bik poznań bank pko kredyt studencki wniosek wzór oświadczenia o zwrocie pożyczki kredyt bank dane kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin kredyty bankowe historia pożyczki chwilówki łask kredyt bank z bzwbk pożyczki polbank kredyt bank przelewy online wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z pracy kredyty chwilowki krakow odsetki od pożyczki koszty finansowe pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa bielany darowizna zamiast pożyczki marka kredyty opinie pcc od umowy pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt chwilówka sandomierz kredyty pożyczki bez bik forum kredyty chwilowki kety duo pożyczki chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny pod nieruchomość kredyt bankowy ryzyko kredyty chwilówki praca windykacja getin bank warunki kredytu gotówkowego kredyt konsumencki prawo bankowe pko bank polski kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt studencki pekao 2012 pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki warszawa kredyt bank biala podlaska godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe 1992 ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2013 najleprzy kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki prywatne tarnów pożyczki pozabankowe we włocławku kredyty chwilówki jakie oprocentowanie kredyt bank fundacja warty kredyt bank złota karta pożyczki bez bik 2000 zł umorzenie pożyczki byłemu pracownikowi umowa pożyczki prawo właściwe umowa pożyczki między członkami rodziny wzór bocian pozyczki glogow kredyt bank warszawa patriotów rola kredytu w działalności banku pożyczki ubezpieczone kredyt bankowy millenium kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku kalkulator pożyczki bez dochodu na dowód nowe pożyczki chwilówki kredyty gotówkowe bez bik lublin kredyt bank warszawa ul kasprzaka 2 8 kredyt bank dyrektor hr wzór umowy pożyczki dla pracownika kredyty mieszkaniowe w 2012 roku umowa pożyczki dla spółki a pcc kredyt bez bik do 20 tys lombard pożyczki pod zastaw poznań kredyt bank łączy się pożyczka 60000 bez bik wymagalność pożyczki pozyczki pozabankowe przez internet legnica kredyt bank 3 maja kredyt bankowy ciekawostki kredyty chwilówki polkowice nbp kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank praca szczecin hortus pożyczki siedlce kredyt bank warszawa vii oddział kredyt bank warszawa grochowska pożyczki w domu wrocław pożyczki bez bik w banku kredyt studencki w pko sa kancelaria finansowa pożyczki kredyt samochodowy lukas bank pożyczki długoterminowe dla zadłużonych rejestracja umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza bandrowskiego kredyt bank kursy walut archiwum kwota pożyczki netto ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych marzec 2013 pożyczka w domu klienta pożyczki płock bez bik dokumentowanie odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki wikipedia kredyt w cetelem bank pożyczki prywatne od osób prywatnych rawicz oferteo pożyczki pożyczki prywatne busko najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2011 kredyt bank forum klientów pożyczki w aig kredyt bank emilii plater kredyt budowlany w jakim banku pożyczki geronimo pożyczki z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki chwilówki wieliczka kredyt bank łomża kontakt kredyt bank ostrów maz kredyty bez bik żywiec pożyczki z komornikiem bydgoszcz kredyt bank w kutnie pożyczki bez bik z zajęciami komorniczymi pożyczki bez bik bez zdolności kredytowej kredyty mieszkaniowe na 100 wartości nieruchomości raty pożyczki gotówkowej rybnik pożyczki prywatne pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej szukam pożyczki forum kredyty bez bik pruszków odstąpienie od umowy pożyczki profi credit deklaracja pcc od umowy pożyczki umowa umorzenia pożyczki kredyt bank poznań kredyt bez bik radom kredyty chwilówki praca forum umowa pożyczki gotówki dla spółki czy kredyt mieszkaniowy można odliczyć od podatku pożyczki bez zaświadczeń inowrocław kredyt bank adres główny pożyczki bez wychodzenia z domu bez bik kredyt bank szczecin okulickiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank janów lubelski kredyt bank najgorszy pożyczki chwilówki olecko kredyt konsolidacyjny zadłużonych w zusie i w bankach kredyt bank elektroniczny kredyt bez bik tarnowskie góry kredyty chwilowki grojecka czy od pożyczki płaci się podatek pozyczki na dowod czechowice prywatne pożyczki w 15 minut online najszybsze pozyczki w domu klienta wałbrzych pozyczki przy umowie pożyczki bez biku kredyty chwilówki jarosław pożyczka bez zdolności kredytowej puck pożyczki na rok przez internet kredyt bank zmiana limitu przelewu duże pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank konsolidacja udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę komandytową pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik płock bocian pożyczki czarnków szybki kredyt online bez biku kredyt bank o lublin żagiel kredyty chwilówki włoszczowa kredyty chwilówki jak otworzyć pożyczki z pracy kredyt w getin banku 2012 kredyty bez bik i krd bydgoszcz pożyczki regita cechy pożyczki jako czynności prawnej kredyty chwilówki ligota kredyty mieszkaniowe forum 2013 pożyczki 10000 zł pożyczki jak provident kredyt konsolidacyjny na 25 lat kredyty chwilówki sandomierz pożyczki bez biku w bydgoszczy kredyt bank kod iban forum pożyczki bocian kredyt studencki banki które udzielają pożyczki pozabankowe 2000 kredyty chwilowki w knf kredyt bank jana pawła gdańsk godziny otwarcia raty kredytu studenckiego pko bp prometeusz pozyczka gotówkowa na dowód pożyczki od osób prywatnych umowa pożyczki historia kredyt bank przemyśl ul dworskiego rezygnacja z karty kredytowej multima wzórkredyt bank bocian pożyczki gryfino kredyt na dowód bez bik zaświadczeń pożyczki jeremie mazowieckie ewidencja kredytów w banku komercyjnym kredyt pozabankowy na start firmy kredyty pozabankowe oświęcim kredyt na samochód bez biku kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz opinie udzielenie pożyczki osobie prywatnej pożyczki pozabankowe dla kogo pożyczki bez bik legionowo kredyt bank oprocentowanie ror kredyt konsolidacyjny a bik kredyt w boś banku opinie pożyczki bez bik łódz umowa pożyczki wzór spłata w ratach pożyczki prywatne cała polska pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kielce najtańsze kredyty mieszkaniowe forum wrocław pożyczki prywatne kredyt banki grudziądz pożyczki w bankach ranking prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe katowice wziecie pozyczki od mafi pożyczki do domu płock kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli dofinansowanie kredyt bank włocławek kredyty chwilówki radom malczewskiego szybki kredyt dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt w eurobank forum jacek cybulski pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki wejherowo kredyty chwilówki do domu prywatne kredyty na dowod online bez zaswiadczen pko bp kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator pożyczki pod zastaw białystok pożyczki z dotacji pozyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki bez bik szybko i prosto regulamin pożyczki pracowniczej umowa pożyczki forma kredyt alior bank forum udzielenie pożyczki członkowi zarządu pozyczki z obsluga w domu lask pożyczki pozabankowe żagań kredyt bank warszawa waszyngtona kredyt dla policjantow kredyt mieszkaniowy we frankach szwajcarskich słupia pożyczki dla firm kredyt bank żagiel kontakt akropol pożyczki kredyt do reki warszawa kredyt bank lublin ul zana 39a kredyt bankowy plan pracy kredyt bank łódż kredyty chwilowki plock kredyt bez bik szybko kredyt samochodowy ing oprocentowanie kredyt bank bankomaty warszawa czy łatwo dostać kredyt w banku pocztowym konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy wzór kredyt dla zadluzonych milleniumbank udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez osobę fizyczną pod jaki numer bierze się kredyt w orange drobne pożyczki pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych pożyczki środa wlkp pożyczki w domu klienta wałbrzych bocian pożyczki i podobne profi kredyt kontakt klodzko kredyt bankowy na rozpoczecie dzialalnosci gospodarczej podatek od pożyczki pracowniczej kredyt konsolidacyjny koszalin kredyt mieszkaniowy w którym banku udzielę pożyczki prywatnej 2013 kredyt bank wyszogrodzka płock kredyt bank międzyrzec podlaski godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla organizacji pozarządowej kredyt konsumpcyjny bank kredyt bank wlasciciel kredyt bez bik kraków kredyt bank skoczów godziny otwarcia pożyczki bialystok pożyczki chwilówki jaki procent umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki na dowód szczecin pożyczki chwilówki przez internet forum kredyt bank gdańsk pożyczki bez bik i z komornikiem alior bank kredyt ratalny pożyczki na dowód żywiec kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe 2013 pożyczki chwilówki sanok

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad