umowa pożyczki spłata w ratach ing bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator pożyczki prywatne zabrze kredyty chwilówki pruszcz gdański kredyty chwilówki bielsko kredyt mieszkaniowy powyżej 100 kto płaci podatek od pożyczki z zagranicy bank pko bp kredyt dla firm pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kraków dukat pożyczki warszawa kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe lokata swobodna kredyt bank sa szczecin pożyczki repo wycena bilansowa udzielonej pożyczki pożyczki prywatne dla nowych firm prestige pozyczki czestochowa kredyt bank lublin narutowicza formularz pożyczki wzór kredyty dla zadłużonych w uk kredyt bank klodzko umowa pożyczki zastaw wzór pożyczki gotówkowe provident kredyty bez biku gliwice kredyt samochodowy dla niepełnosprawnych pożyczki w domu klienta piła kredyt bankowy literatura kredyt mieszkaniowy dla mlodych malzenstw 2013 turbo pożyczki pożyczki prywatne włocławek pożyczki pod zastaw chorzów oprocentowanie pożyczki w skoku kredyt bank głogów godziny otwarcia roznoszenie ulotek kredyty chwilówki w słupsku kredyt bank mapa pożyczki bez bik kujawsko pomorskie pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik łódź pożyczki dla bezrobotnych online kredyt bez bik pozabankowy pożyczki dla firm pod zastaw kredyt samochodowy bez bik ka omyła pożyczki kredyt remontowy w banku pekao sa pożyczki pod nieruchomość warszawa w jakim banku wziąć kredyt bez bik pożyczki chwilówki pozabankowe kredyt samochodowy dla firm kalkulator pożyczki bez bik rzeszów pilne mariusz kowalski kredyty bydgoszcz kredyt na start w idea banku opinie kredyt pod zastaw samochodu bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych singli kredyt bank piaseczno kontakt kredyt bank definicja kredyt samochodowy getinbank kontakt pożyczki dla nowo powstałych firm pozyczki bez biku poznan cech pożyczki pozyczki bocian kontakt sroda wlkp pożyczki w kruku kredyty dla nowo powstalych firm bez bik kredyt bank dabie kredyt bank ciołka kredyt bank firma kredyty chwilówki jaworzno sienkiewicza umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi bez odsetek kredyt bank bydgoszcz kredyt gotówkowy eurobank online kredyt bank warszawa fieldorfa kredyt bank ekstrakonto student kredyty chwilówki jaworzno sienkiewicza parabanki pożyczki kredyt bank kraków os kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla osób zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez biku lublin czy łatwo dostać kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt konsolidacyjny oferta banków kredyt bank w krosnie pożyczka pod weksel poznań kredyt bank sa tel funkcje pożyczki skarabeusz pożyczki wielkopolska kredyty bez bik do 30000 warta pożyczki kredyt studencki pko bp 2012 kredyt chwilowka bez sprawdzania zdolnosci kredytowej pożyczki na pit 37 oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej w ing bocian pożyczki żnin kredyty mieszkaniowe październik 2013 kredyt bank oddziały w białymstoku kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank pozyczki na dowód nysa szybki kredyt bez bik wrocław kredyt bank iv oddział w warszawie kredyt pozabankowy gdzie kredyt bank łochów pożyczki online bez bik big krd udział kredytów w aktywach banku kredyt konsumpcyjny w banku bph pożyczki pozabankowe 50000 eurobank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny bnp paribas opinie kredyty chwilówki świecie pożyczki bez bik 2000 kredyt samochodowy w vw bank opinie umowa pożyczki miedzy firmami wzór szukam pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt bez bik 100 tys pożyczki bez weryfikacji konta bankowego umowa pożyczki chwilówka kredyty bez biku koszalin bank millennium kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank obotrycka gorzów bocian pożyczki pasłęk pożyczki oddłużeniowe dla rolników kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zgody współmałżonka pozyczki prywatne wejherowo kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza bandrowskiego umowa pożyczki członka zarządu wzór umowy pożyczki koleżeńskiej kredyt bank różana godziny otwarcia kredyt na rok jaki jest numer kredyt orange kredyt bank bialoleka pożyczki jako źródło finansowania księgowanie pożyczki od udziałowca bocian pożyczki środa wlkp umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór jak splacic komornika jaki bank udziela kredytu opodatkowanie pożyczki od rodziny pożyczki bielsko umowa pożyczki pod zastaw udziałów pożyczki pieniężne definicja pozyczka na weksel wlasny na slasku kredyt bank kamienna czy kredyt bankowy jest przychodem kredyt bank w nysie pozyczka na umowe zlecenie w czestochowie pożyczki w skoku stefczyka opinie kredyt studencki pko transza za lipiec podatek pcc od pożyczki między firmami kredyty eurobank pl pożyczki dla pracujących za granicą kredyty chwilówki na liście knf udzielę pożyczki na wysoki procent kredyt samochodowy w banku pocztowym pożyczki na rentę socjalną pożyczki w profi credit opinie kredyt bank nowy targ kredyt bank konto osobiste 7 kredyt bank aktywacja listy haseł kredyt bank końskie kontakt kredyt na budowe domu w banku spółdzielczym kredyt studencki pekao sa 2012 żyrafa pożyczki pl www pl a pilne pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt konsolidacyjny uk pożyczki bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki z bankiem kredyt bank gdynia bławatna 11 podatek od pożyczki w rodzinie 2013 kredyt bank placówki partnerskie kredyt bank transze kredyt studencki pekao sa wniosek kredyt bankowy praca licencjacka kredyt bez bik lubuskie pod jaki numer kredyt do orange lublin pozyczka na dowod bez dochodu kredyt bank kłodzko telefon pożyczki w lombardach kredyt bank w nidzicy pozyczki banknot kredyty chwilówki w kaliszu kredyty bez bik gorzow wlkp pożyczki bezprocentowe kredyt bank wita stwosza wrocław pożyczki pozabankowe pod weksel bydgoszcz bank pko kredyt studencki wniosek kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki alior bank kredyt na remont kredyty konsolidacyjne bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyty mieszkaniowe maj 2012 kredyt studencki opinie forum kredyt bank widok skierniewice kredyt w banku pko bp opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej 2013 pożyczki gotówkowe prywatne bankomaty kredyt bank gliwice pożyczki płock na dowód santander kredyt na samochod w uk kredyt samochodowy mbank regulamin kredyt konsolidacyjny chwilówka kredyt gotówkowy w alior banku forum kredyt bank to wbk szybki kredyt bez bik wrocław pożyczki do domu optima getin bank kredyt samochodowy ubezpieczenie kredyt na dowód bez bik przez internet kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulacja numery telefonu o pozyczke wrzesnia kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kalkulator pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla prokuratorów kredyt bank notowania walut tanie pożyczki bez bik kredyt na mieszkanie bank pocztowy pożyczki bez bik w opolu kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób w bik potrącenie z wynagrodzenia pożyczki kalkulator kredytu samochodowego alior bank kredyt bank w slupsku bank pbh kredyt kolobrzeg akcje spółki kredyt bank sa w warszawie kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank kredyt na dowod bez konta w banku wysokie pożyczki gotówkowe przedawnienie niespłaconej pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny praca w uk pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik online w jakim banku kredyt w uk kredyt bank lodz zgierska kredyt w ulster bank ie kredyt bez bik leszno kredyt bank 10 kredyt na dowod osobisty gdansk kredyty bankowe funkcje pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczenia o zarobkach prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe poznań pozyczki bez zaswiadczen w uk kredyt bank bydgoszcz kredyt konsumpcyjny w kredyt banku kredyt na założenie firmy bez bik kredyt bank sprzedany santander pozyczki nasielsk warszawska na oswiadczenie pożyczki chwilówki wronki pozyczki atiz ostrow kredyt bank leba kredyt bank mościckiego tarnów kredyt konsolidacyjny w którym banku kredyty chwilówki fabryczna 12 tychy umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu doc kredyty gotówkowy bez biku na czym polega umowa pożyczki pożyczki pod weksel kraków kredyt bank świdnica kontakt ing pożyczka samochodowa bank udzielajacy pozyczki z dochodami z zagranicy kredyt bank w kole pozyczki bez umowy o prace kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bgż kredyt pozabankowy radom kredyty bez bik rzeszów kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń pożyczki gotówkowe banki chwilówki płock pożyczki płock chwilówki gąbin kto udzieli pożyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki na dowód wągrowiec kredyt bank wesoła godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki łódź wzory umów pożyczki kredyt bank lublin forum kredyt w ulster bank ie kredyty konsolidacyjne przez internet bocian pożyczki skargi krezus pożyczki pożyczki prywatne zasady umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs gofin pożyczki wieluń pożyczki bez bik elbląg pożyczki bez bik w 15 minut kredyt zagraniczny opinie pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik pożyczki bez bik porównanie pozyczka chwilowka elk pożyczki w domu klienta prywatne pozyczki na weksel kredyt bank w jakich bankomatach bez prowizji kredyt konsolidacyjny chojnice kredyt bank powstancow slaskich kredyt z komornikiem bez opłat optima pożyczki poznań pożyczki referat kredyt bank lwowska tarnów pożyczki pod zastaw zasady kredyt bank lista bezpłatnych bankomatów kredyty mieszkaniowe obliczenie rat kredyty chwilówki dział kadr jak grzecznie odmówić pożyczki pozyczki prywatne bialogard umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej umowa pożyczki a us bocian pożyczki gdynia pożyczki przez internet dla firmy kredyt bez bik 50000 kredyty mieszkaniowe marzec 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche bank opinie udzielone pożyczki ang pożyczka bez dochodu i komornikiem na reke credit agricole swiebodzin pozyczka 10tys pozyczki w swiebodzinie bez sprawdzania biku udzielanie pożyczki z budżetu gminy kredyt konsolidacyjny w euro w jakim banku brac kredyt kredyt bank lokaty październik 2012 kredyty bez bik jelenia góra kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu umowa pożyczki pieniędzy opodatkowanie w jakim banku opłaca się wziąć kredyt pewne pożyczki dla każdego opinie konin pozyczka bez bik i krd kredyt studencki pko bp odnowienie pożyczki w koncie kredyt bank cennik przelewów pożyczki dla rolników credit agricole pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe pruszków kredyt bank katowice godziny otwarcia paulina gąska pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy wcześniejsza spłata oświęcimiak pożyczki kredyty bez biku rzeszow kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki uzyskania kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy w idea bank kredyt bank zolnierska olsztyn szybki kredyt samochodowy bez bik umowa pożyczki z żyrantem kredyty bez bik sanok pożyczki dla bezrobotnych pup pożyczki bez bik do 20 tys pożyczki bocian koszalin umowa pożyczki pracownik pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi rolnej kredyt bank zamość pożyczki prywatne skarżysko pozyczki nasielsk warszawska na oswiadczenie pomoc publiczna pożyczki kredyty chwilowki belchatow kredyt mieszkaniowy przy zarobkach 2500 kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt na 5 zl orange fast pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych z zajęciem komorniczym udzielenie pożyczki udziałowcowi a pcc pożyczki chwilówki żyrafa kredyt konsolidacyjny przez internet pożyczki pod zastaw swarzędz kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 3000 netto pożyczki na innowacje pożyczki udzielane przez osoby prywatne potrzebuje pożyczki mam komornika wonga pożyczki reklama vivus kwota pożyczki została zmniejszona pozyczka na dowod bez biku rzeszów pożyczki łódź kredyt mieszkaniowy harmonogram spłat kredyt w niemieckim banku dla polaka pożyczki pod zastaw telefonów wrocław kredyt w banku w holandii getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego pożyczki pod zastaw augustów pożyczki eden kredyt bank departament finansowania handlu umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a podatek najtańszy kredyt w banku agnieszka panek pożyczki prywatne kredyty staszow pożyczki społecznościowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki pod zastaw bydgoszcz pożyczka na dowód w lesznie banki kredyty samochodowe w ing kredyt mieszkaniowy pko sa forum umowa cywilna pożyczki gotówkowej umowa pożyczki w kodeksie cywilnym klasyfikacja pożyczki pożyczki payu jaki numer kredyt orange kredyt bank wrocław chrobrego tel kredyt bank znin umowa pożyczki partycypacyjnej pożyczki na dowód debica kredyty oddłużeniowe bez zabezpieczeń kredyt samochodowy ranking banków pożyczki refinansowe pożyczki na dowód bolesławiec potrącenie raty pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bankowy referat kredyt bank jastrzębia góra bank spółdzielczy kredyt na mieszkanie kredyty konsolidacyjne gotowkowe kredytypożyczki oddłużenia śląskie bank bph kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank legionowo godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zabezpieczenie lokat pożyczki gotówkowej zabezpieczonej aktywami płynnymi kredyt na oświadczenie w credit agricole bank pocztowy kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyt na samochód bez bik forum kredyty mieszkaniowe dla mlodych malzenstw kredyt bank nr bic kredyt gotówkowy bez biku kredyt w banku credit agricole opinie pożyczki pod zastaw bielawa kredyty bez bik bolesławiec kredyt bank forum pracowników kredyt studencki w banku credit agricole szybkie pozyczki pod zastaw busko kredyt bank wypłata gotówki kredyt bank lokaty lipiec 2012 santander norwegia kredyty pożyczki na dowód działdowo kredyt konsolidacyjny jestem w bik pożyczki kórnik ranking kredytów samochodowych lipiec 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny alior opinie wzór umorzenia pożyczki jakie banki udzielaja kredytu bez bik pożyczki społecznościowe wrocław natychmiastowa wymagalność pożyczki kredyt bank pierwsze logowanie eurobank pożyczki opinie udziele drobnej pozyczki zywiec pożyczki chwilówki grudziądz kredyt na dowód w getin banku pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny na zakup mieszkania regulamin pożyczki pracowniczej umorzenie pożyczki zfśs pozyczki dojazd do domu wloclawek artur kobus pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziców wzór pewne pożyczki dla każdego warunki otrzymania pożyczki w providencie kredyt bank moje konto kredyt w banku pko sa opinie bank millenium kredyty mieszkaniowe schemat księgowania pożyczki udzielę pożyczki na procent szczecin umowa pożyczki chwilówki alior bank kredyty studenckie umowa pożyczki na wykup mieszkania kredyt z komornikiem bez opłat pożyczki społecznościowe kraków kredyt bank wałbrzych telefon alior bank kalkulator kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki bez procentu sezam pożyczki krotoszyn oblicz kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt gotówkowe na dowód warszawa kredyt w orange 5 zl pożyczki gotówkowe bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank oddział piła nobilon gdansk pozyczki umowa pożyczki przedawnienie kredyty duże na dowód wrocław kredyty chwilowki w czestochowie gk kredyt banku sa transze w kredyt banku kredyt bank ken 98 kredyty bankowe na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt bank żołnierska olsztyn szybka pożyczka 20tysięcy obsługa w domu kredyt bank w elku pożyczki pozabankowe trójmiasto prywatne pozyczki na procent dublin kredyt bank osiedle kazimierzowskie pozyczka bez biku Środa wlkp getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny forum umowy o kredyt miedzyfirma a prywatna kredyt bank w kutnie umowa pożyczki taksa notarialna bocian pożyczki gniezno oprocentowanie pożyczki dla udziałowca kredyt konsolidacyjny w parabankach pożyczki międzybankowe banki dające kredyt bez bik kredyt gotowkowy kalkulator umowa pożyczki odstąpienie pożyczki mieszkaniowe w zakładach pracy darmowe pożyczki chwilówki kredyt gotówkowy bank pko sa kredyty bankowe wstęp warunki kredytu w banku wbk prywatne pożyczki kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny praca w uk pozyczki bez biku kredyt bank reklama adamczyk pożyczki bez bik pszczyna kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec orla kredyty chwilówki nowa sól pożyczki dla rodziny oprocentowanie kredytu w banku śląskim kredyt bank polna 11 pożyczki pozabankowe pabianice czy od pożyczki bankowej płaci się podatek pożyczki w domu klienta zielona góra pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy radom kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy kredyt bez bik kwidzyn pożyczki gotówkowe w 15 minut

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad