optima pożyczki praca forum lisiak przemysław pożyczki umowa o spłatę pożyczki kwota pożyczki zwolniona od podatku idea bank kredyt dla nowych firm opinie pożyczki bez bik i krd wałbrzych kredyt bank śliska w jakim banku wziac kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt konsolidacyjny get in bank pożyczki gotówkowe od 18 lat kredyt bank ken godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyty chwilówki praca bytom umorzenie pożyczki z wfośigw księgowanie bocian pożyczki gotówkowe forum kredyt bank zielona góra telefon definicja pożyczki krótkoterminowej pozyczki z obsluga w domu gdansk kiedy umowa pożyczki nie podlega pcc kredyt bank 1 maja płock kompensata pożyczki z należnościami kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń o dochodach kasa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób zadłużonych kredyt bank adres korespondencyjny kredyt bank adres warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik płock pożyczki chwilówki bez big umowa pożyczki wzór weksel pożyczki alter najszybsze pozyczki w domu klienta pożyczki pozabankowe do 40000 szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki dla osób z zajęciem komorniczym kredyt bez bik w płocku pożyczki jst pożyczki prywatne bydgoszcz opodatkowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt konsolidacyjny rybnik good cash pożyczki kredyt bank diners club obliczanie pożyczki pożyczki bez bik od ręki polbank pożyczki gotówkowe umowa pożyczki od kolegi kredyty chwilówki jaworzno leopold kredyt na mieszkanie bank zachodni cesja pożyczki a pcc kredyt bank oddział częstochowa kredyty chwilówki tarnów krakowska idea bank kredyty gotówkowe kredyt bank inowrocław godziny otwarcia getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny podatek od pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej kredyt bank piotrków godziny otwarcia szybki kredyt bez zaświadczeń bez bik umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pod zastaw kalkulator pożyczki bnp paribas pożyczki na dowód choszczno eurobank kredyt bez biku umowa pożyczki bez daty zwrotu pożyczki w domu klienta radom pożyczki inne niż provident cechy pożyczki pozyczki bez bik i krd numerz tel kredyty mieszkaniowe w alior banku pożyczki 5000 zł umowa pożyczki od siostry szukam pożyczki szczecin kredyt studencki w jakim banku najlepiej trzebinia pozyczki kosciuszki kredyt bank białystok warszawska godziny otwarcia polbank pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki ślimak szczecin pożyczki w instytucjach pozabankowych kredyt bank placówki warszawa bielany kredyty chwilówki system partner pl kredyt bank sosnowiec modrzejowska godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki cit kredyt bez bik w poznaniu pożyczki bez bik krd przez internet wyłudzenie pożyczki w providencie szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd online kredyt pozabankowy opinie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń forum koszty pożyczki bankowej pożyczki na dowód rawicz pożyczki w policji kredyt bank w suszu kredyt bank oświadczenie inwestora zastępczego lokaty w kredyt banku opinie kredyt bank bic swift pozyczki poza bankowe w kluczborku kredyt bank konstancin jeziorna kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę kart kredytowych pożyczki w domu bolesławięc kredyt bank produkty kredyt bank fundusze notowania pożyczki bez bik provident pożyczki lukas elbląg wysokie pożyczki prywatne rzeszów kredyty pozabankowe dla firm kredyt bez bik 15000 umowa pożyczki bez terminu spłaty kredyt samochodowy bank tarnów pożyczki prywatne elbląg pożyczki społecznościowe wiki kredyt bank windykacja pożyczki na rente socjalną mikropożyczki definicja umowa pożyczki postępowanie upominawcze finan pożyczki szczecin kredyt firmowy bez biku pożyczki chwilówki lubin kredyt konsolidacyjny fortis szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń kredyt wspólnota mieszkaniowa odpowiedzialność kredyt bank warszawa windykacja chwilowki pozyczki w domu klienta slask pożyczki do domu bocian kredyt bank powstańców wrocław kredyt bank gdynia skwer ile kosztuje umowa pożyczki u notariusza bocian pożyczki nakło nad notecią pożyczki pozabankowe dla osób bezrobotnych kredyt bank kb token pożyczki mieszkaniowe z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank żytnia 15 kredyty chwilówki trzebinia kredyt bank zmiana logo szybkie pożyczki potrzebuje pożyczki pod zastaw pożyczki na świeta kredyt bez bik konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki od rodziców a pcc pożyczki z budżetu państwa dla jst pożyczki przez internet na 60 dni pożyczki na dowód bez poręczycieli kredyty helios pożyczki dla rolników prywatne pożyczki września pozyczki pila kredyt pod zastaw bez bik pożyczki w credit agricole pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów lublin pożyczki w lombardzie pożyczki chwilówki słupsk wojska polskiego kredyt konsolidacyjny zabrze pożyczki prywatne od osób prywatnych odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem kredyt bank bogatynia kontakt kredyt bank plac solny wrocław godziny otwarcia pozyczki zyrafa aleksandrow lodzki kredyt bank adres biz pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń i bez biku szybkie pożyczki w szkocji kredyt na mieszkanie w banku spółdzielczym w którym banku kredyt gotówkowy umowa pożyczki wzór umowy kredyty chwilówki galeria pożyczka bez bik na 30 lat kredyty chwilówki wągrowiec kredyt bank szczecin adres kto umowa pożyczki pod zastaw kalkulator pożyczki kredytu pożyczki wieruszów pożyczki chwilówki bez dochodów kredyt bank dyrektor hr pożyczki pod zastaw polisy na życie pożyczki konsumpcyjne porównanie jak obliczyć nominalne oprocentowanie pożyczki kredyt bank lista darmowych bankomatów pożyczki chwilówki bez bik szczecin kredyt z banku a podatek kredyt bank stargard telefon kredyt bank mosina podatek od pożyczki dla firmy wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z zakładu pracy kto bierze pożyczki gotówkowe getin bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt refinansowy w jakim banku kredyty bez bik krd na pit 11 odsetki od pożyczki nota czy faktura kredyty chwilówki bez prowizji pożyczki prywatne rypin kredyt konsolidacyjny w mbanku opinie kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw pożyczki dla pracujących na czarno pożyczka w skok stefczyka częstochowa opinie kredyty chwilówki praca leszno kredyt bank rzeszów adres pożyczki krotoszyn pożyczki chwilówki brodnica pożyczki czeladź bocian pożyczki kraków umowa pożyczki przykład pożyczki naziemne pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem poznań pożyczki bez bik dla zadłuzonych górna wilda pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny symulacja rat betgang pożyczka kredyty bez bik sandomierz pcc od umowy pożyczki od wspólnika pożyczki na inwestycje pkf skarbiec tanie pożyczki dla ciebie czy idea bank da kredyt zadluzonym opinie pożyczki od ręki wrocław pożyczki dla firm forum kredyt bank rzeszów rejtana kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe września kredyt bez bik w kielcach pożyczka chwilówka prywatna wrocław pożyczki prywatne chełm pożyczki pozabankowe bytom kredyty chwilówki kadry kredyt bank w lodzi kredyt bank tyszowce godziny otwarcia podanie o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki dla pracujących w czechach kredyt bank adres siedziby kredyt orange pod jaki numer kredyt w banku spółdzielczym bez bik umowa pożyczki rodzaje kredyty chwilówki opinie gowork umowa pożyczki pomiędzy rodzeństwem kredyt studencki pko bank polski pożyczki dla hitlera kredyt idea bank ze wsparciem unijnym pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń warszawa polska pozyczka dla bedacych w uk pozyczki dojazd do domu wloclawek umorzenie pożyczki różnice kursowe kredyt 4 tys na dowód prowident kredyt bank zawiercie telefon kredyt bez bik gdzie dostane kredyty chwilówki warszawa praga pożyczki długoterminowe online kredyt bank lokata forum umowa pożyczki definicja z banku wzięto kredyt w wysokości 2000 zł pożyczki prywatnie poznań pożyczki wśród najbliższych emida pożyczki prywatne wzór umowy pożyczki dla spółki kredyt bank zamość lokaty pożyczki gotówkowe pko sa kredyt bank lokata opinie kredyty chwilówki nr tel kredyt bank rodzina na swoim forum gdzie najłatwiej uzyskać kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty chwilówki szczecinek pożyczki akcent kredyty chwilówki kalkulator kredyty chwilówki praca tychy kredyt bank lublin krakowskie przedmieście 37 umorzenie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank cena akcji ewidencja odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki przeksięgowanie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pożyczki dla zadłużonych pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik i krd poznań pożyczki w skok stefczyka promesa pożyczki pożyczki na dowód długoterminowe bocian pożyczki nowa ruda pożyczki kredyty na dowód pozyczki na dowod w domu klienta krotoszyn i okolice pożyczki prywatne oszuści pożyczki bez bik i krd warszawa pożyczki na pit bez bik kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat polbank kredyt bank czeladź gwarant pozyczki piotrkow kredyt w fm banku opinie kredyt bez weryfikacji w biku pożyczki online bez bik i krd pozyczka z bociana dla kogo kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik 2013 banki które udzielają kredytu bez bik co to znaczy kredyt bez bik pożyczki w wałbrzychu kredyt samochodowy lukas bank kredyty w jakim banku kronos pożyczki tychy podatek od umowy pożyczki 2012 bank spółdzielczy kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator prywatna pożyczka komornik warszawa odsetki od pożyczki koszty uzyskania przychodu amber kredyt kredyt bez bik chełm umowa pożyczki dla spółki kredyt bank dział kadr oprocentowanie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank świecie telefon kredyt bank płock kolegialna telefon pożyczki z obsługa w domu szukam pożyczki na weksel kredyt konsolidacyjny ze zlym bikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny kb kredyt samochodowy w mbank opinie lublin pozyczka na dowod bez dochodu pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości koszalin kredyty bez bik szybkie kredyt bank grunwaldzka 345 pożyczki do domu grudziądz kredyt bez bij do 20000 tys oblicz kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pożyczki w domu klijeta na umowę o dzieło kredyt studencki pko do kiedy zaświadczenie pożyczki na dowód głogów kredyt bez bik brodnica kredyt bank zaspa bank pko kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyty chwilowki gdansk wrzeszcz pożyczki pod zastaw tarnów pożyczki programy partnerskie kredyt mieszkaniowy podczas rozwodu kredyt mieszkaniowy od państwa czy idea bank daje kredyt pod zastaw umowa pożyczki na wykup mieszkania ubezpieczenie pożyczki pko bp pożyczki wfośigw kredyt bank w oławie przelew w kredyt banku pożyczki bez bik wejherowo kredyt bank tychy kontakt pożyczki z ue dla firm kredyt dla firm bez bik i zus jaki jest nr na kredyt do orange kredyt bank opinie pożyczki pozabankowe 15000 kredyty pozabankowe bez bik kredyt bank sa regon kredyty chwilówki bez opłat kredyty chwilówki praca ulotki kredyt bank centrala w warszawie kredyt bank rawicz telefon pożyczki radom kredyty pożyczki chwilówki na raty kredyty chwilowki gdansk provident pożyczki przelew kredyt bank opłata za prowadzenie konta kredyt bank praktyki opinie kredyt bank lokaty oprocentowanie 2013 pożyczki gotówkowe credit agricole kredyt bank bialystok godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt pozabankowy warszawa prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe bydgoszcz pożyczki online od 19 lat jak księgować pożyczki pożyczki wągrowiec dokumentacja podatkowa pożyczki wzór kredyt bank klienci nie oddanie pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe w anglii kredyt za 5 zl w orange prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe poznań capital club pożyczki kredyty bez bik ełk kredyt mieszkaniowy deutsche bank opinie 2012 picasso pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki gdynia udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel 2013 kredyty chwilówki bez dochodu prywatne pożyczki we wrocławiu pożyczki prywatne tarnów kredyt bank poznań morawskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa ii oddział w poznaniu kredyt bank monit pożyczki piotrków trybunalski odsetki od pożyczki a koszty uzyskania przychodu kruk pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe wrocław pożyczki gotówkowe szczecin umowa pożyczki ustna kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zgody współmałżonka pozyczki bez zaswiadczen chrzanow kredyty dla osob z zajeciami komorniczymi tel orange kredyty bez bik erif krd kredyt bank 24 login kredyty chwilówki nowe kredyty bez bik big komornik konsolidacja kredyt bez bik i zabezpieczeń doradca klienta kredyty chwilówki zarobki umowa pożyczki pieniężnej z zabezpieczeniem kredyt bank kraków królewska godziny otwarcia pozyczki udzielane w domu klienta bydgoszcz everest bocian pożyczki kredyt w banku spółdzielczym dla rolników oprocentowanie kredytów w banku pko bp pożyczki prywatne łódź forum kredyt bank decyzja kredytowa pożyczki w 15 minut kredyt bank kosztorys pożyczki prywatne opolskie kredyt bankowy a kupiecki koszty pożyczki provident zawieszenie kredytu w credit agricole pożyczki od osób prywatnych śląskie kredyt bank leszno godziny otwarcia kredyt bank świecie godziny otwarcia pewne pożyczki dla każdego szybkie pożyczki w uk opinie kredyt bank bochnia godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór pdf skarabeusz pozyczki wielkopolska kredyt bank mońki kredyty chwilówki w skok w jakim banku pozyczka na dowod kredyt bank wbk lista firm pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank w leborku pożyczki bez bik tarnowskie góry kredyt dla nowo powstałych firm bez bik kredyt bank warszawa krs umowa pożyczki wezwanie do zapłaty ogłoszenia pożyczki prywatne pożyczki chwilówki żagań bankomat kredyt bank sieradz kredyt bank warszawa aleja krakowska godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki w 15 minut kredyt bez biku wrocław kredyt samochodowy w ing bank śląski korzyści pożyczki ubezpieczenie pożyczki w provident pozyczki provident i inne krakow kredyty bez biku płock pożyczki na weksel kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum bank opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy na zarobki w anglii kredyty w pko sa forum umowa pożyczki skok stefczyka umowa pożyczki pieniędzy podatek kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe sms kredyt bank oddział w warszawie w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń pozyczki atiz ostrow pożyczki chwilówki na umowe zlecenie jak wziasc kredyt w providencie uk pożyczki dla zadłużonych gdańsk kredyty bez bik wrocław kredyty chwilówki fabryczna 12 tychy pożyczki tlf kredyty mieszkaniowe 2012 kalkulator kredyty chwilówki ciechanów kredyt bank aktywacja karty kredytowej oddziały kredyt banku we wrocławiu w jakim banku najlatwiej dostac kredyt bez bik pożyczki bez zaświadczeń międzyrzecz tel pożyczki pozabankowe iława spłata kredytu studenckiego pko bp na jakie konto kredyty chwilówki warszawa opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny santander kalkulator porównanie pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty bez bik chełm pożyczki prywatne o2 kredyty pozabankowe bez biku sosnowiec kredyt za 5 zł w orange pożyczki w skoku stefczyka pożyczki na start dla firm kredyt bez biku na oswiadczenie polcredit pożyczki kredyt do 3000 bez bik kredyt bank w sokołowie podlaskim kredyt bez bik w 5 minut obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki kalkulator wzór umowy pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami pożyczki z funduszy mikro kredyty trudne bez bik prywatne bank pekao sa kredyt dla firm kredyt pozabankowy pod weksel kredyt bankowy jako forma finansowania pożyczki online od 19 lat pożyczki ratalne pozabankowe kredyt bank rachunek dla firm kredyty online bez biku kredyt bank raty kontakt zasady bezzwrotnej pożyczki w idea bank pożyczki chwilówki bez bik wrocław bocian pożyczki kraków jak wziąć kredyt w orange za 5 zł kredyt bez bik nowy sącz pożyczki prywatne łowicz kredyty bez bik i krd lublin pożyczki fines pozyczki typu provident w jeleniej gorz umowa pożyczki udziałowca wzór umowa pożyczki i użyczenia kredyt bez biku forum kredyt konsolidacyjny a bik kredyt na start idea bank forum kredyty chwilówki w łodzi kredyt bank środa śląska pożyczki chwilówki na dowód pozyczki gotuwkoiwe prywatne firmy kredyt konsolidacyjny plock pożyczki bezzwrotne dla nauczycieli

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad