najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy santander bank kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki w banku ślaskim kredyt bank nadarzyn opodatkowanie pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank warszawa ursynów godziny otwarcia pożyczki licytacja umowa pożyczki ojciec syn identyfikator w kredyt banku kredyt bank żagiel lublin kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy bez dochodów bank pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator ranking banków na kredyt udzielenie pożyczki spółce jawnej przez wspólnika pożyczki pozabankowe kartuzy w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy duże kwoty kredytu bez bik dla firm pożyczki jedności narodowej wrocław kredyt bank długa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank warszawa śródmieście pożyczki społecznościowe bez zaświadczeń kredyty mieszkaniowe dla samotnych matek 2013 kredyt bank gdynia karwiny godziny otwarcia pożyczki skok piast kredyt bank nowy targ godz otwarcia umowa pożyczki dla syna kredyt bank oferta dla wspólnot podatek odsetek pożyczki kredyty chwilówki kierownik regionalny pozyczki augustow przez internet kredyt w uk na rok umowa pożyczki między członkami rodziny kredyty bez bik chojnice odsetki od pożyczki podatek vat pożyczki chwilówki września pożyczki w skoku chmielewskiego kredyty w banku skok kredyt mieszkaniowy pko kalkulator kredyty i pożyczki w uk kredyt bez bik konsolidacyjny kredyt bankowy dla nowych firm kredyt bank zoliborz kredyt studencki pko bp potrzebne dokumenty szybkie pożyczki bez bik i big kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym bez umowy o pracę pożyczki przeterminowane pozyczki lubin kredyt chwilówka kondratowicza kredyty online bez bik kredyt bank gwarancje bankowe kredyty chwilowki zory kredyty chwilówki na liście knf pozyczki dla zadluzonych przez telefon kredyt bank lokaty internetowe kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator ing umowa pożyczki jako umowa wzajemna bank pko sa kredyt studencki dokumenty szybkie pożyczki kalisz mennica pozyczki 2014 rok szybki kredyt konsolidacyjny przez internet kredyt mieszkaniowy w millenium bank pozyczka do domu bez bik udziele pożyczki prywatnie 2013 kredyt bank firma bankowe kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla 2014 w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy pozorna umowa pożyczki fakturowanie pożyczki kredyt w eurobanku bez bik pożyczki lidzbark warmiński prywatne pożyczki pod weksel wrocław kredyt bank toruń godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik gdynia szybki kredyt konsolidacyjny przez internet hortus pożyczki siedlce teorie pożyczki publicznej kredyt chwilówka bez biku kredyt bank infolinia wonga pożyczki parkmar pozyczki kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz fordon kredyt w banku bph optima kredyty lubin umorzenie pożyczki zfśs a podatek pożyczki chwilówki białystok lipowa wycena bilansowa otrzymanej pożyczki pożyczki lubań czy w paribas kredyt jest bez bik kredyt bank bochnia godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki do spółki wzór kredyt bank zgubienie karty wysoki kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki prywatne tarnobrzeg kredyty chwilówki on line pozyczka onlaine 24 godziny z bik pożyczki bank pko kredyt bank adekwatność kapitałowa kredyty bez biku krd kredyt bez bik na 12 miesięcy jaki numer kredyt orange pożyczki bez bik starogard gdański kredyt bank sa leszno kody orange na kredyt kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego pko bp kredyt bank piła adres kredyt studencki pko żyranci szybkie pożyczki w 15 minut przez internet umowa spłaty pożyczki na raty szybkie pożyczki pożyczki bez bik od 19 lat pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi jakie kredyty sa bezpieczne pozabankowe kredyt bank w olkuszu kredyt bez bik online 25000 kredyt bank międzyzdroje kredyt bank jumper umowa pożyczki konsekwencje kredyt w dombanku pożyczki bez bik chełm wycena pożyczki w bilansie kredyt bank warszawa rondo onz kredyt bank 24 kredyt gotówkowy chwilówki fgp pożyczki kredyt bank program partnerski do jakiego odzialu nalezy kwidzyn w prodomo pożyczki preferencyjny kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pożyczki trzebiatów tablica kredyt dla firm bez bik na oświadczenie kredyt bez bik 40000 szybkie pożyczki ełk kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe regulamin kredyt bank godziny otwarcia lublin kredyty chwilówki pracuj pl poręczenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór kredyt bez bik gdzie można dostać pomóżcie kredyt bank concerto nr tel pożyczki bocian stargard szczeciński kontakt kredyt na pit kredyty bankowe pdf bik pożyczka w placówce warszawa kredyt w banku pko sa opinie kredyt bank chmielna godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód gdańsk kredyt bank rzeszów rejtana umowa pożyczki do wydruku kredyt bank notowania kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking prestige pożyczki pozyczki krosos windykacja pożyczki bez bik na pit bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2013 kredyt bank ostrołęka godziny otwarcia pożyczki skok piast pożyczki preferencyjne nfośigw kredyty bez bik na mieszkanie bocian pożyczki gorzów wlkp kredyty chwilówki zaliczka pożyczki chwilówki żagań pożyczki chwilówki online bez krd opłata za przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku kredyty mieszkaniowe książki umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu wzór kredyt odnawialny w banku bgż kredyt taki jak provident marka pożyczki rzeszów szybki kredyt przez internet bez biku pożyczka z żyrantem pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności gospodarczej kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania bik kredyt bez bik co to jest kredyt bank koszalin kontakt kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zielona góra kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus forum kredyty pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik opodatkowanie pożyczki w rodzinie czy mozna umorzyc kredyt w banku kredyt bank bankomaty szczecin kredyty chwilówki brzesko kredyt bank kalisz górnośląska godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku aib kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank opinie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń płock kredyt bank nostro kredyt bank polisolokata kredyt konsolidacyjny pojęcie ubezpieczenie pożyczki w ing kredyty chwilówki szopienice jak księgować odsetki od udzielonej pożyczki skarabeusz pożyczki rzeszów prywatne pożyczki bez sprawdzania kredyt w którym banku kredyty w uk po polsku kredyt bank galeria mokotów umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziców pożyczki głogówek umowa pożyczki ceny transferowe pożyczki chwilówki w poznaniu kredyt bank sa ostrołęka kredyt bez biku w banku pożyczki 1000 zł amortyzacja pożyczki podporządkowanej pożyczki z funduszu pracy szybkie pozyczki w uk księgowanie pożyczki udzielonej pracownikowi pożyczki pozabankowe białogard kredyt bez bik na 24 miesiące prywatne pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm bez bik nowe pożyczki online wypowiedzenie pożyczki wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie porównanie kredyt w banku oblicz darowanie pożyczki kredyt bank w międzyzdrojach pożyczki pko sa kredyt bank łosice kredyt w banku bez pracy kredyt getin bank kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki warszawa kondratowicza optima pożyczki numer tel kredyty bez bik przez internet udziele szybkiej pozyczki na procent kwota pożyczki brutto kredyt bank rodzina na swoim 2012 pożyczki bez big i krd kredyt gotowkowy bez biku pożyczki prywatne kielce siedziby chwilowki kredyt jaslo pożyczki na weksel śląsk kredyt bankowy przedawnienie roszczeń pożyczki na dowód ostrów wielkopolski kredyt bank warszawa radość kredyt w banku pocztowym oprocentowanie pożyczki partner pożyczki prywatne pod weksel 2013 umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a podatek pożyczki dla firm na start kredyt konsolidacyjny w getin bank kredyty chwilówki jaki procent kredyt bank zablokowana karta kredyt studencki pko bp żyranci kredyt bank 4 oddział gdańsk pożyczki chwilówki przez internet dla bezrobotnych pko bank polski kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank międzyzdroje tel pożyczki włodawa pożyczki lubliniec umowa pożyczki wzajemna kredyt bank bytom godziny otwarcia hitler pożyczki usa pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez biku opinie marka paslek pozyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt bank w łowiczu kredyt bank ii oddział katowice co to znaczy kredyt bez bik skarabeusz pożyczki kościan kredyt studencki pko umorzenie pożyczki bez krd bik pożyczki przedawnienie kredyt samochodowy credit agricole kalkulator jak dostac kredyt w banku w uk kredyt bank liczba zatrudnionych kredyt w banku aig cechy pożyczki jako czynności prawnej kredyt bank fuzja forum kredyt bank warszawa targowa godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny czy się opłaca kredyty chwilówki żywiec dworcowa kredyt w ikano bank kredyt bank retkinia pożyczki dla zadłużonych toruń pożyczki gotówkowe santander kredyt konsolidacyjny 20 lat wymagania kredytowe barclays kredyty chwilówki skarżysko kamienna w jakim banku najtaniej wziac kredyt umowa pożyczki spółka z oo kredyty bez bik i krd łódź kredyt mieszkaniowy nordea habitat pożyczki w lombardach kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim forum pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt w niemczech w jakim banku kredyt bank wibor 3m kredyt bez bik dla firmy kredyt w banku centralnym kredyt bank szczecin matejki 8 kredyt bank depozyt transakcja pożyczki równoległej pożyczki osobiste kredyt bank najlepsza lokata kredyty bez bik sieradz spłata kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank rumia gdańska mikropożyczki dla bezrobotnych pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki windykacja umorzenie pożyczki a pit pożyczki bez bik stalowa wola kredyt pozabankowy 10000 pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz kredyt bank chorzów godziny otwarcia pożyczki wspólpraca kredyt konsolidacyjny plusy i minusy kredyt w banku spółdzielczym warunki kredyt konsolidacyjny ing opinie kredyt studencki pko bp termin kredyt bank zarobki szybkie darmowe pożyczki pożyczka z komornikiem kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym kredyt na start w fm banku podanie o udzielenie pożyczki z zakładu pracy pożyczki na lichwe poręczenie kredytu studenckiego pko bp jak jest kod na kredyt w orange kredyt dla zadluzonych milleniumbank pożyczki prywatne pożyczki bez bik duże kwoty credit agricole pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank łuków godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik komornik gdzie kredyt bez bik forum kredyt konsolidacyjny bph kalkulator kredyt bez bik zgorzelec kredyt konsolidacyjny dla kazdego optima pożyczki chojnice kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego 27 pożyczki otrzymane w bilansie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki na dowód zduńska wola kredyt samochodowy bank śląski kredyt bank ostrołęka kontakt prywatne pozyczki na dowod szczecinek panda pożyczka nysa pożyczki prywatne warszawa feniks pożyczki opinie abis pożyczki dla każdego forum kredyt bank definicja kredyt w eurobanku opinie koszty pożyczki w provident szybka pozyczka do reki tczew na dowod getin noble bank kredyt na samochod kredyt bank międzyrzec podlaski godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki łódź piotrkowska kredyty pozabankowe luban pożyczki nakło kredyt bank gdansk godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki anglia kredyt bank lokata 6 5 procent kredyt bank kto kupił potrzebuje kredyt konsolidacyjny optima pożyczki dębica kredyty chwilówki firmy feniks pożyczki opinie alior bank kredyt na samochód kalkulator bocian pożyczki lubań kredyty na firme bez biku kredyt odnawialny w getin banku kredyt na oświadczenie w credit agricole pożyczki dla gmin elblag pozyczki w domu bez zaswiadczen pożyczki bez bik w białymstoku pożyczki bez zaświadczeń wrocław pożyczki na wysoki procent asper przyznawalnosc pozyczek kredyt bank głęboka lublin umowa pożyczki cel kredyty chwilowki swidnica pożyczki bocian bytów pożyczki chwilówki szczecin krzywoustego pożyczki jedności narodowej wrocław kredyt na mieszkanie w uk forum kredyt bez biku zielona góra kredyt gotówkowy bez bik sosnowiec pożyczki na dowód skierniewice pożyczki gotówkowe niskooprocentowane kredyt bank warsaw pożyczka przez internet bez bik i krd od 18 lat potrącenie pożyczki z zfśs z zasiłku chorobowego pożyczki gotówkowe od ręki kredyt bank obsługa kart kredytowych monetto pożyczki odsetki ustawowe od pożyczki kredyty chwilówki świebodzin kredyty dla nowo powstalych firm bez bik szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe bez formalności kredyt pozyczka bez biku kredyt bank legionowo tel kredyt pozyczka bez biku koszty notarialne pożyczki wzór na obliczenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bez bik i krd poznan umowa pożyczki ord u umowa udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa mokotowska pożyczki chwilówki kołobrzeg pozyczki z komornikiem sosnowiec najprostsza umowa pożyczki kredyt samochodowy w credit agricole pożyczka z komornikiem w mysłowicach restrukturyzacja pożyczki w skok stefczyka pożyczki na dowód pko pozyczki na procent umowa zawarcia pożyczki kredyt bank lokaty rentierskie kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk 2014 kredyt bank warszawa ul marszałkowska praca w bocianie pożyczki umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu doc kalkulator pożyczki provident kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik prywatne firmy pozyczkowe gliwice pożyczki pozabankowe dla rolników umowa pożyczki z funduszu świadczeń socjalnych kredyt konsolidacyjny najdłuższy okres cesja z umowy pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny sgb kredyt bank godziny pracy pożyczki bez bik na firmę kredyty banku pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny w kruk getin bank online kredyty pożyczki pozabankowe we wrześni umowa pożyczki jakie odsetki przedawnienie długu pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank bankomaty piła kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik wrocław pożyczki bez bik krd katowice kredyt studencki bank wbk promotor pożyczki opinie kredyt bank lloyds kredyty bez bik inowrocław kredyt bank płock kolegialna godziny otwarcia gwarant pożyczki chwilówki podatek od pożyczki udzielonej firmie kredyt konsolidacyjny boś bankomaty kredyt banku w kielcach kredyty bez bik w płocku pożyczki w 15 minut provident pożyczki online bocian pożyczki gdańsk pożyczki chwilówki w olsztynie pożyczki dla fundacji pokwitowanie spłaty pożyczki kredyt samochodowy w getin banku udzielę pożyczki prywatnej 2011 czy udzielenie pożyczki podlega opodatkowaniu vat bocian pożyczki wolsztyn umowa pożyczki dla instytucji kultury kredyt bank godziny otwarcia szczecin preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko forum pożyczki online bez bik i krd szybkie pozyczki pieniezne w irlandii kredyt bank okres bezodsetkowy kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowy przez internet wzór poręczenia pożyczki kredyt bank rachunek maklerski dobry kredyt pozabankowy forum pożyczki bez bik dla nowych firm kredyty bez bik zaświadczeń kredyty mieszkaniowe w 2014 roku kredyt konsolidacyjny citibank getin bank kredyt samochodowy forum kalkulator odsetkowy pożyczek miszkaniowych z zfŚs kredyt bank sa legnica kalkulator pożyczki citibank kredyty bez bik piotrków trybunalski koszty udzielenia pożyczki warunki kredytu w banku spółdzielczym dwie pożyczki w providencie auto komis kredyt bez bik pożyczki bez bik wieluń pożyczki konsolidacyjne kalkulator w jakim banku brać kredyt gotówkowy konsolidacja kredytu bz wbk pożyczki gotówkowe skarabeusz umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kapitałowymi pożyczki internetowe pierwsza za darmo meritum bank kredyt firmowy opinie kredyt bank sa w warszawie pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości leszno vivus wysokość pożyczki została zmniejszona pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaswiadczen sulechow pozyczki bez zaswiadczen z doreczeniem do domu pożyczki pozabankowe kontakt telefoniczny umowa pożyczki od siostry wzór częstochowa pożyczki bez bik kredyt w banku bez poreczycieli wloclawek kredyt bank aukcje poleasingowe kredyt bank w łukowie godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik 4000 wartość bilansowa pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki płońsk

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad