kredyt bank gliwice kontakt kredyty mieszkaniowe definicja umowa na czas określony kredyt mieszkaniowy forum pożyczki udzielone przez polskę pożyczki bez bik grodzisk mazowiecki kredyt mieszkaniowy wkład własny 50 getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki polsko niemiecka pożyczki bez bik krd wrocław kredyt bez bik szybko w jakim banku kredyt w uk księgowanie wpłat w kredyt banku pożyczki roczne kredyt w ikano bank kredyt bank makler umorzenia pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki inowrocław ul dworcowa preferencyjne pożyczki ue kredyt studencki pko transze kredyty mieszkaniowe finansowane przez państwo kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 wartości 2013 microfinance pożyczki kredyty chwilówki w lesznie pko bp kredyt studencki druki pozyczki kredyt 24 zwrot nadpłaty pożyczki umowa pożyczki osoba fizyczna firma kredyt bank radom ul żeromskiego kredyty mieszkaniowe 2004 pożyczki gotówkowe pekao sa kredyt bank w szczytnie pożyczki prywatne dla firm pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorstw kredyt bankowy to aktywa czy pasywa pożyczki toruń pożyczki między najbliższymi kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim forum pożyczki pozabankowe firmy pozorna umowa pożyczki czy mozna zawiesic kredyt w banku kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku pocztowym a bik kredyt konsolidacyjny rio kredyt bank kontakt lublin kredyt bank w jeleniej górze kredyt bank w stalowej woli kredyty chwilówki gdynia kredyt dla firm idea bank forum pożyczki bez krd szczecin getin bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank szczecinek kontakt kredyt bank zarobki pożyczki pozabankowe piła kredyt bank cena euro wymagania kredytowe barclays pozyczki w domu tarnowskie góry kredyt bez bik chojnice kredyt bez bik raty miesięczne pożyczki gotówkowe włocławek potwierdzenie salda pożyczki kredyt bank wisła kredyt konsolidacyjny na firmę kredyt bank sa wrocław warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw weryfikacja kredytow tempo finanse kredyt mieszkaniowy abc kredyt bez bik zus us kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bgz kredyt bank 24 doładowanie telefonu ei global kredyty opinie pożyczki prywatne kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior opinie pożyczki września kredyt bank sa poznań kredyt bez bik przez internet kredyt bank ruda śląska kredyty bez bik big krd kredyt bez bik ge money bank pozyczki optima wloclawek numer telefonu odsetki od pożyczki faktura czy nota kredyty bankowe stan początkowy opodatkowanie udzielenia pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy a firma na ryczalcie kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki przyznania kredyt bank komornik bocian pożyczki nakło nad notecią kredyt bank metro imielin otwock pozyczki chwilowki niskie pożyczki pożyczki kokos kontakt pożyczki chwilówki online pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach wroclaw kredyt bank w sosnowcu pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych forum kredyt samochodowy sygma bank kredyt bez bik bytom kredyty na pit 40a bez bik pożyczki na dowód bez biku kwota nominalna pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik getin bank reklama pożyczki przez internet pozyczki bez pracy udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę wspólnikowi cz bank pocztowy daje kredyty mdm pożyczki pod zastaw diamentów pożyczki pozabankowe częstochowa kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób po 50 osoba udzielająca pożyczki pożyczki bocian kościan pożyczki pod zastaw dębica kredyt bank ul kasprzaka 2 8 warszawa karencja w spłacie pożyczki kredyt bank certyfikaty inwestycyjne kredyt studencki bzwbk pożyczki prywatne 10000 kredyt odnawialny w banku millenium kredyt konsolidacyjny na karty kredytowe kredyty chwilówki rozmowa kwalifikacyjna pożyczki online vivus pozyczki gryfino pożyczki 5000zl bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach mlawa kredyt konsolidacyjny jaki procent kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pożyczki prywatne kokos kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kredytowa kredyt konsolidacyjny zwrot odsetek kod orange na pozyczenie pieniedzy na konto pożyczki chwilówki bez bik poznań kredyt bank olsztyn piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny płock kredyt w polskim banku dla obcokrajowca umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu pracy kredyt bank ilość pracowników gdzie można dostać kredyt bez bik pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości szybki kredyt bez bik umowa pożyczki firmy kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum bank santander consumer bank kredyt bez bik kredyt bank mielec mickiewicza pożyczki klon kredyt konsolidacyjny pko sa opinie ikko projekt pożyczki pożyczki dla dla każdego w uk pożyczka na dowód osobisty pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych przez internet pożyczki włodawa kredyt bank wrocław plac solny kredyt bank sopot kontakt kredyt bank żagań kredyt obrotowy w idea banku pod zastaw kredyt konsolidacyjny kto może dostać kredyty pozabankowe do 20000 umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki wzór kredyt na mieszkanie bank millenium pożyczki udzielane przez gminy na jaki numer kredyt orange pożyczki długoterminowe online pozyczka w pko praca zagranica kredyt konsumpcyjny banki kredyt bez bik wałbrzych wzór umowy pożyczki provident asper pożyczki opinie pożyczki na nieruchomości szybka pozyczka bez bik kolbuszowa pozyczka onlain lubuskie bank pekao sa kredyt opinie pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny gmina kredyty bez biku wałbrzych kwota pożyczki zwolniona z podatku kredyt bank chojnice kontakt cesja pożyczki pcc kredyt bank rzeszów godz otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe głogów szybki kredyt bez bik online kredyt bez biku online kredyt bank pultusk pożyczki gotówkowe gros cechy pożyczki pożyczki ratunkowe optima pożyczki dębica umowy pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego pożyczki pod weksel bez przedpłat poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny 300 tys kredyt bank bogatynia godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik małopolska pożyczki bez bik oświęcim udzielę pożyczki prywatnej bez przedpłat wyłudzenie pożyczki kk kredyt bank żytnia pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomości bankomaty kredyt bank łeba kredyt bez biku dla firmy pożyczki na oświadczenie bocian lokaty w kredyt banku kredyt studencki pko forum kredyty bankowe dla msp orange pop kredyt kod gdańsk pożyczki chwilówki kredyty eurobank pl abis pożyczki dla każdego opinie przedłużenie pożyczki w wonga kredyt bank ostrów wlkp godziny otwarcia kredyty dla zadluzonych w biku poznan kredyt mieszkaniowy bz wbk forum umowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą wzór kredyty bez bik rybnik getin bank wniosek kredytowy online pożyczki mini firma umowa pożyczki podporządkowanej wzór kredyty prawo bankowe prosta umowa pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki od osoby fizycznej umowa pożyczki ze spłatą w ratach kredyt bank wojska polskiego słupsk pożyczki gold do ilu kredyt santander trudne pozyczki poznan pożyczki na telefon 24 plock kredyty bez bik opinie pożyczka od ręki katowice pożyczki racibórz kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko kredyt konsolidacyjny a zły bik pozyczki prywatne w bialymstoku kredyty i pożyczki w uk kredyty bez bik 2012 umowa pożyczki w spółce jawnej kredyt konsolidacyjny zalety i wady kredyt bez bik nowy sacz pożyczki gotówkowe bgż kredyt bank bierz co chcesz kredyty mieszkaniowe raport santander norwegia kredyty pożyczki kraków rynek podgórski pożyczki społecznościowe czy warto inwestować kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz powalisza kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus kredyty pożyczki bez bik kredyt samochodowy ranking kalkulator kredyty pozabankowe bez bik us zus w szczecinie kredyty bez bik zagraniczne kredyt bank mielec kontakt optima pożyczki przez internet kredyty chwilówki na spłatę komornika umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki wzór kredyt bank warszawa godziny pożyczki 3000 zł kredyty lub pożyczki w grudziądzu bez biku umowa pożyczki zwrot pożyczki a oprocentowanie kredyt bank przeźmierowo udzielać pożyczki idea bank warunki pożyczki bocian pozyczki kwidzyn pożyczki unijne na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt gotówkowy bez biku i zaświadczeń kredyt bank w świdnicy kredyty bez bik forum kredyt bank gliwice godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe z niskim oprocentowaniem kredyt bank gazele biznesu kredyt bank regulamin pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości zielona góra kredyt konsolidacyjny najdłuższy okres spłaty kredyt studencki bzwbk 2013 pożyczki pod zastaw pabianice kredyt mieszkaniowy 2014 kalkulator umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu wzór kredyt bank krakowska opole credit agricole pożyczki kredyt samochodowy w firmie kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego alior bank uzasadnienie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt konsolidacyjny krok po kroku pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wrocław kredyty konsolidacyjne lodz kto płaci podatek od pożyczki z zagranicy kredyt samochodowy paribas bank kredyt bank zielona góra bankomat abis pozyczki chwilowki kontakt telefonizny kredyt bank zagiel warszawa skok kredyty oddłużeniowe kredyt bank logowanie w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt na dowód w getin banku jakie odsetki od pożyczki udziałowca kredyt samochodowy ing bank pożyczki pierwsza pożyczka za darmo kredyt bank jakie dokumenty kredyt bank punkty kredyt bank w jakich bankomatach forum pożyczki dla zadłużonych regulamin pożyczki kredyt w banku pocztowym kalkulator odsetki od pożyczki kosztem uzyskania przychodu kredyty bez bik na 12 miesięcy kredyty bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt bank ełk godziny otwarcia najnowsze pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny opole kredyt bank warszawa bonifacego kredyt bank darmowe bankomaty szybki kredyt bez bik i big kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych kredyty chwilówki libiąż pożyczki bez bik w bogatyni kredyt studencki czy warto forum kredyt w banku za granicą pożyczki dla młodych małżeństw kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku bph opinie inpost pożyczki getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu pożyczki 365 pozyczka z pracy przedawnienie pożyczki katowice kredyt bankowy na otwarcie firmy umowa pożyczki podatek zwolnienie kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe oprocentowanie 2013 pilny kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki we wrocławiu pożyczki chwilówki łódź piotrkowska bocian pożyczki konin prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt studencki pko bp regulamin kredyty pozabankowe gniezno ogłoszenia pożyczki za darmo kredyt bank w chrzanowie pożyczki bez bik duże kwoty kredyt lombardowy w banku konwersja pożyczki na kapitał 2013 pożyczki gotówkowe chwilówka kredyt dla firm bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt bez bik wrocław pożyczki pozabankowe z obsługą w domu kredyt bankowy na samochód najtańszy kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dwie pożyczki w providencie kredyty bankowe bez prowizji kredyt bank jak aktywować kartę marża banku kredyt akropol pożyczki kredyt bez bik wolny rynek pożyczki firmowe na start kredyt bankowy kodeks cywilny pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs pożyczki pozabankowe głogów bankomaty kredyt banku bez prowizji hasła reklamowe pożyczki kredyt bank milanówek kredyty banku światowego dla polski kredyt bankowy definicja dwa kredyty w jednym banku kredyt na dowód tarchomin siedziba warszawa wniosek o kredyt studencki pko sa atiz przykłady pożyczki szybki kredyt w jakim banku pożyczki bez bik tczew kredyt konsolidacyjny zabrze kredyt ratalny lukas bank kalkulator kredyt bank gdańsk grunwaldzka pożyczki peer to peer pożyczka przez telefon na dowód latwy kredyt samochodowy krakow kredyt chwilówka roznoszenie ulotek pożyczki społecznościowe kredyty kredyty bankowe wzory kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę kart kredytowych capital partners pożyczki wzór na odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank windykacja nr telefonu kredyt bank wyzwolenia kredyty bez biku na oświadczenie pożyczki prywatne wrocław pożyczki bez krd przez internet kredyty pozabankowe bez biku deutsche bank kredyt na dowod online kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego w banku pocztowym pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez prowizji bankowe kredyty konsolidacyjne jaki jest nr na kredyt z orange pożyczki bezzwrotne dla firm pożyczki pozabankowe na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank szczecinek godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne ciechanów kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osob zadluzonych kredyty bez bik świdnica kredyty konsolidacyjne oddłużanie kredyt bank wyniki kredyty chwilówki miechów kredyt bank marcinkowskiego kredyt w 5 minut kredyt konsolidacyjny bankier umowa pożyczki cywilno prawna pożyczki bocian w kaliszu kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2012 umowa pożyczki konsekwencje kredyt bank logowanie firma kredyty programy naprawcze Łódź cesja umowy pożyczki pcc kredyt bank zoliborz pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2011 kredyt bank chorzów wolności pożyczki dla zadłużonych bezrobotnych umowa pożyczki dla spółki pożyczki na duże kwoty godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w rzeszowie pożyczki społecznościowe bez bik i krd prawo bankowe kredyt bez zgody małżonka umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs zmarłego pracownika kredyt bank karta kredytowa mastercard world jak wziąć kredyt 5 zł w orange pożyczki gotówkowe gros pożyczki od osób prywatnych płock pożyczki bez bik opolskie cechy pożyczki wikipedia kredyt bez bik i big online kredyty mieszkaniowe oblicz ratę oprocentowanie kredytu w fm bank pożyczki z nfoś pożyczki pod zastaw złota kraków alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny idea bank warunki pożyczki ogłoszenie pożyczki kredyt chwilówka grochowska kredyt mieszkaniowy dla pracujacych w norwegii kredyt chwilówka kwidzyn kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie jak grzecznie odmówić pożyczki pożyczka w domu klijęta elbląg kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 tys bank pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator umowa pożyczki przelewem wzór kredyt bez bik legionowo pożyczki prywatne ogłoszenia pozyczki bez bik i krd w domu klienta ruda slaska umorzenie pożyczki a podatek alior bank kredyt jakie dokumenty kredyt bank knf kredyt w banku spółdzielczym w łańcucie pożyczki bocian kamień pomorski kredyt chwilówka uk kredyty chwilówki polska kalkulator pożyczki kredytu kredyt bez biku na telefon jan nowak pożyczki pożyczka przez internet bez prowizji kredyt bank wyniki 2012 kredyt samochodowy credit agricole kalkulator kredyty chwilówki pożyczki prywatne na działalność gospodarczą kalkulator pożyczki w profi credit pożyczki payu pcc od umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem kredyty bez bik i zabezpieczeń kredyt bank konto internetowe kredyty pozabankowe jaworzno deklaracja odsetki od pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu kraków kredyt bank gdańsk zaspa godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny jaki bank forum prywatne pożyczki w gdańsku jak dlugo sie czeka na kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank fundusze notowania oprocentowanie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca kredyt bank 10000 uzasadnienie pożyczki remontowej kredyt bank obsługa kart kredytowych kredyt studencki pko sa opinie pożyczki na dowód szczecin pożyczki pozabankowe we włocławku pożyczki bez bik w białej podlaskiej mikropożyczki starachowice gant pożyczki czy łatwo o kredyt w banku pocztowym umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a urząd skarbowy kredyt bank 24h udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez udziałowca 2000 pozyczki bez dowodu od zaraz pożyczki wspólników udzielane spółkom kapitałowym kredyt bank łódź bednarska umowa pożyczki między firmami a vat kredyt bank krosno godz otwarcia pożyczki w pracy pożyczki na spłatę komornika umorzone pożyczki kredyt bank kontakt warszawa kredyt bank filia łomianki pożyczki bez bik oferty kredyty pozabankowe zgorzelec kredyty chwilówki sanok millenium bank kredyt na mieszkanie odsetki od pożyczki cypr pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości z komornikiem pozyczki od reki na dowod bez zadnych oswiadczes kielce kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku forum kredyt bank platforma wymiany walut kredyty pozabankowe leszno

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica. Hans Memling. c.1480. Oil on wood. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.
Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment
http://www.billcasselman.com/460px-Hans_Memling_026.jpg

when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.
The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’
Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.
Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.

 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.


Vexillator
In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

http://www.billcasselman.com/standard_bearer_smaller.jpg
Signifer, the first word in the caption of this engraving, is one Latin word for ‘standard-bearer,’ whose literal meaning is ‘sign-carrying.’

 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.
My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.
http://www.billcasselman.com/excelsior2.jpg
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!
‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
http://www.billcasselman.com/marciliana180600_01_1.jpg
A plethora of gonfaloni and all manners of banners
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular http://www.billcasselman.com/gonfalon233.gifduring the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners.
From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:
By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;
     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

http://www.billcasselman.com/gonfalon.jpg
A swallow-tailed gonfalon carried in a modern academic procession

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same. The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.
http://www.billcasselman.com/scenes_life_saint_francis_detail.jpg
 A detail from a fresco depicting scenes in the life of Saint Francis of Assissi features banners and flags bearing the charge of a red cross, symbolic of help for the sick. This fresco is in the Bardi Chapel, Chiesa della Santa Croce, Florence, Italy.

French Flag Words
Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.
To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.
L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’
A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.
Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!

http://www.billcasselman.com/longfellow.jpg
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica. Hans Memling. c.1480. Oil on wood. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.
Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment
http://www.billcasselman.com/460px-Hans_Memling_026.jpg

when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.
The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’
Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.
Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.

 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.


Vexillator
In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

http://www.billcasselman.com/standard_bearer_smaller.jpg
Signifer, the first word in the caption of this engraving, is one Latin word for ‘standard-bearer,’ whose literal meaning is ‘sign-carrying.’

 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.
My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.
http://www.billcasselman.com/excelsior2.jpg
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!
‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
http://www.billcasselman.com/marciliana180600_01_1.jpg
A plethora of gonfaloni and all manners of banners
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular http://www.billcasselman.com/gonfalon233.gifduring the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners.
From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:
By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;
     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

http://www.billcasselman.com/gonfalon.jpg
A swallow-tailed gonfalon carried in a modern academic procession

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same. The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.
http://www.billcasselman.com/scenes_life_saint_francis_detail.jpg
 A detail from a fresco depicting scenes in the life of Saint Francis of Assissi features banners and flags bearing the charge of a red cross, symbolic of help for the sick. This fresco is in the Bardi Chapel, Chiesa della Santa Croce, Florence, Italy.

French Flag Words
Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.
To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.
L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’
A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.
Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!

http://www.billcasselman.com/longfellow.jpg
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad