kredyt bank raszyn kredyt refinansowy w banku centralnym kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza kredyt bank belgia kredyt bank lokaty oszczędnościowe pożyczki prywatne dolny śląsk zwrot pożyczki wspólnikowi kto płaci podatek od pożyczki z zagranicy zabezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej duet pożyczki rzeszów kredyt obrotowy w idea banku pod zastaw kredyt gotowkowy w getin banku opinie kredyt chwilówka uk kalkulator kredytowy kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach online kredyt dla firm bez bik big szybkie pożyczki w uk dla polaków szybka pozyczka z obsluga w domu pożyczki chwilówki forum kredyty chwilowki starogard gdanski pożyczki gryfino kredyt bez bik zory kredyt bank oszczędnościowe kredyt bank wojska polskiego kredyt bank śródmieście w jakim banku najlepiej brac kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty pozabankowe do 20000 pożyczki banknot umowa pożyczki pieniędzy koledze wzór pożyczki udzielone księgowanie kalkulator zdolnosci kredytowej santander bank kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli rodzina na swoim cesja wierzytelności z umowy pożyczki kredyt bankowy zalety i wady opłaty za przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank pożyczki chwilówki ryzyko kredyt bank kondratowicza kredyt bank królewska 55 pożyczki knurów kara za niezgłoszenie pożyczki pożyczki toruń drobne pożyczki przez internet pożyczki dla zadłużonych 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy dla studenta 2013 pożyczki w getin banku kredyty chwilówki strzelin potwierdzenie salda pożyczki wzór pożyczki pod zastaw auta śląsk pożyczki z obsługą w domu kredyt na mieszkanie kalkulator zdolności kredytowej kredyt konsolidacyjny bez pracy kredyt 3000 bez biku odsetki od pożyczki przychodem podatkowym kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp sa kredyt bank zagiel lublin kredyt bank godziny otwarcia marki umowa pożyczki akcji kredyt samochodowy santander pko bank polski sa kredyt studencki kredyty chwilówki puławy kredyt w banku żagiel kredyt bank numer bic pożyczki pozabankowe wałbrzych kredyt bank radom żeromskiego 41 pożyczki rodzinne bez podatku pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt konsolidacyjny z małżonkiem pożyczki dla organizacji pożyczki w 15 minut od 18 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny bank zachodni wbk kredyt chwilowka kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej oprocentowanie kredyt studencki pko sa regulamin pożyczki bez bik 30000 pcc od pożyczki udzielonej spółce przez udziałowca pożyczki 24h warszawa cechy pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank wrocław plac solny godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki inwestycyjnej kredyt bank warszawa waszyngtona kredyty chwilówki rybnik raciborska kredyt bez bik oferty pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel toruń bocian pożyczki koscierzyna bocian pożyczki radom optima pożyczki oleśnica kontakt kredyty samochodowe dla firm kalkulator kredyty chwilówki wonga kredyt bank wspiera żeglarzy kredyt bank tychy kontakt pożyczki gumtree kredyt bank w tomaszowie lubelskim kredyty chwilówki tarnów krakowska kredyt bank rypin kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik umowa pożyczki w formie ustnej kredyt bank raporty bieżące kredyt w banku łąckim pozyczki chwilówki z komornikiem gdansk bocian pożyczki gotówkowe bydgoszcz kod na kredyt w orange kredyt bank okulickiego szczecin pożyczki z zakładowego funduszu mieszkaniowego spłata pożyczki przychód kredyt bank w skoczowie cesja zobowiązania z tytułu pożyczki pozyczki z obslugą domową warszawa pożyczki mińsk mazowiecki pożyczki ogłoszenia warszawa gdzie pozyczke bez grosza kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku kredyt bank pozyczka prywatne pozyczki na procent dublin jak wyliczyć odsetki od pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank krdbplpw obligacja pożyczki dolarowej pożyczki kaśka kredyt bank warszawa franciszkańska kredyt bez bik banki forum pożyczki i kredyty pozabankowe pozyczki z komornikiem i windykacja szczecin pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy katowice pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen kredyt konsolidacyjny najdłuższy okres kredytowania umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki księgowanie pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kredyty bankowe online umowa pożyczki z cudzoziemcem pożyczki w pko sa bocian pożyczki myślibórz w jakim banku wybrać kredyt lukas bank kredyt online kredyt bank sanok tel pożyczki pod zastaw tychy kredyt bank bogatynia godziny otwarcia pozyczki bez biku gorzow szybkie pożyczki tarnów pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2011 tanie pożyczki bez bik pożyczki koszalin dobry bank belgia kredyt forum kredyt konsolidacyjny ipko kredyty bez bik siedlce ktory bank da kredyt mieszkaniowy dla zadluzonych kredyty pozabankowe kalisz kredyty pozabankowe poznań kredyty bez biku wloclawek kredyt bank sopot telefon pożyczki bez bik do 3000 kredyty bez bik na mieszkanie pożyczki 100 online kredyt bank złodzieje kredyt mieszkaniowy najkorzystniejszy pożyczki bez weryfikacji w bik jak dlugo sie czeka na kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank oprocentowanie rachunku oszczędnościowego kredyt bez bik tczew pożyczki pod zastaw rumia kredyt bank retkinia pożyczki na sfinansowanie kosztów szkolenia kredyt pozabankowy 20000 pożyczki bez bik zamość kredyt bank departament prawny kredyt jako produkt bankowy praca licencjacka kredyt chwilówka 0 pożyczki na dowód długoterminowe pozyczki uk 24 h na dobe turbo expres pożyczki pożyczki kc kredyt bank wizja lokalna kredyt bank jutrzenki godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pocztowym pożyczki prywatne wołomin pożyczki bezzwrotne dla mikrofirm w którym banku wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty bez bik dla zadłuzonych kredyt bank adres e mail pozyczki bocian dla osob w bik kredyty chwilówki katowice szopienice pożyczki bank arleg pożyczki oblicz ratę pożyczki ing pożyczki od ludzi kredyt bank archiwum kursów walut kredyt bankowy a podatek vat magdalena lis pożyczki umowa pożyczki koleżeńskiej oddanie pożyczki umowa pożyczki elementy kredyt bez bik włocławek kredyt samochodowy lukas bank kalkulator kredyty chwilówki kraków librowszczyzna 1 kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy mbank pożyczki morskie kredyt bank warszawska białystok godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w żaglu kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych za granica pożyczki udzielane przez jst szybki kredyt bankowy bez bik kredyt bez bik gorzów wlkp pozyczki żary bez zaswiadczenia kredyt na auto bez biku kredyt bank warszawa konstancińska kredyty bez biku świdnica pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank poraj obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyty chwilówki jak to działa pożyczki kapitał ludzki kredyt bez bik stargard szczeciński umowa pożyczki z rodzicem warunki kredytu studenckiego w pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny comperia pożyczki online bez wpłaty pożyczki bez biku opinie opodatkowanie pożyczki dla firmy pożyczki kalkulator lukas bank prywatne pożyczki na weksel katowice kredyt konsolidacyjny pułapki szybkie pożyczki przez internet w 15 minut kredyt konsolidacyjny eurobank pożyczki lendon getin noble bank zawieszenie kredytu kredyt bank produkty kredyt bank niepodległości 54 pożyczki w domu klienta białystok kredyt studencki pko sa 2013 kredyt bank wypłata gotówki kredyty online bez bik kredyty chwilówki świętojańska oprocentowanie kredytów mieszkaniowych pko bp kredyty mieszkaniowe 2010 kredyt w santander consumer bank pożyczki chwilówki kredytum kredyt gotowkowy w ktorym banku kredyt chwilówka zaświadczenie podżyrowanie pożyczki provident pożyczki praca kredyt bank nowy sącz telefon pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczenia o zarobkach umowa pożyczki wzór do pobrania charakter pożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczki bankowej pożyczki gotówkowe poznań kredyt bank sa oddziały kredyt na samochód w getin banku opinie kredyty chwilówka namysłów kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt opinie kredyt bank sa płatności masowe kredyt konsolidacyjny 2014 ranking akcess pozyczki kredyty chwilówki sokołów podlaski kredyt bank nysa godziny otwarcia pożyczka w skok stefczyka częstochowa opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek 2014 kredyt bank w olkuszu mikropożyczki lubuskie kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatów bez prowizji kredyt bez bik 10 00ibez zaświatczen kredyt bez zaświadczenia o dochodach forum kredyt samochodowy getin bank jastrzębie koszt przelewu z karty kredytowej pko bp kredyt bank przetargi pożyczki z urzędów pracy kredyt bez bik krd big kredyt bank śródmieście kredyt samochodowy dla lekarzy kredyt bez bik w bydgoszczy kredyt bank środa wlkp kredyt w banku kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny 150 tys umowa pożyczki a zgłoszenie do urzędu skarbowego abis pożyczki infolinia zabezpieczenie pożyczki proz umowa pożyczki z obcokrajowcem kredyt bank kadry kredyt bank reklama mafia cechy pożyczki przedmiot umowy kredyt gotówkowy w idea bank opinie kredyt bank ciołka 10 godziny otwarcia kredyt bank oddziały warszawa wola pożyczki bez bik szybko i prosto kredyt bez biku zabrze kredyty bez big do 30000 szczecin pożyczki chwilówki bez konta bocian pożyczki gdynia kredyt bankowy pasywa czy aktywa bocian pożyczki bolesławiec pożyczki chwilówki zamość kredyty chwilowki jelenia gora umowa pożyczki od rodziców pożyczki pod nieruchomości podporządkowanie pożyczki kredyt rns getin bank opinie gdzie po kredyt bez bik duet pozyczka numer tel pożyczki online na dowód bez bik rafał kania pożyczki eurocent pożyczki opinie pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen nowy sacz kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najlepiej 2012 szybkie pożyczki cieszyn pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny co to kredyt studencki pko bp sa kredyt bank fundusz global partners kredyt bank lokaty terminowe 2013 kredyt bankowy przez internet pożyczki gotówkowe na telefon kredyt samochodowy ranking listopad 2013 pożyczki gotówkowe bez formalności kredyt mieszkaniowy forum 2012 umowa o kredyt wypełniony wzór kredyt bank jelenia góra umorzenie pożyczki byłemu pracownikowi alibaba szybkie pożyczki kredyt bank grójecka godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód w pko pożyczki dla widniejących w krd kredyty konsolidacyjne leszno pożyczki i chwilówki umowa pożyczki wraz z ustanowieniem zastawu pożyczki pod zastaw weksla pożyczki kaska gdzie najszybciej kredyt online na koncie pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości warszawa kredyt bank nr telefonu pozyczka kredyt bez bik krd szybkie pożyczki online uk pożyczki prywatne nowy targ pożyczki pod zastaw łomża kredyt bank pozyczka na dowod umowa pożyczki dla firm pożyczki głogowska duet pożyczki częstochowa kalkulator rat pożyczki ekspresowej kredyty chwilówki kraków bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank został sprzedany pożyczki pod zastaw sosnowiec udzielenie pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny skok wesola pożyczki pod zastaw głogów bocian pożyczki kwidzyn pożyczki pod zastaw piła alior bank kredyt oblicz rate kredyt w orange na karte kod w jakim banku można wziąć kredyt studencki kredyt bank marki telefon pozyczki mieszkaniowe na sam dowod pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet bez bik pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla nauczycieli wałbrzych kredyt bank przelewy wychodzące godziny podatek od pożyczki prywatnej 2011 kredyt online idea bank opinie pozyczka do domu gdynia pożyczki mysłowice kredyt bank sa oddział w białej podlaskiej kredyt bank elblag kontakt pożyczki na gumtree kredyty gotówkowe przez internet bez bik kredyt w banku zagiel szybkie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik kredyt bank rozwiązanie umowy pożyczki pozabankowe takto kredyt chwilówki zielona góra umowa pożyczki przykład optima kredyty lubin kredyty chwilówki gniezno kredyty chwilówki samochody rafał kuryłowicz pożyczki pożyczki chojnów kredyt pod samochód bez bik kredyt bank marza kredyt bank oświęcim kontakt umowa przedwstępna pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe wawa ekasa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny firmowy kredyty chwilówki dla kogo kredyt mieszkaniowy zasady przyznawania kredyt bank pszów kontakt pożyczki chwilówki szybko kredyt pozabankowy bez bik przez internet kredyt bank włocławek pożyczki prywatne busko kredyt bank sa łódź pcc od pożyczki termin kredyty chwilówki opinie o firmie alior bank pozyczka jaki procent pożyczki 24h na dobę wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki wzór pożyczki bez bik kłodzko kredyt z banku a podatek kredyty chwilówki kraków ul długa kredyt bank dzienny limit operacji szybkie pożyczki bez bik rzeszów pożyczki dla zadłużonych warszawa pożyczki bez bik do 10000 wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez skok kredyt konsolidacyjny minimum formalności kredyt bank założyciele pożyczki chwilówki pruszcz gdański kredyt bez bik 4 tys kredyt bank sa nowy sącz umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki pcc pożyczki tygodniówki pożyczki abc koncepcja pożyczki zwrotnej pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez big kredyt bank kudowa zdrój kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kredytowa kredyt studencki bzwbk 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny powtórny bank pko sa kredyty kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa kalkulator pożyczki online bez przelewu pożyczka dla zadłużonych w big puławy kredyty chwilówki chrzanów praca pożyczki przez internet bez biku kredyty konsolidacyjne w uk pozyczki prywatne bydgoszcz pożyczki chwilówki w lesznie kalkulator pożyczki kasa stefczyka niskie pożyczki kredyt niski procent w santander consumer bank kredyt bank bialystok ul radzyminska małgorzata iwańska pożyczki opinie kredyty pozabankowe wałbrzych kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie w ktorym banku nalepiej brac pozyczke na samochod kredyt bank dni otwarcia szybkie pozyczki bez biku pożyczki gotówkowe alior bank umowa pożyczki cechy kredyt konsolidacyjny a rodzina na swoim kredyt bank walcz kredyt bank departament marketingu szybkie pożyczki bez prowizji eurobank pożyczki opinie getin noble bank przewalutowanie kredytu najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank kupił santander kredyt mieszkaniowy sierpień 2012 pożyczki piaseczno pożyczki bez zaświadczeń międzyrzecz tel pożyczki chwilówki za 0 bank spółdzielczy kredyt forum kredyt bank łomianki godziny otwarcia pożyczki konsorcjalne kredyt bank debet na koncie kredyt bankowy w rachunku zysków i strat pozyczka w bankomacie tczew kredyt bank wawer bocian pożyczki goleniów kredyt bank w leborku umowa pożyczki osobie fizycznej kredyt bank kościan telefon kredyt w getin bank kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki warszawa puławska pożyczki od zaraz wrocław provident pożyczki prywatne wrocław kruk pożyczki gotówkowe pozyczki skok bez info monitora pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet kredyty chwilówki siemianowice świerczewskiego kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt kredyt online kredyt bank brzeg kredyt samochodowy ranking oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki kredyt bank wloclawek plac wolnosci bocian pożyczki kontakt pożyczki ii rp kredyt bank numer swift umorzenie pożyczki zakładowej kredyt dla firm bez zaświadczeń forum umorzenie pożyczki po jakim kursie pożyczki w kutnie kredyt samochodowy bank millennium asper pozyczki lodz kredyty bez bik malbork umowa pożyczki ang kredyt bank pszczyna kontakt kredyt bank międzyzdroje godziny otwarcia czy idea bank da kredyt zadluzonym opinie kredyty bez bik głogów konsolidacja kredytu mbank kredyt na 5 zl orange pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza bandrowskiego kredyt bank w ostrowie wlkp kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2013 ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt ing bank pozyczki na zalozenie firmy pożyczki bez zaświadczenia o zatrudnieniu kredyty samochodowe dla firm ranking kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciami komorniczymi pożyczki prywatne gdzie szukać kredyt bank przelicznik walut

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad