szybkie pożyczki panda kredyt bank biuro windykacji lublin pożyczka bez bik kredyt bank kosciuszki kielce centrala kredyt bank lublin flisak pożyczki kontakt kredyt w banku pod zastaw mieszkania umowa pożyczki z poddaniem się egzekucji kredyty pozabankowe czestochowa pożyczki żywiec kredyt mieszkaniowy spłata przed terminem kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik piła kredyt bank 1 maja płock kredyt mieszkaniowy deutsche bank opinie 2012 alior bank kredyt actum pożyczki kredyt studencki pko procent pozyczka na dowod 18 lat online pszczyna kredyt bank legnica rynek pożyczki pod zastaw siedlce kredyty chwilówki proszę o pomoc kredyt bank gdańsk kołobrzeska 12 kto udzieli kredytu bez bik pożyczki bez bik getin bank kredyt konsumpcyjny w banku bph pożyczki chwilówki w poznaniu kredyt bez bik i krd dla firm kredyty bez bik z zajeciem komorniczym kredyty chwilówki opinie forum umowa pożyczki z budżetu gminy szybkie pozyczki bez bik krd z komornikiem torun trust pożyczki żyrafa pożyczki poznań kredyt bank wyzwolenia szczecin kredyt w banku spółdzielczym oprocentowanie alior bank kalkulator kredytu samochodowego kredyt studencki bankier pożyczki gotówkowe w anglii umowa pożyczki aneks wzór kredyt pozabankowy na dowód kredyty bez bik w lesznie pożyczki na dowód grodzisk wlkp pożyczki profi credit kalkulator kredyt bank ekstrakonto profil aktywny 50 wzór umowy pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami bankomat kredyt bank warszawa profi credit kredyt dla bezrobotnego pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości mazowieckie kredyt bez bik forum dyskusyjne kredyt studencki pko do kiedy wnioski charakter pożyczki kredyty bez bik cała polska kredyt bank 50000 jaki bank 10000 pozyczka na splate komornika ubezpieczenie kredytu gotówkowego w lukas bank kredyt bank sa olsztyn kredyt bankowy pasywa czy aktywa wzory druków pożyczki pożyczki i kredyty detaliczne pożyczka dla najbiedniejszych kredyty pożyczki rzeszów kredyt dla firm bez bik i krd katalog firm pożyczki niebankowe biuro dobrej pożyczki kredyt obrotowy idea bank opinie kredyty chwilówki zabrze opolska pożyczki prywatne bez wpłaty pozyczki dla pracujacych w czechach pożyczki chwilówki tarnobrzeg kredyt bankowy na rachunku bieżącym kredyt konsolidacyjny na firmę pożyczki bocian kościan kredyty chwilówki kasprowicza wyłudzali pożyczki kredyt dla firm bez bik i zaswiadczen optima pożyczki reklama pragma pożyczki pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości opinie kredyty pozabankowe bez bik siedlce adresy i nr tel konwersja pożyczki na kapitał a cit umowa pożyczki dla rodziny pożyczki do 30 dni kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkladem wlasnym kalkulator pożyczki lubliniec rodzaje kredytów w banku pekao sa kredyty konsolidacyjne na 10 lat kredyt samochodowy dla firm alior bank kredyty pozabankowe szczecin szybkie pożyczki na dowód przez internet kredyt dla firm bez bik big pożyczki bez dochodu łódź kredyty bez biku zabrze udzielić pożyczki po niemiecku pożyczki bez bik kołobrzeg czy udzielenie pożyczki podlega opodatkowaniu vat kredyt bank zielonka godziny kredyt bank centrum obsługi klienta kredyt studencki w pko opinie pożyczki z zajęciami komorniczymi kredyt bank wrocław placówki pożyczki gotówkowe prywatne pożyczki bez bik chwilówki kredyt bez bik mbank gdzie otrzymam kredyt bez bik kredyt bank pabianice ul zamkowa kredyt konsolidacyjny dla prowadzących działalność kredyty chwilówki impreza firmowa kredyt na dom a umowa na czas określony pożyczki poznań gumtree kwota nominalna pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli bez wkładu kredyt bank jelenia góra wolności kredyt bank w raszynie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank przeworsk kontakt kredyt studencki w jakim banku 2011 kredyty chwilówki stargard szczeciński kredyt bank zagiel lublin kredyt bank lesko bocian pożyczki złóż wniosek pożyczki bez bik i krd bydgoszcz pożyczki bez krd olsztyn kredyt mieszkaniowy pracuje za granica kredyt studencki bank pocztowy kredyt studencki pko bp legitymacja kredyty bez bik szamotuły pozyczka bez sprawdzania kredyt bank w pruszkowie pcc od umowy pożyczki od rodziny wniosek o kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank kredyt dla bezrobotnych bez bik i krd mbank kredyt samochodowy online oprocentowanie wniosek o kredyt bez biku kangurek pożyczki umowa pożyczki jakie odsetki pożyczki kredyt dla zadłużonych optima pożyczki bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki bez bik sieradz kredyt przez internet w credit agricole w jakim banku wziąć kredyt samochodowy pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta swidnica udzielenie nieoprocentowanej pożyczki spółce banki udzielające kredyt bez bik pozyczka do domu gdynia kredyt bank wymiana walut kredyt bank 3 maja słupsk bank spółdzielczy kredyt mieszkaniowy forum nobilon pożyczki opinie pożyczki optima kontakt pozyczki deblin bez bik kredyt bank problem z logowaniem kredyt w banku pekao wzór umowa pożyczki w rodzinie nfośigw pożyczki polecane pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank nowy targ godz otwarcia umowa pożyczki w providencie kredyt gotowkowy bez biku kredyty gotówkowe bez sprawdzania w bik opodatkowanie pożyczki od rodziny 2011 kredyt bank zarobki 2012 kredyty w banku santander kredyty gotówkowe bez bik poznań idea bank opinie kredyt obrotowy kredyt bez biku online pożyczki prodomo umorzenie pożyczki wzór księgowanie pożyczki w stowarzyszeniu kredyty bez biku płock pożyczki bez bik do 10000 kredyt konsolidacyjny pko warunki pożyczki bez bik środa wlkp pożyczki od osób prywatnych toruń jaki kod na kredyt orange kredyt pozabankowy definicja kredyt bank marki godziny otwarcia kredyt bank gdansk slowackiego pożyczki bez zaświadczeń poznań pożyczki bez bik w puławach pożyczki studenckie uk optima pożyczki gliwice umowa pożyczki ratalnej wzór kredyt bank bydgoszcz modrzewiowa pożyczki na dowód gorlice asper pozyczki lodz optima pożyczki do domu łódź pożyczki kórnik szybki kredyt bez biku i krd przez internet kredyt samochodowy dla studenta kredyt na dowód w banku pocztowym kredyt bank santander 2012 forum pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt samochodowy w nordea bank jakie dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp tani kredyt samochodowy dla firm kalkulator pożyczki w profi credit wonga pozyczki info linia regulamin kredytu studenckiego pko bp bocian pożyczki oddział warszawa auto kredyt bez bik forum kredyt bez bik żary pożyczki w kruku pożyczki społecznościowe w domu umowa pożyczki taksa notarialna kredyt bank pocztowy opinie pożyczki unijne małopolska kredyty bez bik radom kredyty firmowe bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę zadłużeń kredyty bankowe i pozabankowe kalwaryjska krakow umowa pożyczki a pcc kredyt w alior banku kredyt samochodowy kalkulator bank kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym pożyczki od ręki na dowód kredyty bez bik lodz getin bank kredyty samochodowe jastrzębie zdrój szybkie pożyczki kielce najtanszy kredyt w ktorym banku lojalka w kredyt banku kredyt studencki pekao sa dokumenty pożyczki w kredyt banku kredyt pod zastaw nieruchomości w bank bgż szybki kredyt bez bik i big skarabeusz pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki 24h kredyt bez biku poznan kredyt inwestycyjny w getin banku kredyt bank ostrów wlkp kredyt chwilówka getin bank lukas bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bank warszawa centrum godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w wadowicach cechy pożyczki wikipedia idea bank kredyt forum kredyt w getin banku na oświadczenie kredyt bank logo kredyt bez bik alior bank kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole opinie kredyt bank słubice godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking i wasze opinie kredyt bank warta gwarancja kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin bank kredyt bank ul kasprzaka 2 8 warszawa kredyt bank kadry pożyczki dla wolnych zawodów wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki na czas określony ewidencja księgowa otrzymanej pożyczki odmowa pożyczki w vivus kredyt bank wroclaw legnicka kredyty chwilowki nowy sacz kredyt konsolidacyjny 60 tys kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyt dla rolników kredyty bez bik w szczecinie kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomosci ustna umowa pożyczki w rodzinie unilinkpożyczka toruń pożyczki z opóźnieniami kredyt bank sa żyrardów umowa pożyczki wolna od podatku umorzenie pożyczki pozew zwrot pożyczki pieniężnej za pokwitowaniem wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok piast pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka kredyt bez bik szczecin opodatkowanie pożyczki podatkiem dochodowym umowa pożyczki udziałowca dla spółki wzór oferty pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klijenta swidnica alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyty i pożyczki charakterystyka zdunska wola pożyczki bez bik do 6000 pożyczki we wrocławiu pożyczki optima bydgoszcz kredyt bank powstancow slaskich kredyt gotowkowy w deutsche bank kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku forum kredyt bank oszczędnościowe historia pożyczki kredyt bank galeria mokotów kredyt bank tczew ul gdańska kredyt bank krakow kapelanka kredyt bez bik bielsko pożyczki pozabankowe cała polska pozyczka podobna do pozyczka zyrafa kredyt bank ii oddział kraków kapelanka kredyty bez bik w siedlcach pożyczki gotówkowe od zaraz znaczenie kredytów w działalności banku pożyczki w tax care pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu śląsk getin noble bank kredyt konsumpcyjny przedawnienie pożyczki w providencie kredyt gotowkowy chwilowka tczew atiz pożyczka łukasz fornela pozyczki optima pożyczki numer telefonu pożyczki filarum kredyt bank dzienny limit operacji na rachunku czy kredyt bankowy jest przychodem pożyczki lubin armii krajowej kredyt bank włocławek plac wolności kredyty chwilówki września żyrafa pożyczki rejestracja kredyt bank radomsko kontakt kredyt bank lubartów telefon pozyczki bocian leszno pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bez bik na budowe pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości gdańsk pożyczki okey pożyczki online bez prowizji kredyt bank chf pożyczki chwilówki grójecka akropol pożyczki kredyt bank ostrobramska warszawa kredyt bez bik pod zastaw samochodu kredyty chwilówki rata wierzyciel pożyczki opinie kredyt bank ukraine kredyt konsolidacyjny potrzebne dokumenty kredyt samochodowy santander opinie pożyczki z opóźnieniami kredyt konsolidacyjny ing forum bocian pożyczki chełmża kredyt studencki w pko bp forum pożyczki nakło kredyty chwilówki bez dochodu pożyczki pod zastaw w łodzi udzielić pożyczki po niemiecku umowa pożyczki z synem kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus umowa pożyczki pieniędzy między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki accord kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli dofinansowanie pożyczki od osób prywatnych 2013 zwrot pożyczki proz kredyt bank wakacje kredytowe pozyczka na dowod bez biku rzeszów trudne pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank gdynia kredyty chwilowki klobuck kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy porównanie kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń czy warto brać kredyt studencki forum kredyt konsolidacyjny 300 tys gros pożyczki inowrocław kredyt bank oferty pracy czy pożyczki pozabankowe są bezpieczne pożyczki od 19 lat przez internet potwierdzenie oddania pożyczki kredyt bank zmiana danych pożyczki online bez bik od 18 lat kredyt bank w białobrzegach kredyt bank żytnia godziny otwarcia pożyczki oława kredyt bank 4 oddział warszawa bocian pożyczki kutno polbank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum kredyt studencki pekao sa 2012 kredyt bank ząbkowice śląskie kredyty bez bik radom kredyt bank lokaty maj 2013 pożyczki pozabankowe typu provident pożyczki bez poręczycieli kredyt bank lokata terminowa ing czy dają pożyczki młodym ludziom kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millenium opinie pozyczka online dla bezrobotnych prywatne pożyczki na weksel katowice kredyt samochodowy bank millenium pożyczki prywatne kraków pożyczka zdunska wola bez bik do 6000 kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych forum kredyt bank wyplata za granica żyrafa pożyczki odmowa kredyt bank w plocku kredyt bank bankomaty za granicą deutsche bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki od udziałowca w bilansie kredyt na mieszkanie w banku pko kredyt konsolidacyjny mieszkaniowy kredyt bank polaczenie pozyczku raty tygodniowe kredyt samochodowy dla młodych ludzi kredyt od ręki bez biku kredyt preferencyjny bank spółdzielczy kredyt mieszkaniowy porównanie banków kredyty chwilówki windykator leasing czy kredyt samochodowy dla firm firmy kredytowe pozabankowe w katowicach kredyt bank powstańców śląskich 108 warszawa kredyt bank fundusze rodzaje kredytów bankowych dla msp getin bank kredyt samochodowy telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny z niskim oprocentowaniem kredyt mieszkaniowy 250 tys jaka rata credit agricole swiebodzin pozyczka 10tys godziny pracy kredyt banku w warszawie pożyczki komornicze nowakka pożyczki online kredyt bank banco santander kredyt bank lokaty oprocentowanie 2012 pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu globals pożyczki pożyczki bez bik dąbrowa górnicza umowa pożyczki co to jest pożyczka na procent pod mieszkanie kredyt bank oszczędnościowe finan pożyczki kłodzko wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki provident forum pożyczki 2014 kredyt bank 4 oddział gdańsk kredyt bankowy warunki pożyczki bez bik gumtree zmiana umowy pożyczki a pcc kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2012 kredyt bank w sulechowie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik nowy sącz kredyt mieszkaniowy pod zastaw mieszkania rodziców pożyczki bez bik profi credit umowa pożyczki spółka komandytowa kredyt bank lokata constans kredyt bez bik chełm alior bank kredyty kalkulator pożyczki dla udziałowców kredyt mieszkaniowy dla pary bez ślubu kredyt gotówkowy bez bik lublin pożyczki bez zaświadczeń dochodach pożyczki dla zadłużonych i w bik kredyty chwilówki za darmo pożyczki nieopodatkowane pożyczki w żagiel konwersja pożyczki na kapitał rezerwowy a pcc pożyczki optima kontakt kredyt bank wrocław bocian pożyczki bez bik kto da pożyczkę lub kredyt z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki ratunkowe wrocław eurocash pożyczki toruń korzystne pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank wcześniejsza spłata kredytu gotówkowego wzór wniosku o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp kredyt w provident utrata pracy kredyt bank poleasingowe umowa pożyczki definicja pożyczki z funduszu mikro orange kod kredytu kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy alior bank bocian pozyczki bez biku oświecim bank pekao sa kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank gdansk chalubinskiego pożyczki na weksel szczecin kredyt bank sa we wrocławiu kredyt bank krynica morska kod na wzięcie kredytu w orange kredyty chwilówki zdjęcia nowe pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt bank dzial windykacji pożyczki w ramach bgk cz bank pocztowy daje kredyty mdm pożyczki online darmowe pożyczki dla prawników pożyczki z budżetu państwa umowa pożyczki wzór 777 pożyczki dla firm bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki trzebiatów tablica kredyt bank praca warszawa pożyczki chwilówki nowy targ pożyczki bocian w kaliszu kredyt bank kraków kapelanka oprocentowanie kredytów fm bank praca firma pozyczkowa optima kredyt bez biku szczecin pozyczki w domu klienta poznan kredyt konsolidacyjny w parabanku kredyt bank lublin oferty pracy kredyt bez bik 15000 pożyczki żyrafa kredyt bank chałubińskiego kredyt bank kupił santander kredyt mieszkaniowy mieszkanie na swoim kredyt chwilówka od 18 lat pozyczki u klienta w domu dolny śląsk kredyt chwilówka bez bik i krd pożyczki w domu klienta wielkopolska pozyczki pozabankowe atiz krotoszyn kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking 2013 przyrzeczenie pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych zielona góra kredyt mieszkaniowy w getin banku pożyczki w domu klienta inowrocław kredyty pozabankowe definicja kredyty bez bik szczecin opodatkowanie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej oprocentowanie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs kredyt bank warszawa tarchomin kredyt chwilówki kraków

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad