wypowiedzenie umowy kredytu credit agricole łukasz chlebicki pożyczki udzielenie pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe oświęcim kredyt konsolidacyjny w db kredyt opinie kredyty preferencyjne banki pozyczki atiz ostrow kredyt bank w suszu pożyczki bez bik gdańsk kredyt w banku brodnickim kredyt bank dział marketingu pożyczki kalkulator pko bp kredyt bank w skierniewicach pozyczki do domu podkarpacie kredyt bank w dąbrowie górniczej pożyczki posłów kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek 2014 pulawska kredyty chwilowki warszawa bez bik i krd rata kredytu pożyczki kredyt bank blokada karty ostatnia sesja w kredyt banku kredyt bank świdnik godziny otwarcia kredyt bank spółka akcyjna kredyt mieszkaniowy dla studenta pko kredyt w koncie w banku pocztowym pożyczki pod zastaw rtv nowy sącz pożyczki bez rejestrów kredyt bank placówki warszawa bielany pozyczki prodomo kredyt bank sa lodz biz pożyczki opodatkowanie pożyczki podatkiem vat kredyt bank sulechów godziny otwarcia pożyczki ze złą historią kredytową bank pocztowy kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum pożyczki od osób prywatnych poznań pożyczki pozabankowe koszalin pożyczki prywatne od ręki pozyczki chwilówki z komornikiem gdansk kiedy umowa pożyczki jest nieważna kredyt gotówkowy bankier kredyt bank warszawa godziny otwarcia sobota pożyczki gotówkowe bez prowizji umowa pożyczki komornik kredyty bankowe oferty kredyt konsolidacyjny w niemczech zmiana umowy pożyczki a pcc kredyt bank spółdzielczy opinie pożyczki internetowe pierwsza za darmo kredyt konsolidacyjny provident kredyt bank santander pożyczki bez bik pabianice duzy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank wejherowo godz otwarcia gdzie kredyt bez biku spłata kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyt w provident utrata pracy pożyczki skarabeusz podkarpacie szukam pożyczki prywatnej ogłoszenia 24 kredyt bez biku torun prywatne pożyczki we wrocławiu pożyczki bezprocentowe dla firm pożyczki creditpol maksymalne oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej pozyczka bez bik dla bezrobotnych łódź umowa pożyczki wspólnika do spółki kredyt bank komornik bank pko bp kredyt dla firm pożyczki na oświadczenie bez bik kalkulator dobrej pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki w kielcach kredyty bez bik zgorzelec pozyczks bez erif bik krd wrocław pozyczki bocian opoczno kredyt lombardowy w banku kredyt bank kariera kredyt bank x oddział w warszawie pożyczki u lichwiarzy pożyczki społecznościowe podatki pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs wyłudzenie pożyczki kodeks karny wzór umowy pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami pożyczki bez biku ełk kredyt na samochód bez bik i zaświadczeń kalkulator pożyczki ekspresowej w pekao sa unilinkpożyczka toruń kredyt w ulster bank ie udzielone pożyczki długoterminowe bilans pożyczki sezam całą polska pożyczki na dowód toruń przelew internetowy kredyt konsolidacyjny na oświadczenie warunki otrzymania pożyczki w pko kredyty bankowe wzory kredyt studencki w banku bph ing czy dają pożyczki młodym ludziom kredyt bankowy a pozyczka kredyt bank lokaty inwestycyjne kredyty chwilówki pośrednictwo finansowe kredyt bankowy podstawa prawna kredyty bez bik w legnicy pożyczki z banku światowego kredyt w db bank opinie mennica pozyczki 2014 rok kredyt bank poczta elektroniczna pozyczki rodzaje umowa pożyczki wspólników opodatkowanie umorzonej pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank oddział lublin udzielenie pożyczki spółce z oo kredyt bank lukow telefon kredyt bank fundusz nieruchomości kredyt bank należy do umowa pożyczki definicja kredyt w banku bez krd oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku kalkulator szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez bik krd umowa pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie pożyczki na samochód bez bik pożyczki w kredyt banku kredyty chwilówki bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp kalkulator kredyt bank 3 maja słupsk kredyt samochodowy ranking pożyczki społecznościowe w domu bez bankowe pozyczki bydgoszcz 20000zl kredyt bankowy głównym źródłem kreacji pieniądza skok wielkopolska pożyczki pożyczki bez dochodów od 18 lat mariusz wasilewski pożyczki pożyczki ngo umowa pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki chwilówki tychy karencja w spłacie pożyczki kredyt bank opłata za prowadzenie konta kredyt bez bik na zakup mieszkania pożyczki konsolidacyjnej kredyty bez bik do 5000 kredyt bez biku bytom regulamin dobrej pożyczki podatek pcc od pożyczki a koszty uzyskania przychodu wniosek o kredyt studencki pko sa pożyczki gotówkowe zagiel kredyty getin bank kalkulator oferuję pożyczki konto pożyczki otrzymane bank bph kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum hesta pożyczki kredyt bank żołnierska olsztyn umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs zmarłemu emerytowi kredyt bez bik iz komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny na 30 lat ksiegowanie pozyczki de minimis rezygnacja z karty kredytowej kredyt bank wzór multika zywiec kredyty bez bik kredyty dla zadłużonych w uk kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 pozyczka bez bik w pko bp fotum pożyczki wielkopolska kredyt samochodowy dla mundurowych kredyt bez bik bolesławiec pożyczki olsztyn pożyczki z niskimi dochodami kredyt samochodowy dla emeryta kredyt bank gryfice kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych w bik kredyty chwilówki system partner pl kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat wbk kredyty mieszkaniowe statystyka pożyczki bez zaświadczeń od ręki capital pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych bydgoszcz kredyt bank 10000 kredyt bank wyrobienie nowej karty umowa pożyczki dla udziałowca promesa pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw kraków kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz kredyt konsolidacyjny niezabezpieczony kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking lipiec 2012 millennium pożyczki umowa pożyczki pieniężnej między firmami kredyty budowlano mieszkaniowe pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na raty pożyczki typu provident bocian kredyt bank police pożyczka w domu klienta śląsk kredyt bank w siedlcach kredyt bank 10 pożyczki chwilówki ruda śląska pozyczki na dowod czechowice prywatne kredyt bank wesoła godziny otwarcia wzór umowy pożyczki osoba prywatna kredyt bank karmelicka pożyczki chwilówki sms pożyczki dla nowo powstałych firm umowa pożyczki od rodziny bank bgż pożyczka gotówkowa umowa zlecenie kredyt bank łódź ul zgierska pożyczki z funduszu europejskiego kredyt getin bank 30000 pożyczki pozabankowe we wrześni kredyt bank w lublinie ul krakowskie przedmieście kredyt bank sokółka telefon oprocentowanie kredytów w banku spółdzielczym pozyczki prywatne bez rejestrów kredyt bank notowania walut kredyt bank jastarnia kredyt bank duplikat karty kredyt bank wypowiada umowy na życie kredyt bank nysa godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe szybko pożyczki prywatne przez internet wzór na odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs skarabeusz pożyczki praca kod orange kredyt alior bank kredyt refinansowy pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania baz kredyt bankowy w obliczu kryzysu finansowego kredyty pozabankowe do 10000 kredyt mieszkaniowy 130 kredyt chwilowka daja bez bik kredyty i pożyczki cesja kredyty parkmar w kt prośba o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór dobosiewicz kredyty i gwarancje bankowe pdf kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych poznań umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki wzór pożyczki na własną działalność kredyt w rachunku bank pocztowy w jakim banku najlepiej brac kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych forum pożyczki chwilówki żyrafa kredyty pozabankowe naklo nad notecia kredyt idea bank forum pożyczki pozabankowe dobre miasto opodatkowanie pożyczki od rodziny 2011 umorzenie pożyczki ewidencja wycena pożyczki na koniec roku pożyczki bez bik w białymstoku wzór umowy pożyczki dla syna kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie porównanie czy latwo dostac kredyt w credit agricole gdzie dostane pozyczke na raty i bez bik i bez dochodu profi credit wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe oświęcim wzór umowy pożyczki spłata w ratach pożyczki krótkoterminowe online dobra pozyczka warszawa dla zadluzonych pozyczki bez krs i bik na oswiadczenie jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki pierwsza za darmo pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczenia getin noble bank zawieszenie kredytu kredyt bank lista darmowych bankomatów kredyt bez bik 20000 kredyt konsolidacyjny oblicz raty bocian pożyczka nr tele umorzenie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank gniezno godziny otwarcia pożyczki tanie pożyczki w ratach tygodniowych kredyt konsolidacyjny 200 tys umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej a podatek dochodowy ujęcie pożyczki w bilansie umowa ubezpieczenia pożyczki kredyt bank tbg bocian pożyczki chojnice wycena pożyczki na dzień bilansowy kredyt bank sa zamość kredyt bank lublin zana kontakt pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem warszawa 2013 kredyt bank kanały dystrybucji pożyczki do 5 tysięcy pożyczki od zagranicznych inwestorów jaki dobry kredyt konsolidacyjny skarabeusz kalkulator pozyczek polecana pozyczka w systemie ratalnym bez bik kredyt bank conrada warszawa godziny otwarcia podatek od pożyczki gotówkowej postea pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe dla osob z komornikiem kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatu bez prowizji unicredit pożyczki kredyty chwilówki tychy kredyt na samochód dla firm bez bik kredyty chwilówki płock kwiatka pożyczki bez bik zaświadczeń bezpłatne pożyczki chwilówki jaki numer na kredyt orange pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej jaworzno pożyczki długoterminowe wikipedia umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki zwrot pożyczki angielski kredyt bank wolomin pożyczki pod zastaw rtv marka pożyczki białystok kredyt bank sandomierz godziny otwarcia kredyt w getin bank kalkulator kredyt bank w kolobrzegu pożyczki gotówkowe dla osób z komornikiem kredyt na samochód bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe pod weksel bydgoszcz kredyt rns banki kredyt chwilówka sandomierz kredyt na mieszkanie kalkulator zdolności kredytowej potrzebny szybki kredyt bez bik kredyt bank aktualne lokaty kredyt prywatny wzór umowy cywilno prawnej pożyczka na sam dowód bez przelewania pieniazków kredyt bank w lubartowie kredyt bank autodealing pożyczki bez bik gliwice kredyt bank w zgorzelcu pozyczki bez krs i bik na oswiadczenie kredyt pozabankowy częstochowa przedawnienie pożyczki art kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat wbk pożyczki bez bik strzelce opolskie kredyt bank wagrowiec kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych warszawa wniesienie aportem pożyczki profi credit kredyt dla bezrobotnego pożyczki ekspresowe na dowód pożyczki pozabankowe ciechanów kredyt bank elixir sesje kredyt bank dm jak księgować pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki skawina pożyczki gotówkowe dla osób pracujących za granicą kredyt bankowy po śmierci marka kredyty opinie bocian pożyczki z komornikiem zarabianie na pożyczkach pożyczki gotówkowe przez sms bip pożyczki formularz kredyt bank maestro optima pożyczki warunki optima pożyczki bez sprawdzania bik kredyt konsolidacyjny wielka brytania kredyt studencki jakie banki 2012 pszczołka pożyczki kontakt kredyt bank nr iban kredyt mieszkaniowy 120 wartości kredyt bank sa w warszawie oddział w lublinie umowy o kredyt miedzyfirma a prywatna księgowanie wpłat w kredyt banku pozyczki na dowod konin kredyt konsolidacyjny nowy sacz pożyczki z pup kredyt bank przemyśl ul dworskiego kredyt konsolidacyjny toruń kredyty chwilówki chorzów batory oblicz ratę pożyczki pekao w jakim banku można wziąć kredyt na dowód kredyt bank nowy targ godz otwarcia kredyt bank adres pożyczki z komornikiem katowice kredyt bank placówki warszawa bielany pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności gospodarczej assa pożyczki pożyczka bez zdolności kredytowej puck kredyty chwilówki płock kwiatka kredyt banku infolinia szybki kredyt bez bik kalisz księgowanie pożyczki udzielonej pożyczki chwilówki bez bik kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki chwilówki holandia kredyt idea bank online kredyty chwilówki windykator kredyt konsolidacyjny dla kogo kredyt bank zabezpieczenie lokat pożyczki chwilówki na rok kredyt samochodowy dla firm optima pożyczki program partnerski bezpieczny kredyt bez bik forum kredyty bez bik tarnów pożyczki pod zastaw auta lublin kredyt bank sa jarosław kredyt bank nasielsk wypowiedzenie ustnej umowy pożyczki kredyty chwilówki wrocław praca odstąpienie od umowy pożyczki profi credit pożyczki firmowe kredyt konsolidacyjny uk parabanki pożyczki pożyczka bez big kraków kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka kontakt kredyt studencki warunki spłaty kredyt bank warszawa arkadia kredyt bank wałbrzych kusocińskiego pożyczki pod zastaw rtv tarnów warunki uzyskania pożyczki sennik kredyt bankowy pożyczki długoterminowe wikipedia umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs gofin pożyczki pozabankowe łódż pozyczki on laine bez biku na 15000 takto pozyczka bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank rada nadzorcza kredyt bank centrala w warszawie santander bank kredyty gotówkowe abis pożyczki dla każdego bank brodnicki kredyt forum kredyt samochodowy getin bank kalkulator pożyczki oddłużeniowe nowe pożyczki bez bik i krd jak wziąć kredyt w banku zagranicznym kwota główna pożyczki pożyczki na dowód kołobrzeg kredyt bankowy dla bezrobotnych kredyt bez bik do 5 tys pożyczki wrocław przedawnienie pożyczki z zfśs kredyty konsolidacyjne gdynia kredyt na oswiadczenie w credit agricole pożyczki z funduszy pożyczkowych kredyt konsolidacyjny parabank kredyt bank blz kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt pko bp opinie pożyczki progres kredyt bank krasnystaw kredyt w banku na mieszkanie pożyczki od rodziny podatek kredyt mieszkaniowy opłaty notarialne gdzie kredyt bez biku lukas bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pocztowy kredyt bank gdynia kontakt tarr pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe zielona góra kredyt bez sprawdzania bik meritum pozyczka na dowod i wyciag z konta kredyt bank chałubińskiego pożyczki bez bik i krd z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki bezpośrednie medicover kredyt bank warszawa pożyczki wspólpraca kredyt bank oplaty za prowadzenie konta pożyczki chwilówki słupsk wojska polskiego kredyty chwilówki warszawa jana pawła kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pocztowy prodomo pożyczki opinie optima pożyczki do domu opinie niezwrócenie pożyczki kredyt bank w lodzi kredyt bank zgorzelec godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w gdańsku godziny otwarcia ekspres pożyczki 24 kredyt konsolidacyjny db kredyt kalkulator bocian pożyczki wniosek pozyczki mieszkaniowe na sam dowod pożyczki bocian kościan kredyt getin bank bez bik skarabeusz pożyczki w domu księgowanie wpłat w kredyt banku kredyt gotówkowy w pko sa opinie kredyt bank kondycja bank alior formalnosci do kredytu pożyczki pozabankowe leszno w jakim banku wziąc kredyt pożyczki bez bik radom kredyt na samochód dla firm bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy w ing forum pożyczki dla msp kredyty chwilówki płock kwiatka kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 procent neobank pożyczka bez bik kredyt bez biku pabianice kredyt bank zamość godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w pile pożyczki jeremie łódzkie kredyt konsolidacyjny okres kredytowania pożyczki bez bik mysłowice cienka kapitalizacja pożyczki pożyczki prywatne aktualne oferty pożyczki bez bik sieradz kredyt samochodowy banki wysoki kredyt konsolidacyjny idea bank kredyt na start opinie szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet dobranie w takto pozyczka kredyt bank żory umowa pożyczki dla rodziny wzór bank credit agricole kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty chwilówki kraków librowszczyzna 1 szybkie pożyczki dla firm dobry kredyt pozabankowy czy umowa pożyczki wymaga formy pisemnej kredyt bank sa gorzów wlkp pozyczka bez sprawdzania open finance kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kredyt studencki bank gospodarstwa krajowego kredyt bez bik zus us bank pekao sa symulacja kredytu czy pozyczki activia sa bez biku pożyczki urząd pracy karty kredytowe pozabankowe gdansk pożyczki społecznościowe opodatkowanie

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad