udziele drobnej pozyczki zywiec umowa pożyczki pieniędzy na procent kredyt bank w kłodzku natalia kowalczyk pożyczki kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz pożyczki bez bik kętrzyn wrocław pożyczki prywatne pożyczki między internautami deustche bank kredyt na dowod online pożyczki bogatynia kredyt bank zołnierska pożyczki chwilówki bez bik big krd kredyt bank godziny otwarcia rzeszów kredyt bez bik dla rolnika szybki kredyt dla firm bez bik pozyczki na dowod miesieczne raty podlaskie lomza kredyt bank wychodzące szybkie pożyczki w uk oprocentowanie pożyczki pko sa pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kredyt w barclays przez internet kredyt bank oszuści pożyczki z unii pożyczki pod zastaw kielce finan pożyczki kontakt pozyczki bez bik i zaswiadczen umowa pożyczki osoba fizyczna firma kredyt chwilówki żary pożyczki bez bik gorzów wlkp kredyt bank bytom godziny otwarcia pożyczki kredyty bez biku pożyczki na dowód wonga giżycko pożyczki direct szybki kredyt 10000 mińsk mazowiecki kredyt budowlany w jakim banku kredyt bank zakopane sesje przelewów w kredyt bank umowa pożyczki art 777 forma prawna pożyczki kredyt chwilówka czerwionka kredyt w eurobanku na pit credic agricol lebork oferty pozyczki pożyczki unia europejska pożyczki chwilówki włocławek pozyczka 50 000 przez internet pożyczki chwilówki online wniosek o kredyt studencki pko sa pożyczki chwilówki jelenia góra kredyt w eurobanku opinie szybki kredyt online bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum kredyt bank lokata ubezpieczeniowa warta gwarancja roznoszenie ulotek kredyty chwilówki w słupsku kredyty bankowe i ich ewidencja pozyczka pod zastaw samochodu bez wyciągu umowa pożyczki pieniężnej dla spółki pożyczki prywatne 30000 kredyt bank sa tarnobrzeg limit pożyczki od rodziny pożyczki bez biku na telefon umorzenie udzielonej pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe białystok wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania wzór umowy pożyczki od udziałowca eurocash pożyczki lublin pożyczki bez bik 6000 kredyt bez bik jastrzebie pożyczki bez biku wałbrzych kredyt bank sa lublin narutowicza kredyt bank reklama adamczyk kredyty bez bik gorzów wielkopolski kredyt bank lokaty listopad 2012 kwoty pożyczki zwolnione od podatku pożyczki w domu bydgoszcz kaska pożyczki opinie kredyt bank ząbkowice śląskie kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok jaworzno santander bank kalkulator kredytu samochodowego kredyt bank krasnystaw kredyt bank płatność kartą za granicą jak wziasc kredyt do 25000 pożyczki pozabankowe mińsk mazowiecki kredyt samochodowy forum opinie umowa pożyczki kara umowna pozyczka na dowod bex biku zary telefon kredyt samochodowy bez zaświadczeń forum pożyczki ii rp pożyczki od osób prywatnych rzeszów wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki prywatnej alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny w sygma bank pożyczki krajowe kredyty bez zaswiadczen minsk mazowiecki kredyt bank żeromskiego warszawa godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy dla lekarza kredyty chwilówki włoszczowa kredyt bez biku torun kredyt bank pekao sa kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 procent pozyczki prywatne wrocław kredyt bank numer banku pożyczki prywatne olsztyn neobank kredyt pod zastaw gruntow rolnych kredyty studenckie bzwbk alior bank kredyt kredyt preferencyjny banki kredyty chwilówki na raty kredyt bank kraków kapelanka kontakt cechy pożyczki przedmiot umowy kalkulator dobrej pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa ul kasprzaka pożyczki oferty kredyt bank grudziądz kontakt gdzie kredyt bez bik i krd pożyczki bez bik zduńska wola umowa pożyczki dla urzędu skarbowego kredyty gotówkowe bez bik rzeszów activa 500 pożyczki od ręki getin noble bank pożyczki kredyt bank środa śląska godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki kalisz kredyt bank płock kolegialna godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki na dowód kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik forum kredyt bank obecna nazwa kredyt na samochód bez bik i krd zarobki kredyt bank forum kredyty w wbk forum kredyt 150tys bez bik kredyt bankowy w księgach wzór weksla pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki włocławek pozyczka nowa huta pożyczki na renty socjalne kredyt dla firm na oświadczenie bez bik pożyczki inwestycyjne umowa pożyczki do druku opodatkowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt bank gdansk godziny otwarcia pcc od pożyczki udzielonej spółce przez udziałowca pożyczki korporacyjne kredyt bez bik jastrzebie umowa pożyczki czy weksel kredyt bank łomża kontakt kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego lukas bank najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe 2013 kredyty chwilówki skarżysko kamienna pożyczki gotówkowe online kredyt bank wyzwolenia kredyt w banku spółdzielczym forum kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca uzasadnienie pożyczki na remont mieszkania pożyczki na dowód katowice pożyczki internetowe kredyt bank pruszcz gdański pożyczki bez zaświadczeń skok czy w skok stefczyka można wziąć kredyt bez bik kredyty chwilówki zarabiaj z nami opinie pożyczki 30 dniowe pozyczka dla pracujących na czarno bez bik wawa przykładowa umowa pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bez bik w ing kredyt bank końskie kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny to pożyczki prywatne katowice warunki uzyskania pożyczki kredyt bank powiadomienia sms kredyty w krakowie bez zaswiadczen pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania baz dłużników przelew własny w kredyt banku kredyt bank sa lublin pożyczki chwilówki chełm kredyt studencki pko niedostarczenie zaświadczenia kredyt bank ostróda kontakt wzór umowy pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie kredyt studencki pko bp 2013 pożyczki bez bik dla emerytów kredyt bank realizacja przelewów w którym banku najtańszy kredyt mieszkaniowy drugi kredyt w innym banku bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie ewidencja księgowa pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank placowka wroclaw kredyt bank zgierz kontakt pożyczki kruk sa pożyczki dla zadluzonych w krd kredyt bank żyrardów pożyczki prow kredyt bank wydruk potwierdzenia bajecznej pożyczki małgorzata iwańska pożyczki kredyt z banku a pcc pożyczki na dowód w 15 min pożyczki bez bik zabrze kredyt bank oszczędzanie kredyt remontowy bank pekao sa kredyt pozabankowy 5000 zl kredyt samochodowy dominet bank kredyty chwilówki kielce żeromskiego kredyt bank rybnik 3 maja godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń bydgoszcz podatek od pożyczki pracowniczej pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki lendon szybko i bez umowy pożyczki kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz fordon pożyczki pozabankowe w pile multibank kredyt samochodowy kredyt bank lezajsk godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki dla pracownika wzór kredyt bank sa iii oddział w gdańsku kredyt studencki 2012 pko sa umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona nieruchomością pożyczki pułtusk formularz pożyczki wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla kogo kredyt bank siedlce kontakt kredyt bank fuzja z bz wbk kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt czy w pozyczce bocian udzielaja kredytu na24 miesiace kredyty chwilówki gdańsk odsetki karne w pożyczkach kiedy nota kredyt bank ii oddział wrocław pożyczki do domu bez bik pożyczki chwilówki żyrardów pożyczki krasnystaw odpis aktualizujący pożyczki kredyt bank sa numer swift kredyty chwilówki dokumenty z tytułu pożyczki kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych przez internet kredyt studencki pko wniosek pozyczki prywatne przez telefon na terenie lublina pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla nauczycieli wałbrzych kredyt konsolidacyjny 50 tys kredyt konsolidacyjny bez formalności kswp końskie pożyczki kredyt w getin noble bank kredyt bank zagiel lodz odstąpienie od umowy pożyczki profi credit pożyczki lidzbark warmiński nowe pozyczki pożyczki w domu klienta kalisz kredyty pozabankowe zgorzelec kredyt bez bik skierniewice jak obliczyć całkowity koszt pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny na wyciąg kredyty chwilówki mińsk mazowiecki kredyt w orange 5 zl bocian pożyczki chełm który bank daje pożyczki bez bik pożyczki chwilówki ostrów mazowiecka kod kredyt w orange ubezpieczenie pożyczki zwrot szybkie pożyczki pierwsza za darmo pożyczki bank pko kredyt bank żwirki i wigury opole kredyt bez bik wrocław kredyt na umowe na czas określony pożyczki domowe kredyty bez bik rzeszów pożyczki rodzinne bez podatku kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej oprocentowanie kredyt samochodowy w idea bank kredyt bank prabuty pozyczki warszawa grochowska kredyt pozabankowy na oswiadczenie firmy kredyt do orange jaki numer kredyty bankowe gdzie w bilansie kredyt samochodowy ranking wrzesień 2013 kredyt bank sulechów kontakt kredyt bank zambrów godziny otwarcia w ktorym banku wziasc kredyt pozyczki chwilowki bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach grojec charakter prawny umowy pożyczki pożyczki na dowód jarocin kredyt samochodowy dla rolnika kredyty chwilowki poznan glogowska pożyczki wbk pożyczki bank śląski tanie pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik abis slask pozyczki umowa pożyczki z własnym pracownikiem kredyt bankowy ze złym bikiem kredyt chwilówka 20000 pożyczki piekary poznań pożyczki na dowód długoterminowe kredyt bank sa płock długotermonowe pożyczki bez bik pozyczki on laine bez biku na 15000 kredyt z komornikiem w łodzi monetia pożyczki pozyczka typu providen euro cen bocian kredyt bank i oddział w warszawie kredyt bank a bzwbk kredyt bank piła godziny otwarcia pożyczki mława pożyczki kredyty na dowód pożyczki dla fundacji kredyt bank zachodni wbk pożyczki prywatne olkusz kredyty chwilówki kraków wielopole kredyt bank aktywacja tokena kredyt bez bik w krakowie wzór na odsetki od pożyczki kredyt bank bogatynia kontakt tytuł przelewu pożyczki uznanie pożyczki kredyt bank kraków oddziały pożyczki chwilówki bez sprawdzania umowa pożyczki konsekwencje gdzie uzyskac kredyt bez bik kredyty chwilówki lubin pozyczka bez big w domu klienta kredyt bank warszawa siedziba pożyczki w domu klienta dzierżoniów kredyt bank zamość lokaty profit pożyczki łódź kredyt w eurobanku forum optima pożyczki zarobki kredyt bank łódź zgierska godziny otwarcia wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z pracy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości mazowieckie kredyt studencki gospodarczy bank wielkopolski kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego kontakt najtańsze pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki na projekty unijne oblicz kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator online kredyt bank gdynia bławatna 11 kredyt mieszkaniowy sprzedaż mieszkania kredyt bank ix oddział warszawa kredyt studencki pko zawieszenie pożyczki alior sync umowa pożyczki poręczenie tani kredyt samochodowy ranking alior bank kredyt na pit z zajęciem kredytowym zarejestrowanie umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym kredyt chwilowka daja bez bik pożyczki od osób fizycznych kredyt na rok kredyty chwilówki partner król pożyczki citi handlowy pożyczki kredyt bank szczecin okulickiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank knf pożyczki lubelskie ranking kredytów samochodowych marzec 2013 anna kochańska pożyczki w pewnym banku zaciagamy kredyt kredyty chwilówki rzeszów rejtana preferencyjny kredyt studencki opinie umowa pozyczki ze wsteczna data wzór umowy pożyczki koleżeńskiej kredyty pozabankowe bez bik siedlce adresy i nr tel umowa pożyczki bez oprocentowania wzór kredyt bank lubin jana pawła godziny przelewów przychodzących kredyt bank pożyczka bez bik garwolin kredyt w banku skok podatek od pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pko kredyt bank świętochłowice zgorzelec pozyczka prywatna kredyt chwilowka starogard gdanski kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko sa kredyt bankowy pcc pożyczki chwilówki kredytum oświadczenie o udzieleniu pożyczki pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel pożyczki chwilówki na dowód forum udzielenie pożyczki księgowanie księgowanie pożyczki dla pracownika szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń w uk umorzenie pożyczki skutki podatkowe kredyt bank w pruszczu gdańskim pożyczki nigeryjskie kredyt bez bik pod zastaw nieruchomości kto da pożyczkę lub kredyt z zajęciem komorniczym kwituję odbiór pożyczki szybkie pożyczki online w uk kredyt mieszkaniowy mieszkanie na swoim pożyczki wyszków kredyty bez biku jelenia góra pożyczki chwilówki sosnowiec umowa pożyczki a zwolnienie z pcc wzór umowy pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej z komornikiem gdzie wziasc kredyt bez bik kredyt chwilówka ulotki pozyczki z komornikiem boleslawiec kredyt bank pelplin godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe bełchatów pożyczki prywatne gliwice pożyczki gotówkowe starogard gdański kredyty pozabankowe marka kredyty bez bik dla zadłuzonych kredyt bank raszyn bank pko pozyczka na dowod kredyt bank w plocku jednorazowe udzielenie pożyczki a vat pożyczki oddłużeniowe kraków kredyt bank rada nadzorcza orange kod kredytu kredyt bez bik do domu pod jaki numer kredyt w orange kredyty pozabankowe poznan bank pekao sa kredyt dla singla szybkie pożyczki ełk kredyty chwilówki praca kraków pożyczki oblicz ratę pożyczki bez bik i krd sosnowiec kredyt w banku czy przez doradcę oświadczenie o zwrocie pożyczki kredyty banków spółdzielczych sgb kredyt mieszkaniowy na 30 lat kredyt z banku w uk kredyt bank mobilny bezzwrotne pożyczki z up kredyt bank w słupsku kredyty bez bik jaworzno kredyt bank warszawa jana pawła ii kredyt bank warszawa ul fieldorfa credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny z druga osoba umowa pożyczki art 9 pkt 10 druk umowy pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki pozabankowe w uk kredyt konsolidacyjny bez ograniczeń wiekowych pożyczki myślenice kredyt samochodowy bez bik kalkulator kredyt bank pocztowy wasze opinie gwarantuje zwrot pożyczki krzyżówka pożyczki prywatne kłodzko pożyczki na agroturystykę pożyczki chwilówki grochowska pultusk prywatne pozyczku 2014 pożyczki ratunkowe pożyczki chwilówki ekspresowe kto udzieli pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki ze złą historią w biku szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd przez internet pożyczki dla pracowników banków umowa pożyczki a śmierć pożyczkodawcy kredyt konsolidacyjny skok wspólnota kredyty skok stefczyka kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie dokumenty kredyt konsolidacyjny zabezpieczenia pokwitowanie spłaty pożyczki kredyt bank 15 oddział gdańsk cechy pożyczki bezpieczne pożyczki prywatne kalkulator pożyczki pko sa pożyczki 100 zł kredyt bankowy bilans kredyt tarnobrzeg pożyczki 30000 kredyt bank kondycja podstawa opodatkowania pożyczki kredyt bank wycena nieruchomości kredyt bank w tychach kredyty chwilowki windykatorzy kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik na oświadczenie szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa pożyczki dla bezrobotnych pożyczki bez bik ranking kredyt bez bik jaki bank kredyt bank klodzko kredyt bank oddział włocławek umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt na start firmy idea bank opinie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank konstancińska 2 pożyczki pod zastaw umowa pożyczki w skoku opinie umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie szybkie pożyczki bez bik wzór na odsetki od pożyczki z zfśs limit pożyczki kredyt bank współpraca kredyty dla malych firm bez bik kredyt pozabankowy z tanimi odsetkami pożyczki prywatne chełm pożyczki włodawa pożyczki preferencyjne dla gmin kredyt bank a bzwbk czy od pożyczki płaci się pcc pożyczki z dotacji unijnych pozyczka na umowe zlecenie bez bik tychy niespłacanie pożyczki w providencie kredyt chwilówka pyskowice pozyczki bez bik erif krd pożyczki z parabanków pozyczki bez konta w banku pożyczki prywatne bez weryfikacji bocian pożyczki kielce pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości katowice pożyczki pod zastaw łomża kredyt konsolidacyjny jak dostać pożyczki warrus

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad