pożyczki gotówkowe kołobrzeg kredyt konsumpcyjny w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki i weksel kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2013 pozyczki online umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami a pcc pożyczki wieloratalne kredyt obrotowy w idea banku kredyt bank dlugie ogrody pożyczki bez bik na firmę do ilu kredyt santander kredyt konsolidacyjny na chwilowki kredyt bank bankomaty bydgoszcz odsetki od pożyczki kurs pożyczki dla zadłużonych zielona góra kredyt bank knf pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu rzeszów umowa pożyczki na raty wzór kredyt bank wloclawek godziny otwarcia kredyt do reki warszawa pozyczki bez bik do 25000 kredyt bank finanse z zasadami pożyczki na dowód ekspres kasa kredyt na mieszkanie bank spółdzielczy pożyczki pozabankowe od zaraz kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2013 kredyt bank warszawa al wilanowska kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank opinie pożyczki gotówkowe gros kredyt bez bik skierniewice kredyt bank wikipedia pożyczki bytów bocian pożyczki gryfino kredyty chwilówki przedłużenie kredyt bez bik forum dyskusyjne pożyczki ręki deutsche bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki bez bik w olsztynie pożyczki chwilówki 24h kredyty chwilówki wieliczka pożyczki chwilówki nowy targ kredyt studencki pko poręczenie pożyczki prywatne gliwice kredyt bank gdańsk słowackiego pro domo pozyczki ostroda kontakt kredyt bank konstancin kredyty mieszkaniowe pko bp sa money now pożyczki kredyt bankowy to pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa gumtree kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko sa dobry kredyt gotówkowy bez bik pożyczki krótkoterminowe definicja kredyt studencki pko zaświadczenie z uczelni kredyt remontowy kredyt bank 24 kredyt bank dabie kredyt bank krasnystaw godziny otwarcia udzielę pożyczki pod weksel 2013 pożyczki pozabankowe do 50000 pożyczki indywidualne kredyt bank w policach kredyt bank kto jest wlascicielem pożyczki bez bik od 19 lat kredyt bank zeromskiego godziny otwarcia getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyty samochodowe tel pożyczki bez bik z zajęciami komorniczymi umowa pożyczki przykład umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie wzór umowa pożyczki między siostrami pozyczka na dowod bez biku rzeszów zabezpieczenie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej pożyczki gotówkowe skarbiec jowisz pożyczki kredyt bank rodzina na swoim dokumenty pożyczki online od 19 lat umowa pożyczki pieniężnej formularz kredyt bankowy jego funkcje kredyt bank rawicz ul sarnowska oferty pożyczki prywatnej kredyty chwilówki chorzów kredyt internetowy bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe w pile pożyczki unijne dla małych firm kredyt prawo bankowe prywatne pożyczki pod weksel wrocław kredyt w banku zachodnim pożyczki chwilówki jastrzębie zdrój kredyt w bilansie banku kredyt bez bik wałbrzych kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki za granica kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobanku getin bank online kredyty credit agricole kredyt w rachunku bieżącym praca w kredyt chwilówka forum kredyt bank radom kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy kredyt konsolidacyjny z zabezpieczeniem alior bank kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyty chwilowki pinczow pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik big krd pożyczki graniczna lublin wzory dokumentów pozew o zwrot pożyczki pozyczki bez umowy o prace sanok banki kredyt bank w świdniku pożyczki porównywarka kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadluzonych w bik kredyt bank lipowa białystok kredyt bank kraków godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik zgorzelec pozyczki gotuwkoiwe prywatne firmy mafi umowa pożyczki pieniężnej między firmami pożyczki gotówkowe alior bank getin noble bank kredyt obrotowy kredyt bank kostrzyn alior bank kredyt bez zaswiadczen kredyt mieszkaniowy belgia kredyt bez bik pozabankowe kredyt w banku bph kalkulator kredyt bank w kutnie kredyt mieszkaniowy na mieszkanie w kamienicy pożyczki od osób prywatnych tarnów kredyty mieszkaniowe a umowa na czas określony kredyt bank ror ekstrakonto kredyt bank nowy sącz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank ken 57 warszawa umorzone odsetki od pożyczki przychód podatkowy umowa pożyczki rejestracja w us kredyt bank ślaski pozyczki pozabankowe na alimenty bydgoszcz kredyt bank lezajsk kredyt bank wojska polskiego słupsk kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń udzielenie pożyczki a podatek vat kredyt bank warta ubezpieczenia warunki pożyczki w alior banku udzielone pożyczki w bilansie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy weksel pożyczki lukas pożyczki bez bik 10000 umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór pdf kredyt mieszkaniowy a umowa na czas określony kredyt studencki bzwbk 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik piła al konstytucji pożyczki prywatne zawiercie kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank drugi kredyt w innym banku kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko sa kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na czas określony kredyt bank łódź piotrkowska godziny otwarcia kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku kalkulator kredyt bank mickiewicza białystok w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt mieszkaniowy turbo expres pożyczki centrala kredyt banku warszawa kredyt w lukas banku opinie kredyt bank łowicz godziny otwarcia gdzie otrzymać kredyt bez bik kredyt na dowód w banku umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi a podatek kredyt bank wyzwolenia szczecin pozyczki internetowe bez sprawdzania bik i krs pożyczki pozabankowe pruszków kredyt konsolidacyjny czy sie oplaca novum finance pożyczki forum kredyt bank rudnickiego marka pożyczki ełk pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu forum kredyt gotówkowy na oświadczenie bez bik szybkie pożyczki na dowód sosnowiec pożyczki bezzwrotne dla bezrobotnych gdzie kredyt pozabankowy bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy w millenium forum kredyt bez bik w 5 minut kredyty bankowe ściąga umowa o spłacie pożyczki w jakim banku najłatwiej o kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bez bik slask pożyczki tuchola konto osobiste w kredyt banku pożyczki 7 oświęcim kredyty chwilówki w 15 minut kredyt ratalny banki kredyt bank fuzja pracownicy wniosek o przyznanie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe podatek od pożyczki dla najbliższej rodziny kredyt bank retkinia mennica pozyczki jelenia gora opinie pozyczki pozabankowe bez pracy kredyt samochodowy w lukas banku pożyczki prywatne sanok udzielę pożyczki prywatnej łódź definicja pożyczki bankowej udzielę pożyczki pod weksel kraków kredyt bank jaworzno godziny otwarcia nieujawnione pożyczki pozyczki na dowód kraków umowa pożyczki proz kredyt konsolidacyjny jst kredyt bank łódź oddziały kredyty chwilówki wrocław opinie pcc od umowy pożyczki w spółce komandytowej pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat kredyt bank kraków ul królewska 55 pożyczka od 18 lat na dowód udzielenie pożyczki a vat 2012 pożyczki chwilówki od 18 lat kredyt bez bik do 50 000 zaświadczenie o dochodach pko bp kredyt studencki pożyczki w domu kraków pozyczki na dowod w domu slask partner pozyczki opinie koszalin czy łatwo dostać kredyt w banku pocztowym najgorsze pożyczki odsetki od pożyczki podatek u źródła kredyt bez bik białystok kredyt bank bankomaty za darmo wniosek o kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt w banku bzwbk pożyczki do 300 zł umowa pożyczki wzór wieszjak kredyt bank 2 oddział wrocław pożyczki pod zastaw augustów przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki ekspres kasa kredyt bez bik credit agricole pożyczki prywatne chrzanów pożyczki bez bik olecko szybka pożyczka bez erif umowa pożyczki zgoda małżonka kredyt bank wiceprezes pko bp wrocław kredyt studencki pożyczki gotówkowe promocje kredyt bank łomża kredyt bankowy finansowanie wzór na odsetki od pożyczki zfśs w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt pożyczki z ubezpieczeniem kredyt pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik nowe pozyczki 2014 pozyczki dla zadluzonych boleslawiec wypowiedzenie ustnej umowy pożyczki umowa pożyczki podatek 2012 bank pocztowy kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyty chwilówki żagań karr pożyczki pozyczki pod weksel rybnik kredyt konsolidacyjny kraków kredyty gotówkowe bez bik gdańsk pożyczki dla zadluzonych w krd pozyczka za zastaw auta zagranicznego klodzko umowa pożyczki w najbliższej rodzinie kredyt bank żagań pożyczki i kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik getin noble bank kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt dla zadłużonych opole brzeg kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2014 pozyczka bez bik pozabankowa lublin kredyt bank lezajsk targowa kredyt chwilówka praca forum kredyt na oświadczenie w credit agricole kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b kredyty chwilówki łowicz pożyczki licytacja kredyty pozabankowe bez bik w poznaniu pożyczki chwilówki sieradz kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2012 kredyty pozabankowe piekary slaskie finan pożyczki legnica kredyty chwilówki katowice warszawska pożyczki bez bik 20000 pożyczki od osób prywatnych płock pożyczki na dowód łódź mini pożyczki przez internet umowa pożyczki od jakiej kwoty podatek kredyt do orange kod kredyt bank pochodzenie kredyt samochodowy dla ludzi w bik pożyczki na paszport kredyt bank katowice ul szafranka kredyty bez bik białogard kredyt bank wydział windykacji prywatne pożyczki bez zabezpieczeń poznań udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę udziałowcowi kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kontakt aconto pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne artykuł kredyty pozabankowe białystok pożyczki profi credit awaria systemu w kredyt banku kredyt studencki jakie warunki pożyczki pod zastaw kłodzko chojnice pozyczki pożyczki kalisz pożyczki mikołów kalkulator kredytu bank pko bp kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania bik forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea bank umowa zwrot pożyczki kredyt bank zielona góra godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki w 15 minut optima pożyczki numer telefonu pożyczki dla każdego lombard mikołów pożyczki z unii w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt kredyty chwilówki w lesznie fig pożyczki kredyty chwilówki w jarosławiu umowa pożyczki na procent kredyty chwilowki opole kredyt bank słubice godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik gorzów wielkopolski kredyt bank ciechanów telefon odnowienie pożyczki kredyt odnawialny eurobank kredyt bank ubezpieczenie mieszkania kredyty chwilówki centrala pożyczki banku światowego pożyczki bez krs kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pocztowy mikropożyczki dla firm wrocław tani kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyt rodzina na swoim w getin banku forum pożyczki polbank bocian pożyczki gdynia pożyczki kozienice pożyczki pod weksel prywatne kredyt bank akredytywa pożyczki bez bik trójmiasto umorzenie pożyczki podatek dochodowy jacek pilka pożyczki pożyczki bez bik pomorskie kredyty chwilówki jak otworzyć kredyt bez bik w banku kredyt studencki warunki umorzenia pożyczki online w 15 minut wzór umowy pożyczki zfron kredyty pozabankowe slupsk pożyczki p2p kredyt bank rozmowa kwalifikacyjna udzielenie pożyczki osobie fizycznej kredyt konsolidacyjny plock kredyt chwilowki poznań przewalutowanie pożyczki pożyczki oddłużeniowe kredyt bez biku sanok kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea banku bank spółdzielczy kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator aktywna umowa pożyczki warunki pożyczki w banku pożyczki chwilówki ciechanów kredyt bank sa lublin kredyt orange 1zl pożyczki bez bik na dowod lublin pożyczki dla zadłużonych przez internet druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp kredyt bank pobierz token kredyt bank grodzisk mazowiecki pożyczki bez bik do 2000 zł pożyczki direct kredyt chwilówka bochnia pożyczki bez biku śląsk kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim warunki przyznania optima pożyczki zarobki pożyczki w prawie rzymskim oświadczenie spłaty pożyczki abis szybkie pozycxki pozyczka na komornika prywatna zagraniczny kredyt bank w koscianie pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń online pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny angielski kredyt konsolidacyjny dodatkowa gotówka ubezpieczenie do pożyczki gotówkowej szybkie kredyty bez biku kredyty mieszkaniowe w alior banku kredyt bank ruda śląska godziny otwarcia kredyt na dowód bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt bank spółka akcyjna z siedzibą w warszawie kredyt bank biuro prasowe na dowod kredyt gotowkowy bez zaswiadczen i do domu pożyczki na które trzeba uważać kredyt bank s a ul kasprzaka 2 8 credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny z druga osoba kredyt w banku dla studenta kredyt bank focha pożyczki pożyczka dla rencistów kredyt bank węgorzewo kredyt bez bik 35000 odsetki od pożyczki różnice kursowe prywatne pożyczki w lublinie kredyt bankowy to pasywa kredyt bank goleniów kontakt kredyty chwilówki inwestowanie forum umorzenie pożyczki w spółce komandytowej pozyczki calodobowe lodz kredyt bank kurs walut pożyczki na dowód kielce umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a osobą fizyczną kredyt mieszkaniowy 70 tys odsetki od pożyczki podatek u źródła potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki pozyczka bocian dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank w grodzisku mazowieckim kredyt bank dekabrystów częstochowa pożyczki siemianowice śląskie kredyt w gorzowie bez sprawdzania bik kredyt bank biuro prasowe pożyczki jakie oprocentowanie umowa pozyczki pod zastaw kredyty chwilówki płock kwiatka w jakim banku nie brac kredytu oprocentowania w kredyt banku kredyty bez bik zielona góra kredyt bank rawicz godziny otwarcia ubezpieczenie pożyczki w provident forum podatek od pożyczki formularz kredyt bez zdolności kredytowej alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bank vii oddział warszawa kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego 27 kredyty bez zaswiadczen bez biku kredyt bank gwarancje skarbu państwa kredyt chwilówka 18 lat pożyczki chwilówki gryfice pożyczki gotówkowe kraków pożyczki inwestorskie pod zastaw kredyt bez bik erif jaki jest nr na kredyt orange porównanie pożyczki i kredytu pożyczki dla zadłużonych gorzów wlkp pożyczki ekspresowe bocian kredyty bez biku zielona góra kredyt bank token szybkie pozyczki bez bik krd z komornikiem torun kredyt bank grunwaldzka rzeszów wzór umowy zawarcia pożyczki pkobp kredyt pozabankowy bocian pożyczki świecie wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki ekspresowej pko sa umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona wekslem pożyczki kalkulator oferty pozyczek we wrzesni reklama kredyt banku mafia kredyt na samochód w getin banku opinie profil aktywny kredyt bank kredyt bank w mielcu lukas plus pożyczka pozabankowa bez bik pożyczki łódzkie pożyczki z komornikiem kraków udzielenie pożyczki a vat 2012 kredyty bez bik katowice umowa pożyczki bez oprocentowania wzór kredyt pozabankowy konsolidacyjny bank pekao sa kredyt obrotowy kredyt samochodowy bez bik kalkulator potrzebuję pożyczki od osoby prywatnej pożyczki dla zakładu budżetowego szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez zaświadczeń pożyczki w kasynach pozyczka 24h do domu nowy targ kredyty chwilówki doradca klienta kredyt bank w goleniowie kredyt bank skrytki bankowe kredyt bank ząbki kredyt bank w myslenicach pożyczki na dowód częstochowa kredyt bank w gorzowie kredyty pozabankowe siedlce bank pko sa kalkulator kredytowy kredyt bez biku dla zadłużonych wyliczenie rat pożyczki kredyt bank prowizja bankomat kredyt bank radom tel szybkie pożyczki bez bik opinie kredyt w lukas banku kalkulator pożyczki pod zastaw racibórz cechy pożyczki i kredytu przedmiot umowy kredyt w banku aig pożyczki bemowo koszt przelewu zagranicznego w kredyt banku kredyt bank warszawa ul żeromskiego pożyczki bez bik komornik kredyt konsolidacyjny co oznacza kredyt bank fb kredyty chwilówki toruń jamontta pozabankowe pożyczki bez bik szybko i prosto pożyczki tuchola cele pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw puławy pożyczki w wałbrzychu pożyczki w firmie bocian pożyczki gotówkowe bez dochodów łódź pożyczki justyna ehmann finanse pożyczki tomasz lis kredyty chwilówki zabrze pożyczki pozabankowe wejherowo jaki jest kod na kredyt do orange kredyt bank piekary śl kredyt bank białostoczek

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad