kredyt bank kapitał kredyt remontowy podatek od pożyczki cywilnej kredyt bank grupa kapitałowa kredyt bank ełk słowackiego kredyt bank włochy kredyt bank białystok dubois godziny otwarcia odsetki od pożyczki w kpir kredyt orange na jaki numer bezpieczne pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki przez internet bez pracy kredyty chwilówki praca zarobki kredyt 2500 toruŃ kredyt bank godziny otwarcia wejherowo kredyt gotówkowy w getin bank opinie nazwa pożyczki udzielonej przez bank kredyt studencki ing bank bocian pożyczki wniosek online wniosek o umorzenie odsetek kredytu pożyczki chwilówki grochowska pożyczki bez bik grudziądz pożyczki pozabankowe opole pożyczki gotówkowe w santander w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy forum pożyczki dla osób prowadzących działalność kredyt bez bik i krd online kredyty bez bik do 80000 kredyt bez bik pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczka pozabankowa merritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny zamkniecie rachunku w pożyczki chojnów pożyczki chwilówki bez big pozyczki chwilowki jaslo siedziby kredyt w banku dla zadluzonych rejestracja umowy pożyczki w us pożyczka 5000 zl w bankuspółdzielczym kredyt bank warszawa książkowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank cena akcji partner pożyczki opinie kredyt bank zmiana adresu pożyczki od osób prywatnych bydgoszcz kredyt konsolidacyjny getin polcredit pożyczki pożyczki na umowę cywilno prawną pożyczki z zfśs w bilansie kredyt w orange na numer akcje spółki kredyt bank sa w warszawie finan pożyczki gotówkowe szybki kredyt 10000 mińsk mazowiecki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziców kredyt bez bik pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt w orange pożyczki typu incredi pozyczka dla zadluzonych przez łomża pożyczki w domu gdynia bank pko bp kredyty gotówkowe kredyty chwilówki impreza firmowa 2013 pszczółka kredyt inowrocław kredyt samochodowy getinbank kontakt pożyczki online bez dochodów kredyt studencki pko termin składania wniosków 2012 kredyt bank gdańsk ul noskowskiego godziny otwarcia gdzie mozna w sieradzu dostac pozyczke bez dochodu kredyt bank franciszkanska warszawa marlena nowakowska pożyczki opinie jak uzasadnic pozyczke na remont pokoju kredyt konsolidacyjny parabank kredyt bank chrzanów kontakt kredyt bank koscian godziny otwarcia najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny forum pożyczki bez przelewu pożyczki na procent radom kredyty chwilowki swidnica pożyczki bez bik lubuskie kredyty chwilówki wałbrzych broniewskiego umorzenie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs umorzenie pożyczki zfron pożyczki piotrków tryb kredyt samochodowy bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki zwrot w ratach cechy pożyczki wikipedia oprocentowanie pożyczki w skoku stefczyka neobank kredyt konsolidacyjny podatek od pożyczki cywilnej pożyczki prywatne chorzów kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 kredyt bank wrocław plac legionów godziny otwarcia kredyt chwilówka 5000 kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pko bp banki kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczki przez internet żyrafa kredyty bez bik w olsztynie pozyczki prywatne od zaraz lodzkie umowa pożyczki środków pieniężnych kredyty chwilówki windykacja opinie kalkulator pożyczki kredytowej pożyczki miechów kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank kredyt bank poznań marcinkowskiego godziny kredyty i pożyczki w uk kredyt na dowód jaki bank umowa pożyczki odzyskanie pieniędzy kredyt konsolidacyjny ulga odsetkowa umowa pożyczki prawo cywilne kredyty budowlano mieszkaniowe pożyczki ze spłatą tygodniową umowa pożyczki dobrowolne poddanie się egzekucji numer finan pozyczki kredyty pozabankowe 10000 kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat darowizna zamiast pożyczki kredyt bank charakterystyka wzór umowy pożyczki osobie prywatnej optima pożyczki ciechanów pożyczki pozabankowe profi credit kredyt bank prowizja opłat kredyt mieszkaniowy w skok opinie kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole forum pozyczki na dowod konin kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank optima kredyty warszawa kredyt bank lukow umowa pożyczki dla spółki a pcc kredyt w ktorym banku kredyty chwilowki lebork kredyt bankowy w spadku jakie dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp pożyczki prywatne we włocławku getin bank kredyt samochodowy na oświadczenie warunki pożyczki w skoku kredyty bez bik szamotuły kredyty bez bik na firme pożyczki online bez big prywatne pożyczki na sam dowód kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw 2013 kredyt bez bik na 12 miesięcy kredyt samochodowy santander bank db kredyt deutsche bank pbc sa kredyty bez bik w domu klienta pożyczki do domu bocian pożyczka bez bik i krd z komornikiem pożyczki dla firm kredyt w uk barclays kredyt bank przelewy z zagranicy kredyt bank w kielcach kredyt studencki pko bp wymagane dokumenty pożyczki fasadowe kredyty mieszkaniowe wymogi kredyty bez bik krd kredyt dla nowych firm bez biku kredyt bankowy w bilansie kredyt ratalny a umowa na czas określony kredyt bank sochaczew godziny otwarcia próba wyłudzenia pożyczki udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez spółkę pożyczki do domu warszawa pożyczki chwilówki pruszków kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche bank opinie pożyczki na procent radom umowa pożyczki kara umowna pozyczki chwilowki optima krakow kredyty chwilowki gdansk kredyt konsolidacyjny rodzina na swoim umowa spłaty pożyczki wzór konwersja pożyczki kapitał zapasowy kwota nominalna pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki rekreacyjnej kredyt pozabankowy na start firmy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości pomorskie kredyt gotówkowy w postbanku prodomo pożyczki podlaskie umowa pożyczki doc kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku ing konwersja pożyczki na kapitał księgowanie umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs księgowanie kredyty bez bik świdnica łukasz chlebicki pożyczki kredyt bank iv oddział wrocław plac solny getin bank kredyt gotówkowy oprocentowanie kredyt pozabankowy dla zadłużonych kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego w banku pocztowym w jakim banku najtanszy kredyt kredyt gotówkowy lukas bank kalkulator kredyt bank restrukturyzacja pożyczki logo pożyczki pozabankowe bochnia kalkulator pożyczki kredytowej umowa pożyczki wzór doc kredyt chwilówka chojnice kredyt bez bik pomorskie pożyczki w bankach spółdzielczych kredyt bank plock wyszogrodzka kredyt 3000 bez biku santander kredyt samochodowy prowizja obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank toruń tel łatwe pożyczki bez bik pcc od umowy pożyczki dla spółki 2012 kredyt z orange jaki numer kredyt bank w brodnicy bank pko lublin kredyt na dowod osobisty kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą państwa w jakim banku kredyt gotówkowy 2012 pozyczka online dla bezrobotnych pozyczki poznan gros capital,tempo kredyty od reki od 18lat ostrowiec sw umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie wzór kredyt bank euronet kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw potrącenie pożyczki z zasiłku chorobowego umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pcc pożyczki darlowo odmowa udzielenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyty mieszkaniowe lipiec 2013 pożyczki gotówkowe bankowe pożyczki nordea pożyczki dla zadłużonych olsztyn kredyt bank legionów wrocław agnieszka wąchała pożyczki kredyt bank lublin centrala kredyt bank zakopane szybkie pożyczki bez bik forum kredyt bez biku szczecin kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik piła kredyt bank wypłata gotówki za granicą niskoprocentowe pozyczki uk kredyt bankowy ustawa kredyt bank mateusze kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych bez bik pozyczki w bankach pod zastaw bez zarobkow kredyt studencki 2012 opinie kredyt poza bankowy bez biku kredyt na dowod w domu klienta dobre pożyczki bez bik opinie wzór podania o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki bez bik chrzanów pożyczki gotówkowe bez poręczycieli umorzenie pożyczki bankowej kredyt bank groupon kredyt w banku na firme promesa udzielenia pożyczki wzór pożyczki od 18 lat na dowód kredyty chwilówki tychy system partner pożyczki chwilówki jarosław umowa pożyczki nieoprocentowanej wzór ewidencja umowy pożyczki kredyt bank grójecka godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód długoterminowe kredyt bank bankomaty mielec kredyt gotówkowy w banku millenium opinie odsetki od udzielonej pożyczki a przychód pożyczki prywatne 24h pożyczki przez internet 24h kredyt bank szczecin adres office pożyczki czy warto brac kredyt w getin banku kredyt mieszkaniowy pko czas oczekiwania kredyt bank centrala kontakt umowa poręczenia spłaty pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe kołobrzeg odsetki od pożyczki a koszt uzyskania przychodu umowa pożyczki jaki podatek szybki kredyt bez bik 10000 pożyczki w domu klienta piła kredyty chwilówki wieliczka pożyczki w domu klienta włocławek kredyty mieszkaniowe warszawa kredyt w alior bank opinie pożyczki bez bik big i krd kredyt bank krasnystaw telefon kredyt bank lokaty bez podatku belki pożyczki prometeusz białystok pożyczki bankowe kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea banku kredyt konsolidacyjny ang kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm zadłużonych sprawdzone pożyczki bez bik pożyczki od ręki pieniądzie ostrowiec św zamortyzowany koszt pożyczki optima pożyczki numer telefonu kredyt dla firm bez bik na oświadczenie pożyczki chwilówki od ręki kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2006 bezpieczne pożyczki prywatne udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez opłat wstępnych kredyty bez bik tarnów provident zwrot pożyczki kredyty chwilówki wałbrzych pożyczki onet pożyczki dla osób z niskimi dochodami pożyczki opole godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy pko kalkulator kredyt bank rydla pożyczki pozabankowe 15000 kredyt bank zmiana pinu kredyt bank pomorskie formularz umowy pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód bez bik jakie zarobki w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki a darowizna kredyt jako produkt bankowy pożyczki na procent pożyczki na telefon 24 pulawska kredyty chwilowki warszawa bez bik i krd pozyczki inowroclaw kredyt bank automatyczna spłata karty kredytowej kwoty pożyczki zwolnione od podatku pożyczki bez zaświadczeń włocławek kredyt bank payu kredyty w fm banku opinie pozyczka dla zadluzonych w biku kalkulator kredytów mieszkaniowych pko bp kredyt bez biku 25000 idea bank kredyt dla firm opinie kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatów bez prowizji kredyt bank łomża piłsudskiego kredyt bank sa chorzów pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw samochodu kredyty chwilówki franczyza kredyt bez bik mława pożyczki mysłowice kredyt bank dzial windykacji pożyczki bez baz przez internet kredyt bank pyskowice provident koszt pożyczki kredyty chwilówki pracuj pl kredyty chwilówki poznań opinie kredyt bank w wieluniu pożyczki chwilówki w bydgoszczy kody orange kredyt kredyt bank w pulawach umowa pożyczki zawarta przez internet kredyty bez bik częstochowa pożyczki kamienna góra pożyczki prywatne sosnowiec pożyczki pozabankowe z bikiem pożyczki 3000 umowa pożyczki pięniędzy preferencyjny kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim konwertowanie pożyczki kredyt getin banku pożyczki dla firm z unii umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a podatek dochodowy kredyt bank skawina kontakt optima pożyczki tczew pożyczki 50 zł pożyczki bez bik duże kwoty kredyt samochodowy getin kalkulator zwrot pożyczki od rodziny umowa pożyczki od udziałowca druk pożyczki na rozkręcenie firmy pozyczki bochnia kredyt bank pilsudskiego koszalin kredyt bez sprawdzania bik kredyt chwilówki bez bik kredyty pozabankowe kontakt wykaz placówek kredyt banku w warszawie umorzenie pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt chwilowka daja bez bik kredyt odnawialny bank pko jak dziala kredyty bez biku gliwice wniosek o kredyt w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank logowanie do konta pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod zastaw kredyty bez bik i krd zielona góra kredyty chwilowki klobuck umowa pożyczki do spółki pieniążek pożyczki kredyt studencki pko bp opinie kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego lukas bank pożyczki chwilówki jarocin po zabankowe pożyczki nowa ruda kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie kalkulator kredyt bank lokata 2012 umorzenie pożyczki księgowanie kredyty chwilówki tarnobrzeg pożyczki ostrów wielkopolski kredyt gotówkowy eurobank opinie pożyczki chwilówki kraków kredyt bank z kim się połączył kredyty mieszkaniowe londyn w którym banku łatwo dostać kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki dla wolnych zawodów pożyczki pod zastaw działki budowlanej pozyczki torun tablica umowa pożyczki powtórnej regulamin pożyczki pracowniczej pozyczka domowka warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości legnica pożyczki bez zaświadczeń łódź kredyty chwilówki przyznawalność pożyczki na oświadczenie o dochodach pożyczki w skoku stefczyka opinie pożyczki na procent szczecin pewny kredyt bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny porównaj kredyt odnawialny w mbanku dla studenta zamknięcie rachunku w kredyt banku pożyczki bez zaświadczeń provident roszczenia z umowy pożyczki przedawniają się pożyczki pozabankowe pod weksel kredyt bank w lesznie kredyt bank ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki w domu kredyt bank malopolska kredyt poza bankowy bez biku kredyt chwilówka na dowód kraków ostrów pożyczka od osoby prywatnej pozyczki na dowod w domu klienta krotoszyn i okolice kredyt konsolidacyjny co oznacza kredyty bez bik skok kredyt bank starachowice telefon umowa pożyczki zawarta za granicą kredyt w idea bank na start forum pożyczki do 1200 zł udzielenie pożyczki firmie pożyczki provident opinie kredyt ratalny alior bank opinie kredyt bez bik w krakowie pożyczki na rentę socjalną identyfikator w kredyt banku ewidencja księgowa umorzenia pożyczki kredyt bank osiedle kazimierzowskie pożyczki na dowód bez bik łódź kredyt studencki banki udzielające kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyty chwilówki reklama bocian pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bank kod bic pożyczki 10000 zł kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec blachnickiego kredyt bank międzyrzec podlaski godziny otwarcia pro collect pożyczki opinie zabezpieczenie pożyczki wfośigw białystok pożyczki bez bik wyliczenie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs szybkie pożyczki na dowód wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny w londynie pozyczka 10000 od osoby prywatnej czestochowa kredyt chwilówka krakow kredyty z komornikiem katowice kredyty chwilówki leszno kredyt bez bik w łodzi bocian pożyczki jakie dokumenty potrzebne pozyczka bartek znaczenie kredytu w działalności banku pożyczki bez bik w domu klienta pożyczki 5000 pozyczki w domu klienta kluczbork aktulany spis pozyczek dla zadluzonych kredyty bez bik konstantynów pożyczki golden kredyt z orange 5 zł alior bank kredyty mieszkaniowe przykładowa umowa pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank aukcje poleasingowe kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku millenium opinie kredyt bank sa centrala kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe kredyt bank żagiel lubin kredyt bez bik krd z komornikiem kredyt studencki pko zaświadczenie pożyczki online bez przelewu kredyty bez bik jastrzebie zdroj pożyczki pozabankowe 2012 jak wyglądają pożyczki w providencie pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulatory kredyty chwilówki brodnica kredyt bank toruń ul grudziądzka kredyty mieszkaniowe dla samotnych matek pożyczki chwilówki pabianice bocian pożyczki gotówkowe legnica kredyty chwilówki gliwice opinie polecane pożyczki pozabankowe kierownik premium pożyczka rawicz pożyczki na dowód bez umowy o prace kalkulator pożyczki pocztowy pożyczki prometeusz bocian skarabeusz provident pożyczki od ręki łódź kredyt bank łańcut siódemka pożyczki pożyczki dla nastolatków gdzie daja kredyt bez biku kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania bez bik pożyczki chwilówki na dowód bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych bydgoszcz kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander oprocentowanie pożyczki dla firmy kredyt samochodowy getin bank oprocentowanie kredyt bank w warszawie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank obotrycka gorzów pożyczki w bankach na dowód pożyczki bez bik piotrkow kredyt bank rawa maz godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny reklama pozyczki abrewo kredyt studencki warunki otrzymania kredyty chwilówki strona główna pożyczka bez bik i krd 5000zl 15000 i więcej pożyczki świnoujście

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad