pożyczki balonowe pożyczki od osób prywatnych najtanszy kredyt w banku pożyczki płock bez bik kredyt w banku bgż forum kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pko kredyty banku światowego dla polski wykaz placówek kredyt banku w warszawie pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki opinie odsetki od pozyczki z zfss pozyczki w domu garwolin potwierdzenie zapłaty pożyczki pożyczki dla firm bez zus i us pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy 2013 kredyt bank jak aktywować kartę kredytową kredyty dla studentów bzwbk pożyczki bocian w kaliszu kredyty chwilówki szczecinek kredyt bank królewska 55 kraków kredyt bank firma umowa na czas okreslony czy dostane kredyt realne pożyczki prywatne kredyt studencki bank zachodni umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie weksel kredyt bank ii oddział gdańsk pożyczki prywatne wągrowiec kredyt konsolidacyjny czy sie oplaca kredyt samochodowy online mbank kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wymagania kredyt bank gdańsk słowackiego godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilowki plock kredyt bank wrocław bolesława chrobrego pożyczki bez bik i krd białystok kredyt gotówkowy bez bik sosnowiec spłata pożyczki od rodziny kredyt gotówkowy eurobank opinie pożyczki pod zastaw radom eurocent pożyczki forum przedawnienie pożyczki prywatnej kredyt na samochód w getin banku pożyczki prow pożyczki bocian zielona góra kredyt bez bik ranking polcredit pożyczki kredyt bank blawatna odsetki od pożyczki obliczanie kredyt konsumpcyjny bank spółdzielczy slwstrzymanie splaty kredytu kredyt bank wbk kalkulator nowy kredyt pozabankowy kredyt bank likwidacja karty kredytowej pożyczki bez bik cieszyn kredyt bank łączy się z kredyty chwilowki konskie opty pożyczki koszalin pożyczki prywatne prawo zgorzelec pozyczka prywatna pożyczki pod zastaw złota tarnów pożyczki gotówkowe parabanki kredyt bank zielonka godziny kredyt bank oprocentowanie lokat 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy powyżej 100 pożyczki pozabankowe bez zaświadczeń o dochodach pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem kredyt bank warszawa powstańców śląskich kredyty pozabankowe rybnik kredyty mieszkaniowe money pożyczki bez bik śląskie kredyt bank24 kredyty chwilówki mysłowice pozyczki na dowod wroclaw od 18 roku zycia kredyt konsolidacyjny plus gotówka kredyt bank sa o koszalin kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus kredyt samochodowy mbank jak wyliczyć odsetki od pożyczki z zfśs umowa pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia kredyt gotówkowy eurobank kredyt bank lokaty 3 miesieczne kredyt gotówkowy bez bik na dowód kredyt konsolidacyjny meritum bank szybki kredyt bez bik wrocław pożyczki z dotacji unijnych pożyczki direct pozyczka iława na dowód bez zaświadczenia kredyty bez biku dla firm bank pko bp kredyty gotówkowe lew pożyczki kredyt bank jelenia góra kontakt umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi a pcc kredyt bez biku gorzow kredyt samochodowy dla firm ranking pozyczka w bankomacie tczew pożyczki prywatne tczew kredyty mieszkaniowe wcześniejsza spłata kredyt bank korporacje kredyt konsolidacyjny na budowe domu pożyczki bez bik i krd kraków szybki kredyt bez bik na dowod bocian pożyczki a komornik kredyt bank bankomaty płock kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm ing kredyt bank zytnia kredyty mieszkaniowe pko bp forum pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik rzeszów kredyt bank kasprzaka 2 bankowy kredyt pod zastaw działki kredyty bez bik na oświadczenie kredyt bank sa zagiel lublin kredyty bez bik szamotuły kredyty chwilówki chrzanów rynek kredyt bank kartuska 5 gdańsk pożyczki i kredyty preferencyjne kredyt bank focha bydgoszcz polska pozyczka dla bedacych w uk pożyczki bez bik gdańsk pozyczki gotuwkoiwe prywatne firmy kredyt bank warszawa polna 11 kredyt bank legionowo kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe w rzeszowie pożyczki pozabankowe w niemczech darmowe pożyczki przez internet abis pożyczki infolinia rarr pożyczki na start bank pko sa kredyty studenckie kredyt w getin bank pozyczki banknot kredyt bank lokaty bankowe pożyczki pozabankowe koło kredyty mieszkaniowe millenium kalkulator umowa pożyczki pieniężnej formularz kredyt mieszkaniowy najkorzystniejszy kredyt bank łódź aleksandrowska kredyt getin bank bez bik kredyty chwilówki trójmiasto kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk opinie kredyty chwilówki inwestycje opinie pożyczki mysłowice pożyczki w firmie bocian kredyt bank środa śląska kontakt kredyty bankowe saldo początkowe pożyczki włocławek bez bik kredyt bank plac zbawiciela godziny otwarcia alior bank proba wyludzenia kredytu alior bank kredyt przez internet opinie kredyty bez bik kutno kredyt bank wychodzące kredyt bank świebodzin bocian pożyczki krotoszyn duże kwoty kredytu bez bik dla firm kredyt rolniczy w banku spółdzielczym udzielę prywatnej pożyczki rzeszów pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez bik nadpłata pożyczki ing kredyt w sobotę kredyt konsolidacyjny kiedy jak zgłosić umowę pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego kredyty bez bik raciborz kredyt gotówkowy banku pocztowego pożyczki umowa co lubuskie alior bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator nazwa pożyczki udzielonej przez bank kredyty bez bik gorzów wielkopolski kredyt konsolidacyjny co znaczy zwrot pożyczki podstawa prawna pożyczki wronki umowa pożyczki od rodziny a pcc santander consumer bank kredyty samochodowe konsekwencje podatkowe pożyczki szybkie pozyczki nysa bez zaświadczeń getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki kredyt bank warszawa ul targowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla firm bez dochodu kredyt studencki pko 2012 pożyczka na dowód od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń kredyt bez bik ostrowiec białystok pożyczki bez bik kredyty bez bik gryfice czy łatwo o kredyt w getin banku patrycja nowak pożyczki pożyczki odnawialne udzielane przedsiębiorcom kredyt dla zadłużonych opole brzeg kredyty konsolidacyjne bz wbk kredyt bank wojska polskiego getin noble bank kredyt dla firm kredyty chwilówki inwestowanie placówki kredyt banku warszawa pozyczka typu providen euro cen bocian pożyczki gotówkowe wiki kredyt bank chełmska pożyczka chwilówka żyrafa oprocentowanie kredytu studenckiego pko sa pożyczki bocian w słupsku pozyczki osoby prywatne bydgoszcz kredyt bank zaswiadczenia pożyczki na dowód eurobank umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pit jak splacic komornika jaki bank udziela kredytu pożyczki 2014 santander consumer bank opinie kredyt samochodowy kredyt bank plock kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe wbk szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz pożyczki dla firm jeremie kredyt bez bik kluczbork zabezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej wekslem umowa pożyczki druk pcc pożyczki biała podlaska kredyt bank w olsztynie kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na czas określony pożyczki gotówkowe 50000 pozyczka z dojazdem do domu ostrołęka chwiluwka udzielę pożyczki prywatnej śląsk pożyczki do 80 lat pożyczki na rozwój działalności gospodarczej meritum pożyczki do domu kredyty pozabankowe grudziadz pożyczki gotówkowe dla nowych firm okres pożyczki opole pożyczki prywatne wzór potwierdzenia zwrotu pożyczki pożyczki za gierka w którym banku najłatwiej o kredyt gotówkowy kredyty bez bik bytom kredyt bank deutschland pożyczki pozabankowe na alimenty kredyt bank sa akcje wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank warszawa ul chełmska 9 kredyt bank brzeziny pożyczki bez bik ranking wzór umowa pożyczki gotówkowej umowa udzielenia pożyczki przez gminę rodzaje kredytów w banku pekao sa kredyt bank przejęty przez wbk pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu wrocław kredyt bez bik pozabankowe kredyt bank żagań pozyczka bez bik na splate komornika kredyt bank lublin forum pożyczki gotówkowe alior bank kalkulator kredyty bankowe saldo początkowe kredyty samochodiwe uk kredyty chwilówki łowicz pożyczka prywatna bez sprawdzania baz kraków pożyczki pozabankowe do 40000 pozyczki na doeod bez biku na dowod telefon zary pożyczki społecznościowe kokos forum kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki za granica kredyty chwilówka stalowa wola pożyczki oblicz ratę patryk raczkowski pożyczki kredyt bank ken 19 odsetki od pożyczki bilansowo kredyt bank ketlinga 21 kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator porównanie pożyczki dziesiątka kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat pożyczki pozabankowe zduńska wola kredyt bank grajewo kredyt bank ropczyce pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań kredyty pozabankowe bez biku kredyty bez bik tychy kredyt bank jest bankiem pożyczki prywatne ostrów wielkopolski kredyt bank wibor kredyt bank w gorlicach kredyt inwestycyjny getin bank opinie pożyczki na dowód kołobrzeg umowa pożyczki wzór osoby fizyczne premie w kredyt banku kredyty gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt rns banki kredyt bank police godziny otwarcia kredyt bank warszawa ursynów pożyczki prywatne od inwestorów pozyczki bez rejestrow poznan zwrot ubezpieczenia pożyczki umowa pożyczki i przewłaszczenia na zabezpieczenie bocian pożyczki przedstawiciele pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności dobre pożyczki bez bik ekspres kredyt dla firm bez bik us i zus kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku pożyczki pod zastaw pkd kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka kredyt samochodowy w lukas bank kredyt na remont mieszkania bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie banki monetto pożyczki szybkie pożyczki inowrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt opinie przedmiot umowy pożyczki i kredytu pożyczki chwilówka na dowód pożyczki prywatne żywiec bank pekao sa kredyt inwestycyjny kredyt bank charakterystyka banki kredyty ekologiczne kredyty pozabankowe cieszyn jaki kredyt pozabankowy pozyczki przez internet pozyczki dla polakow w anglii umowa pożyczki z bankiem kredyt bank bydgoszcz modrzewiowa pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank kto jest wlascicielem pożyczki prywatne urząd skarbowy kredyty chwilowki lask kredyt bank szkolenie w warszawie co potrzeba zeby wziasc pozyczke z oakam umowa pożyczki między członkami rodziny wzór opodatkowanie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe 2013 umowa pożyczki pieniędzy word oddziały kredyt banku w kielcach kredyt bank myślenice kontakt w jakim banku wziasc kredyt na dom kredyty bez bik dla firm pożyczki włodawa umowa pożyczki bez formy pisemnej kredyt bez bik pko przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał zakładowy jak zaksięgować umowę pożyczki między spółkami pożyczki pozabankowe 40000 kredyt bank ambicja kredyt bank maestro kredyt bez bik oferty pożyczki legnica kredyt bank iban swift pożyczki pewne pożyczki poznań gumtree kredyt bez biku zielona góra kredyty bez bik i krd walbrzych szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd online idea bank kredyt na start opinie umowa pożyczki z osobą fizyczną pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości białystok kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim forum pożyczki chwilówki vivus opodatkowanie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca pożyczki dla ciebie kredyt bank luboń telefon szukam pożyczki śląsk bank dajacy kredyt 30 tys zl na oswiadczenie pożyczki w banku millennium pożyczki przelicznik kredyt bank warszawa nip kredyt konsolidacyjny euro jak uzyskac kredyt bez biku kredyty chwilówki nysa rynek kredyt bank lodz piotrkowska potrzebuję pilnej pożyczki dzisiaj kredyt bank legnica godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki z nfośigw kredyt bank artykuł waloryzacja pozyczki bank millennium kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy bez zdolności kredytowej w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty pozabankowe bez bik siedlce adresy i nr tel pożyczki pod zastaw złota kraków umowa pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie kredyt bank warszawa gocław najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny na rynku regulamin pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe gorzów kredyt bank bielany wr kredyty chwilówki komisja nadzoru finansowego koncepcja pożyczki zwrotnej praca pożyczki łódź pożyczki natychmiastowe bez biku pożyczki chwilówki ekspres kasa pożyczki w kokos opinie kredyty bez bik zgierz kredyt mieszkaniowy 150 tys rata pożyczki prywatne forum pożyczki wrocław bez bik wypowiedzenie kredytu getin bank kredyt bez bik forum dyskusyjne przelicznik pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt pleszew bez biku kredyt bank warszawa conrada pożyczki do domu bydgoszcz kredyty chwilówki katowice mikołowska kredyt studencki pko forum prowizja od umowy pożyczki a vat pozyczki chwilowki jaslo siedziby pożyczki bez bik nidzica kredyt studencki pko bp umorzenie pożyczki od ręki kredyty kredyt bank przeniesienie karty kredytowej kredyt bank w krynicy zdroju nowe pożyczki online najtańsze pożyczki bankowe banki które udzielają kredytu bez bik tani kredyt bez biku skarabeusz pozyczka do jakiej kwoty kredyt bank wspólnoty pożyczki pozabankowe typu provident kredyt chwilówki praca opinie kredyty bez biku wadowice pozyczki prywatne w obcej walucie umowa pożyczki komentarz bip pożyczki formularz kredyt samochodowy mbanku kredyty chwilówki praca kalisz kredyty chwilówki na firme kredyty bez bik big komornik konsolidacja pożyczki bez bik świecie pożyczki w domu wałbrzych pożyczki bez bik iława kredyt bank kozienice nowe pożyczki internetowe kredyt w uk na benefity kredyty chwilówki gdańsk grunwaldzka bocian pożyczki ostrów wlkp kredyty bez biku sosnowiec kredyt bank placówki warszawa bielany kredyty chwilówki pruszków praca opinie ile sie czeka na kredyt w getin banku kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim pko bp kredyt bank gdańska bydgoszcz pożyczki w domu klienta opole kredyt expert w uk forum pożyczki online nowe pożyczki bez bik jarosław pożyczki pozabankowe płock pożyczki bez bik dla firm kredyt bank druk zaświadczenia o zarobkach umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej bocian pożyczki gryfice kredyt konsolidacyjny zasady kredyt studencki pko wakacje getin noble bank ubezpieczenie kredytu kredyt w getin banku bik keris wiesława sirek pożyczki bez bik leasing a kredyt bankowy chomikuj pożyczki chwilówki warszawa kondratowicza pożyczki 500 zł bocian pożyczki piotrków tryb kredyt bez biku i zaswiadczen kredyt bank w chełmie kredyt bez bik w toruniu kredyty bez sprawdzania bazy bik prodomo pożyczki nowe miasto lubawskie pożyczki pozabankowe cała polska kredyt chwilówka jaworzno pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy radom najkorzystniejszy kredyt w banku kredyt bank platnosc karta za granica zaświadczenie o zarobkach pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy wniosek o preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko bp pożyczki charakterystyka kredyty chwilówki w pile optima pożyczki współpraca pożyczka na dowód choszczno odsetki od pożyczki przychód aneks do umowy pożyczki a pcc umowa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt samochodowy w raiffeisen bank zwrot ubezpieczenia pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki bez krd kredyt bank w trzciance pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód osobisty jaki jest numer na kredyt do orange kredyt bankowy dla małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw meritum bank kredyt firmowy opinie przedawnienie pożyczki provident pozyczki bez bik kredyt bank sokółka telefon kredyty chwilówki rybnik raciborska wzór umowy pożyczki ratalnej kredyt bank w slupsku dokument pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik wałbrzych pożyczki w allegro kredyt w eurobank pożyczki od osób prywatnych białystok bielsko kredyty nie bankowe pożyczki chwilówki na dowód opinie pożyczki w olsztynie pozyczki chwilowki na dowow osobisty walbrzych umowa pożyczki a podatek vat kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie banków kredyt konsolidacyjny w nordea bank pożyczki na dowód bez biku jaki bank udziela kredytu bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny w parabanku kredyt bank jana pawła umorzenie pożyczki po jakim kursie kredyty bez bik siedlce pożyczki z komornikiem kraków tempo finanse pożyczki tarnobrzeg kalkulator mega pożyczki ing pcc od umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank pracownicy warta pozyczki

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

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funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad