oprocentowanie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt samochodowy bez sprawdzania w biku kredyt z orange na jaki numer pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości małopolska podatek od pożyczki ustawa szybkie pożyczki bez krd kredyt studencki zasady przyznawania 2012 kredyt getin bank kalkulator kredyt bank łowicz telefon fides pożyczki poszukuje pożyczki pozabankowej refinansowanie pożyczki przedawnienie pożyczki provident szybkie kredyty bez biku pożyczki społecznościowe jak inwestować pożyczki bez bik zawiercie ile sie czeka na kredyt w getin banku bocian pożyczki lubuskie ewidencja księgowa pożyczki z zfśs obliczanie procentu pożyczki provident zasady pożyczki kredyt bank oplaty i prowizje kredyty bez bik od 4000 pożyczki pozabankowe oława kredyt bez bik dla zadluzonych kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator lukas bank kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki kredyt studencki wbk 2013 kredyt ratalny lukas bank kalkulator kredyt bank kod kredyty i pożyczki bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2014 kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kredytowa kalkulator pożyczki ekspresowe elbląg kredyt bank przejęcie kredyt bank skoczów godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki tychy zwrot pożyczki postępowanie nakazowe umorzenie pożyczki pcc kredyt samochodowy getin bank infolinia umowa pożyczki prawo właściwe pozyczka 70000 bez bik pożyczki anglia pożyczki społecznościowe z komornikiem pożyczki przy niskich dochodach kredyt w bank of ireland forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w pocztowym ppozyczka na sam dowod osobisty zabrze jak odmówić komuś pożyczki kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe walutowe ranking banków kredyt rodzina na swoim szybki kredyt bez bik warszawa umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od ojca bezzwrotne pożyczki z up potwierdzenie umowy pożyczki pożyczki prywatne w lubinie kredyt konsumpcyjny w kredyt banku kredyt gotowkowy w banku santander kredyty pozabankowe ogłoszenia potrącenia pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyty chwilówki miechów pożyczki bez bik raty alior bank kredyt konsumpcyjny kredyt bez bik do 30000 kredyt w raiffeisen bank kredyt na oddłużenia kredyt samochodowy na firmę kalkulator kredyt bez zaswiadczen jelenia gora bez bankowe pozyczki bydgoszcz 20000zl pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu katowice udzielone pożyczki w bilansie wymagania kredytowe barclays pekao sa kredyt studencki szybkie pożyczki piotrków tryb kredyt bank a bzwbk optima pożyczki kielce pożyczki gotówkowe w santander firmy udzielające pożyczki bez bik pożyczki dla rolników kredyt mieszkaniowy bez dochodów kredyt bank warszawa grójecka eden finance pożyczki najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty bez bik śrem bank pocztowy kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum kredyty bez bik kalkulator kredyt bank hr kredyt kupiecki w banku pożyczki online bez wychodzenia z domu kredyt samochodowy oferty banków kredyt bez bik i krd szczecin warszawa cm kredyt bank kredyt konsolidacyjny z niskim oprocentowaniem kredyty bez bik decyzja online kredyt chwilówka porównanie kredyt bez bik cieszyn kredyty konsolidacyjne gdynia kredyt w orange 5 zł kredyt studencki pko aneks do umowy kredyt bez bik 2000 zł kredyt getin bank online kredyt na dom w uk forum pożyczki dla firm kielce kredyt bank koszalin zwycięstwa godziny otwarcia kto daje pożyczki z komornikiem kredyt bank token mikropożyczki kraków pożyczki chwilówki olsztyn pieniężnego kredyty bez bik kluczbork kredyt bez bik do domu kredyt konsolidacyjny obliczenia pożyczki chwilówki na dowód pożyczki dla emeryta pożyczki pod zastaw piotrkow pożyczki bocian pruszcz gdański kredyt bank bankomaty darmowe pożyczki abis istota pożyczki gotówkowej szybki kredyt 10000 mińsk mazowiecki łódź pożyczki pozabankowe gdzie najłatwiej o kredyt bez bik kredyt bank o lublin żagiel pożyczki chwilówki nowogard kredyt bez bik 24 kredyt konsolidacyjny w agricole kredyt prywatny bez bik krd big z komornikiem decyzja kredytowa w kredyt banku kredyt bank czeki pożyczki chwilówki sosnowiec pozyczki pozabankowe przez internet legnica kredyt bank kondycja kredyty studenckie bank pko cesja pożyczki a cienka kapitalizacja kredyt bank os kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim singiel umowa pożyczki provident wzór pro collect pożyczki pozyczki prudnik pożyczki z funduszu europejskiego kredyt niemcy forum kredyt konsolidacyjny na zakup mieszkania pożyczki chwilówki na 60 dni kredyt bank włocławek regon odsetki od pożyczki w kpir kredyt bank gliwice kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe zadłużonych getin kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt bank felczaka szczecin pożyczki na samochód bez bik sigma bank kredyty bez poręczycieli bydgoszcz gros pożyczki opinie umowa pożyczki rewolwingowej wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy jaka pensja kredyty bez bik gryfice gros pożyczki toruń kredyt bank ken 57 warszawa kredyt chwilówka jawor kredyt bank wolomin pożyczki pod weksel rzeszów kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kalkulator rat kredyt bank łódż kredyt bank zwolnienia 2012 kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim w pko sa kredyt bank myślibórz pożyczki gotówkowe w anglii pożyczki na własną działalność prywatne pożyczki na weksel kraków kredyt bank warszawa praga pożyczki na dowód bełchatów druk umowy pożyczki gotówkowej wzór pożyczki chwilówki bocian kredyt bank żary telefon kredyt bank wspólnoty mieszkaniowe kredyt mieszkaniowy bank spółdzielczy opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny millenium bank opinie kredyt bank efs kredyt pozabankowy bez bik bocian pozyczki lebork kredyty mieszkaniowe konsolidacyjne kredyt bank prowizje kredyt bank lokata avocado kredyt bank wypowiada ubezpieczenie deutsche bank kursy walut kredyt pożyczki pod zastaw sprzętu rtv warszawa pożyczki chwilówki jasło kredyt w banku przelicznik kredyt bank kościan godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki pko wymagania pożyczki na weksel szczecin kalkulator pożyczki gofin kredyt bez bik siedlce kredyt bank poznań kontakt kredyt bank lomza dworna pożyczki na dowód ciechanów kredyt bank foksal godziny otwarcia kredyty bez biku toruń kredyty chwilówki na telefon alior bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt bank widok skierniewice kredyty chwilówki wrocław kredyt bank praga południe kredyt bank warszawa siedziba kredyt bank słupsk bankomaty pożyczki dla studentów rzeszów wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z pracy kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator bgz kredyt na samochód dla firm bez bik kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt pozyczki z krd w starachowice kredyt w banku jakie dokumenty pożyczki pewne pożyczki bez bik na umowe zlecenie pożyczki chwilówki kielce kredyt bank w jeleniej górze kredyty bank pko bp umorzenie pożyczki zfron pożyczki pod zastaw rumia kredyty chwilówki w łodzi kredyt bank w sieradzu ubezpieczenie kredytu w aig bank kredyt bank lesko kredyty banki ranking kredyty mieszkaniowe gus pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu poznań kredyt bez bik zgierz szybkie pożyczki kredyt bank słubice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank janów łódź księgowanie pożyczki udzielonej pozyczki chwilowki zyrafa bank pocztowy kredyt online kredyt samochodowy santander forum potrzebuje kredyt konsolidacyjny pozyczki na procent plock pozyczki bez bik wegrow pożyczki eden kredyty chwilówki żary pozyczki przez telefon na oswiadczenie umowa pożyczki provident wzór oświadczenia pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt studencki pko kiedy przelewy pożyczki z budżetu państwa kredyt bank skrytki bankowe umowa pożyczki pieniężnej bez zabezpieczeń umorzenie pożyczki pozew umowa pożyczki prywatnej wzór kredyt w banku skok pożyczki prywatne bez bik forum pko bp rzeszów kredyt studencki kredyt bank poznań żniwna godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w płocku umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie do urzędu skarbowego kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa wczesniejsza spłata kredyt bank gold profit neobank kredyt pod zastaw gruntow rolnych essentialia negotii pożyczki kredyt bank główna siedziba kredyt bank w sopocie kredyt bank akcje kredyt bank legnica mickiewicza kredyty bez bik szybko pożyczki przeterminowane pożyczki oddłużające pożyczki w domu bolesławięc lubań kredyty pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki gotówkowe lukas bank umorzenie pożyczki z zfron pożyczki eden kredyt bank kalwaryjska kredyt bank sa kasprzaka użyczę pożyczki kredyty chwilówki tarnowskie góry pożyczki w bedzinie konsekwencje podatkowe pożyczki żyrafa pożyczki praca umowa pożyczki między firmami kredyt w banku dla bezrobotnego okres karencji w spłacie pożyczki kredyty i pożyczki proz umowa pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca wzór pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa kredyt bankowy przez internet umowa pożyczki a pcc kredyt mieszkaniowy pracuje za granica umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki pod zastaw racibórz pozyczki pozabankowe z zajeciem komorniczym boleslawiec wyliczenie pożyczki pozyczki prywatne na procent olesnica pożyczki od osób prywatnych online umowa pożyczki 2013 firma udzielająca pożyczki umowa pożyczki dla firm kredyt za kredyt w getin banku kredyt chwilówka kłodzko pożyczki mława kredyt pozabankowy na zaswiadczenieno zarobkach kredyt pozabankowy olsztyn podatek od pożyczki od rodziny 2012 pożyczki lider pożyczki z funduszu świadczeń socjalnych kredyt studencki w jakim banku najlepiej pożyczki bez bik w łodzi kredyt bank sa lublin zana kredyt bank 1 oddział gdańsk kredyt mieszkaniowy komornik kredyt w banku pko bp opinie kredyt bank retkinia kredyt w anglii na niski procent kredyty dla malych firm na start 2014 pożyczki bez bik na 2 lata mikropożyczki dla absolwentów pożyczki prywatne dąbrowa górnicza udzielać pożyczki kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank kredyt w bank pocztowy pożyczki na duże kwoty kredyt bank oddział warszawa kondratowicza kredyt bez bik 50000 kredyt bez bik do 3000 kredyty chwilówki poznań opinie szybki kredyt bez bik rzeszow kredyty chwilówki gryfino firmy splacajace pozyczki niebankowe jastrzebie zdroj pożyczki od ręki kraków kredyt studencki pekao sa poręczyciele umorzenie pożyczki z zfron jak zaksięgować bank spółdzielczy biała podlaska kredyt gotówkowy kredyt samochodowy ranking styczeń 2014 kredyt samochodowy online mbank opinie kredyt studencki pko bp dokumenty kredyt samochodowy dla policjantów nobilon pożyczki opinie kredyt bank decyzja kredytowa pożyczki kielce kredyt bank banco santander minimalna rynkowa wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki jaki numer na kredyt orange kredyt bank warszawa chałubińskiego pożyczki profi credit kalkulator kredyt bank token problem pożyczki na dowód chełmno alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty chwilówki w łodzi umowa pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca wzór kredyt bank w lublinie windykacja pożyczki pozabankowe bartoszyce kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zyrantow w ktorym banku brac kredyt urząd skarbowy podatek od pożyczki kredyty bankowe dla msp kredyty mieszkaniowe promocja kredyt bank lipowa kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea opinie kredyt bank lokaty 2011 szybkie pożyczki bytom umowa pożyczki do spółki kredyt bank gdynia skwer kościuszki duzy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank w lublinie ul krakowskie przedmieście kredyt bankowy praca licencjacka w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na samochód pożyczki ostrów mazowiecka kredyt bank warszawa targowa godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pod zastaw auta kredyt w bank of ireland forum pożyczki pozabankowe łódż kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe pod weksel kredyt bez bik skarbiec kredyt bank w siedlcach godziny otwarcia kredyt bank depozyty kredyt samochodowy w banku bph kredyty chwilówki tarnów kredyt bank likwidacja kredyt konsolidacyjny bez dochodów pożyczki prywatne wypelnij wniosek szybkie pożyczki chwilowki w krakowie pozyczki pozabankowe z zajeciem komorniczym boleslawiec kredyt bank godziny otwarcia wrocław pożyczki bez bik kłodzko pożyczki kodeks cywilny umowa pożyczki pod zastaw złota pożyczki na chwilę pożyczki w profi credit forum kredyt bank problemy kredyt studencki pko zaświadczenie z uczelni szybkie pożyczki bez bik radom pożyczki z funduszu pracy dla bezrobotnych kredyt w banku aig kredyt w pekao sa forum kredyty studenckie oprocentowanie kredyt bank w kluczborku zwrot pożyczki podstawa prawna pozyczki jredyty zakopane pożyczki dla osób bez dochodów pożyczki na dowód przez internet bez bik pożyczki pko sa ankieta pożyczki gold cash pożyczki pożyczki na dowód tarnów przelew własny w kredyt banku kredyt bank lokaty internetowe szybkie pożyczki toruń pożyczki chwilówki konin pożyczki chwilówki bolesławiec preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko opinie kredyt bez bik pila getin bank kredyt samochodowy telefon gdzie szukac kredytu bez bik pożyczki bez biku i komornika kredyty mieszkaniowe czy warto kredyt bank tarnobrzeg telefon fundusze unijne pożyczki kredyty chwilówki w łomży pożyczki prywatne na procent płock pożyczki chorzow kredyty mieszkaniowe obliczenie rat kredyty bez bik szczecinek optima pożyczki lębork pożyczki bez bik cała polska białystok pożyczki bez bik pożyczki bez bik malbork kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób w biku kredyt bank gdzie wyplacac bez prowizji kredyt bank warszawa ken 57 pożyczki bociana kredyt bankowy pod zastaw mieszkania pismo o umorzenie kredytu z funduszu socjalnego umowa pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym pożyczki z niskim oprocentowaniem kredyt bank katowice altus pożyczki od osób prywatnych tarnów kredyt bank w mlawie zywiec prywatne pozyczki pożyczki błyskawiczne kredyt bank iii oddział wrocław pozyczki w domu klijenta jarocin próba wyłudzenia pożyczki umowa pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank lodz godziny otwarcia pożyczki z amber gold kredyty mieszkaniowe kwiecień 2013 umowa pożyczki pod zastaw działki kredyt samochodowy getin noble bank alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard adres telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny w credit agricole pozyczki w domu klienta kluczbork kredyt pod weksel kredyt bez bik świdnica przedawnienie pożyczki provident kredyt bank chmielna godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w augustowie pożyczki przez internet bez przelewu co potrzeba zeby wziasc pozyczke z oakam bgż pożyczki dla rolników pożyczki bez bik pod zastaw pożyczki z budżetu jst cena pożyczki szybkie pożyczki kościan getin bank kredyt przez internet natychmiastowa wymagalność pożyczki z zfśs kredyty gotówkowe bez bik łódź pożyczki przedawnienie kredyt bank mickiewicza białystok godziny otwarcia czy idea bank da kredyt zadluzonym opinie cesja umowy pożyczki a pcc kredyt chwilówka telefon kredyt bankowy dla mśp pożyczki krecik opinie szybkie pożyczki panda tarr pożyczki kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg 40 tys w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bez bik na 12 miesięcy pożyczki 24h alior bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń pożyczki na dowód sosnowiec umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona wekslem kredyt samochodowy dla ludzi w bik kredyt bank toruń telefon kredyt bank olsztyn piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia niebezpieczne pożyczki pożyczki bez bik komornik pewny kredyt pozabankowy kredyt konsolidacyjny santander kalkulator kredyty chwilówki starachowice kredyt bank iii oddział kraków kredyt bank żagiel lublin narutowicza pozyczki brodnica od 18lat kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik krd umorzenie pożyczki w rodzinie niskoprocentowe pozyczki uk novum finance pożyczki forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w ktorym banku kredyt bank legnica kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy w kb opinie pozyczki dla zadluzonych i w bazach kredyt bank nisko

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad