kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla 2013 pożyczki dla mikrofirm pożyczka na dowód przez pocztę bank pko sa kredyt na samochód krótkie pożyczki pożyczki oddłużeniowe pozabankowe kredyt samochodowy w banku pko pożyczki w grosie dpg pożyczki kredyty samochodiwe uk ile kosztuje przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku pożyczki pod zastaw racibórz ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2012 kredyty trudne bez biku i prywatne najtanszy kredyt w banku kredyt bez bik skierniewice odsetki od pożyczki płatnik pożyczki bez procentu regulamin kredytu studenckiego pko bp pożyczki bez zaświadczeń opinie kredyt studencki pko okazanie legitymacji kredyt bank kondratowicza 35 pożyczki społecznościowe 2012 pożyczki chorzow pożyczki gierka umowa pożyczki między znajomymi wzór kredyty bez bik bocian kredyt chwilówki zielona góra pożyczki gotówkowe do ręki druk podatku od pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 2000 kredyt konsolidacyjny zdolność kredyt bank świętojańska gdynia kredyt bank ostrów wlkp kredyt gotówkowy 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czy łatwo dostać kredyt w getin banku kredyt bank bolesławiec godziny otwarcia kredyt bank hrubieszów tel kapitał obcy pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa białołęka pożyczki gotówkowe tarnów pożyczki włodawa kredyty online bez biku epef pożyczki pożyczki 24 pro pożyczki z tygodniową spłatą prosty kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt studencki bzwbk 2014 kalkulator rat kredytu gotówkowego alior bank pozyczka na dowod osobisty numer tel chełm prywatne pozyczki na zaswiadczenie o dochodach kredyt gotowkowy w ktorym banku kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pko bp pożyczki na projekty unijne bocian pozyczki goleniow kredyty chwilówki przemyśl pozyczki w domu klienta w plocku dobry kredyt gotówkowy bez bik użyczę pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy a ślub kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka 2 kredyt konsolidacyjny bez umowy o prace kredyt mieszkaniowy w zagranicznym banku pożyczki chwilówki jak to działa kredyty dla bezrobotnych blog pożyczki prywatne kredyt bez bik torun kredyt bez bik debica prywatne pożyczki wpływ pożyczki na rachunek walutowy szybki kredyt bez bik szczecin kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza kredyt na dowod do reki bez dochodow gryfino pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca 2013 kredyt bank zołnierska udzielenie pożyczki pożyczki oblicz ratę umowa pożyczki maksymalne oprocentowanie pozyczki krosos windykacja kredyt w banku ing kredyt bank warszawa żytnia pożyczki gotówkowe żary kredyt bank nowy świat 2 pozyczki w domu klijenta pabianice pożyczki pod zastaw siemianowice śląskie forma pisemna pożyczki umowa pożyczki w rodzinie podatek kredyty bez bik sucha beskidzka kredyty chwilówki wynagrodzenie kredyt bez bik 40000 pożyczki chwilówki przez internet od 18 lat pożyczki dla zadłużonych i w bik kredyt samochodowy w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki długoterminowe kredyt w banku spółdzielczym opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złym bik przedawnienie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt opinie pko kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu kredyty chwilówki system partner opinie kredyt bez wizyty w banku kredyt w banku pocztowym dla funkcjonariuszy kredyt bank rzeszów adres pożyczki pozabankowe opole kredyt bez bik nowy tomyśl kredyt bank warszawa aleja krakowska godziny otwarcia nowe pozyczki bez bik umorzenie pożyczki pracowniczej pożyczki bez zaświadczeń toruń podatek od umowy pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi umowa pożyczki od udziałowca zagranicznego kredyt konsolidacyjny 2014 ranking kredyt pozabankowy szybko pożyczki mikro kredyt bank piekary śląskie kredyt chwilówka 5000 pożyczki społecznościowe chwilówki getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy forum pożyczki rodzinne bez podatku kredyt bank toruń grudziądzka kredyty pozabankowe jaworzno pożyczki krótkoterminowe bilans kredyt konsolidacyjny alior praca za granica calkowita splata pozyczki wzor umowa pożyczki kto płaci podatek pożyczki chwilówki przez internet forum ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2013 kredyt bank gdynia starowiejska kredyt bank sa legnica kredyt mieszkaniowy ubezpieczenie mieszkania idea bank jakie oprocentowanie kredytu umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pod zastaw pozyczka 2000 online kredyty bez biku i zaświadczeń kredyty pozabankowe bez bik toruń fakturowanie pożyczki badanie zdolności kredytowej w banku pko bp kredyt samochodowy forum opinie pożyczki mielec kredyt samochodowy w idea bank umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pracownikowi pożyczki chwilówki przemyśl pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs w bilansie pożyczki na dowód pleszew pożyczki chwilówki katowice kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik wrocław kredyt bank wydział zajęć komorniczych pozyczki pod zastaw auta w minsku maz pożyczki bocian online kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku opinie ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych październik 2012 kredyty bankowe to pasywa czy aktywa pomocne pożyczki opinie kredyt bank oszczędzanie getin bank online kredyt samochodowy szybkie pożyczki piotrków tryb ciągnienie pożyczki kredyt bez bik 70000 kredyt konsolidacyjny odstąpienie umowa pożyczki loan agreement pożyczki bez bik gumtree kredyty bez bik krosno kredyt abis pożyczki prywatne w krakowie bank pko kredyt rodzina na swoim warunki nieznane pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór w rodzinie pożyczki ślimak poznań kredyty chwilówka częstochowa kredyt bank departamenty umowa pożyczki pieniędzy opodatkowanie kredyt bankowy obrotowy kredyty chwilówki grodzisk mazowiecki jakie banki w poznaniu udzielaja kredytow kredyt bank vi oddział warszawa pożyczki bez biku na dowud do domu cel pożyczki zawieszenie działalności a kredyt w banku kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bph kalkulator kredyty bez bik w czestochowie kredyt bank kierownik w którym banku najtańszy kredyt kredyty bez zaswiadczen minsk mazowiecki pożyczki online bez dochodów kredyt bez biku poznan kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredytowy kredyt bank łask kredyt bank długa siedziby chwilowki kredyt jaslo kredyt w banku na samochód kredyt bank fieldorfa kredyt bank bez bik witam kredyt bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku millennium kredyt bankowy definicja kredyt gotówkowy w alior banku forum pożyczki inwestorskie cechy pożyczki gotówkowej kwota nominalna pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych i w bik kredyty chwilówki konto pożyczki chwilówki na dowód gdańsk odsetki od pożyczki a przychód kredyt na dowód kredyt bank mokotowska 49 kredyt w meritum bank forum pożyczki orange pożyczki pozabankowe z komornikiem jak udzielić pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank lokaty 2013 kredyty chwilówki kościerzyna kredyt bank krotoszyn rynek kredyt bank w starogardzie gdanskim kredyty lub pożyczki w grudziądzu bez biku kontakt kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki prywatnej mikropożyczki wielkopolska druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp pożyczki między firmami kredyt bank notowania akcji pożyczki wspólników udzielane spółkom kapitałowym kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej bzwbk szybkie pożyczki bez bik radom kredyt z komornikiem piekary sl pożyczki od osob prywatnych tychy kredyty pozabankowe zabrze umowa pożyczki art 777 kredyt bez bik lomza kredyt mieszkaniowy 3x0 opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy a praca za granica pożyczki providus umowa pożyczki art 777 kredyt bank godziny otwarcia radom pożyczki prywatne od osób prywatnych bocian pożyczki nip kredyt bank fundusze notowania kredyt bez biku chrzanow keris wiesława sirek pożyczki bez bik zwrot pożyczki przychód kredyt pozabankowy na zakup samochodu kredyt bank kiedy sesje pożyczki od ręki pieniądzie ostrowiec św pożyczki prywatne od osób prywatnych pożyczki przez internet bez pracy oświadczenie pożyczki pieniędzy wzór pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz kredyt studencki pko bp wnioski kredyt na dom a umowa na czas określony kredyt bank ostroda forum pożyczki bez bik pożyczki andrychów kredyt bank druk zaświadczenia o zarobkach pożyczki do domu piła kredyt bank sokółka telefon kredyt bank zytnia 15 godziny otwarcia pożyczki inwestorskie pod zastaw kredyt na pit bez biku duże pożyczki bez bik cesja umowy pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa wilanowska kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw pko kredyt bank konferencja regulamin pożyczki pracowniczej kredyty mieszkaniowe bez biku partner pożyczki warszawa kredyt bank sa rybnik kredyty bez bik bankowe pożyczka kredyt pozabankowy kredyty chwilówki swietochlowice dobra umowa pożyczki kredyty w uk po polsku kredyt bank zachodni wbk pozyczki torun tablica umowa pożyczki wzór 777 kredyt bank oferta dla firm w jakim banku kredyt na mieszkanie forum kredyt bank wałbrzych słowackiego kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny santander kalkulator kredyt bank ul ciołka godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne radom pożyczki bez biku online udzielę pożyczki na procent 2013 kredyt bank wyplaty z bankomatu kredyt bank w swieciu pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach i bik kredyt pozabankowy łódź kredyt na dowód bez bik zaświadczeń pożyczki chwilówki przez internet opinie wymagalność zwrotu pożyczki kredyt bank poleska godziny otwarcia pozyczki bez umowy o prace w człuchowie umowa pożyczki między członkami rodziny kredyt bank jarosław pozyczka na wysoki procent na dowod nowy sacz pożyczki prywatne lubin adresy kredyt banku warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe gorzów pożyczki chwilówki bochnia kredyt bank lokaty oprocentowanie 2013 bocian pożyczki koscierzyna sprzedaż kredyt banku santander pożyczki chwilówki vivus odsetki ustawowe od pożyczki kredyt bank tomaszów mazowiecki godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe symulacja kredyty chwilówka częstochowa kredyt mieszkaniowy dla lekarzy kredyt bank w kłodzku pozyczki pozabankowe pożyczki pozabankowe piła pożyczki społecznościowe w anglii szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez prowizji kredyty chwilówki kalisz prodomo pożyczki nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt chwilówka reklama pożyczki niskooprocentowane dla firm kredyt studencki pko regulamin umorzenie kredytu studenckiego pko sa prywatne pozyczki rzeszow kredyt bankowy gdzie w bilansie kredyt samochodowy w deutsche bank kredyt bez bik szczecin kredyt bank lublin windykacja kontakt pożyczki pod zastaw złota lublin kalkulator oprocentowania pożyczki czy w skok stefczyka można wziąć kredyt bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe open finance pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie uruchomienie pożyczki pożyczki inwestycyjne potwierdzenie przelewu jako dowód pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki janosik kredyt bez bik na telefon kredyt bankowy funkcje kredyt do orange pop bocian pożyczki ostróda kredyty bez weryfikacji w biku pożyczki chwilówki forum 2013 kredyty chwilowki lask kredyty online bez bik i krd chwilówka bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank kościuszki pruszków kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki gofin kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla 2014 najkorzystniejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kredyt bank limanowa kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiana pracy kredyty bez bik brodnica udzielę pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank tarnobrzeg godziny otwarcia kredyt bank przelewy z zagranicy pożyczki inowrocław niski procent kredyt bank praktyki kredyt na start w getin banku pożyczki z pfron 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny oblicz ratę kredyt konsolidacyjny pułapki bankomaty kredyt banku lublin bank zachodni wbk sa kredyt studencki kredyty bankowe konto wynikowe czy bilansowe kredyt samochodowy na firmę porównanie pożyczki chwilówki zestawienie pożyczki prywatne cała polska pożyczki prywatne chorzów kredyt mieszkaniowy na nowe mieszkanie bank pekao kredyt studencki 2012 umowa pożyczki ile podatku pożyczki na dowód bocian pożyczki za 1 gr kredyt bank radom kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 2000 umowa pożyczki przedawnienie podatku pożyczki świąteczne na dowód pożyczki wadowice umowa pożyczki a vat kredyt bank kasprzaka 2 8 wzór umowy pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki pozabankowe dla kogo kredyt studencki oferty banków pożyczki dla zadłużonych pożyczki oświęcim kredyt bank malopolska prodomo pożyczki opinie kredyt bank legnica rynek godziny otwarcia kredyt bank regon kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie zarobki kredyt bank piła tel pożyczki gotówkowe od reki pożyczki chwilówki z bikiem pożyczka na procent brodnica oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej kredyt samochodowy bez bik szczecin mikropożyczki wiki pożyczki na działalność z urzędu pracy pożyczki pod zastaw płock kredyt bank wyplata za granica kredyt konsolidacyjny na wyciąg pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu kraków euroefekt pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe wielkopolska kredyt konsolidacyjny we franku firma optima pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych toruń pożyczki prywatne koszalin kredyt bank ełk ul słowackiego kredyt bank bic swift kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku spółdzielczym opinie kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku najlepiej umowa pożyczki pieniędzy przedawnienie kredyt bank białystok skłodowskiej godziny otwarcia pożyczki finan umowa pożyczki podatek 2012 placówki kredyt banku w warszawie kredyty chwilowki strzegomska mikropożyczki finanse pożyczki pozabankowe na spłatę zadłużenia kredyty chwilówki pińczów jak udzielić pożyczki kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz kredyt bank lista placówek pożyczki chwilówki starachowice kredyt bez biku do 5000 chorobowe a pozyczka w providencie kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku pożyczki lendon opinie kredyt bank wbk kalkulator kredyt bank wrocław gliniana pożyczki citibank kredyt bank karmelicka jakie odsetki od pożyczki udziałowca kredyt bez bik bez poreczycieli kredyt bank london szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń przez internet kredyty mieszkaniowe książki

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad