kredyt bank praktyki płatne pozyczka na dzialalnosc bez zaswiadczen global pożyczki bydgoszcz tanie pożyczki online kredyt bank wypowiada umowy na życie pożyczki dla osób pracujących za granicą umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a wspólnikiem kredyt bank zwycięstwa koszalin porównanie kredytów samochodowych dla firm kredyty bez bik gorzow wlkp jak odmówić komuś pożyczki pożyczka z obsługą w domu pożyczki bocian września kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bank lokata online kredyt w banku warunki szybka pozyczka z zajeciem komorniczym 2014 kredyt chwilówki toruń kredyt bank polna kredyt bankowy księgowanie kredyt mieszkaniowy bez umowy na czas nieokreślony kredyt mieszkaniowy a praca za granicą umowa pożyczki słownik kredyt ratalny eurobank kredyty bez bik oswiecim usługi pożyczki białystok kredyt bank piotrków godziny otwarcia kredyt bank pszczyna kontakt kredyt bank warszawa ciołka godziny otwarcia pożyczki umowa o dzieło kredyt samochodowy w toyota bank opinie kredyt bank w suwałkach kredyty chwilówki krs umowa pożyczki na wykup mieszkania kredyt w banku a komornik kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp kalkulator everest bocian pożyczki pożyczki na dowod mlawa kredyt bank szuwarowa godz otwarcia godziny przelewów w kredyt banku kod orange kredyt pożyczki online bez dochodów kredyt bank bełchatów pożyczki prywatne mazowieckie umowa pożyczki na samochód udzielenie pożyczki spółce jawnej przez wspólnika kredyt w eurobanku a utrata pracy kredyt bez bik jasło pożyczki gdynia nobilon pożyczki opinie pożyczki rumia kredyt bank gdansk wrzeszcz pożyczki gotówkowe umowa zlecenie kredyt bank cesja kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator bgz kredyt konsolidacyjny 20 tys umowa pożyczki dla firmy odsetki od pożyczki przychodem podatkowym kredyty chwilówki gliwice opinie jak wziasc kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyty mieszkaniowe 2013 pko bp kredyt bankowy mieszkaniowy pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu koszalin zmiana wysokości oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt bank sa tarnobrzeg kredyty chwilówki bez bik kraków pożyczki pozabankowe nysa prywatne pożyczki pod weksel 2013 kredyty prywatne pod weksel umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne duzy kredyt bez bik wieruszów kredyt w eurobanku opinie kredyt bank kapitał pożyczki włocławek podatek od pożyczki w rodzinie 2013 rezygnacja z karty kredytowej kredyt bank wzór kredyt na samochod bez bik prywatny warszawa skok pożyczka bez bik kredyt bank włocławek lokaty kredyt bank notowania pożyczki pod zastaw 24h lombard jagiellońska 11 kredyty chwilówki trzebinia pozyczka bez bik krd bez dochodu bocian pożyczki praca opinie kredyt bank pyrzyce credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny z druga osoba pozyczki atiz w miescie krotoszyn kontakt feniks pożyczki mińsk mazowiecki kredyt bank sochaczew godziny otwarcia kredyt bank oplata za przelew kredyt bank zagiel lodz kredyt bank zwolnienia grupowe kredyty bez bik samochodowe kredyt w banku na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt mieszkaniowy w getin banku opinie kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pekao podatek od darowizny pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik krd pożyczki chwilówki bez sprawdzania w bik tempo finanse pożyczki tarnobrzeg kredyt bank złodzieje druki pożyczki warunkowa umowa pożyczki wzór pożyczki chwilówki wieliczka bocian pozyczki swinoujscie kredyty pozabankowe definicja szybki kredyt dla firmy bez bik kredyt bank lublin ul zana 39a kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza 50 kredyty w fm banku opinie optima pożyczki kielce kredyty chwilówki katowice kredyt bank przelewy internetowe pożyczki alior bank opinie kalkulator pożyczki ekspresowej pekao pożyczki prywatne mielec kredyty banku pko bp kredyt bez bik optima umowa pożyczki dokument jak dostac pozyczke w atiz pożyczka bez biku lublin kredyt bankowy aktywo czy pasywo pożyczki chwilówki kluczbork kredyt w deutsche bank kalkulator udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez spółkę kredyt bank poznań garbary godziny otwarcia tani kredyt pozabankowy wzór umowy pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki na dowód kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum banku pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu legnica kredyt bank lokaty maj 2013 kredyt bank sieradz pozyczki bez umowy o prace na dowod kredyt mieszkaniowy w irlandii forum umowa pożyczki ojciec syn kredyt bank lokaty czerwiec 2012 pożyczki pod zastaw w łodzi optima pożyczki do domu szczecin pożyczki prywatne dla bezrobotnych pożyczki udzielane w domu pomorskie bank pekao sa kredyt dla singla kredyt bank bialystok ul warszawska pożyczki pozabankowe koło pozyczka onlain lubuskie odsetki od pożyczki moment powstania przychodu kredyty chwilówki bochnia pożyczka na oświadczenie przez internet kredyty pozabankowe gliwice kredyty chwilowki srem kredyt w banku a zgon umowa pożyczki z cudzoziemcem kredyt w banku dla studenta pożyczki gotówkowe londyn kredyt bank gdynia skwer kredyty chwilówki dla bezrobotnych biura kredytowe pozabankowe boleslawiec pożyczki tax care opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższa rata przedawnienie pożyczki provident kredyty chwilówki kondratowicza kredyt w jakim banku najlepiej porównanie pożyczki gotówkowej pozyczki torun tablica kredyt bank znin pożyczki provident oprocentowanie pekao sa kredyty studenckie pożyczki bez bik i krd opole kredyt bank ile idzie przelew pilne pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki chwilówki ruda śląska alior bank kredyty studenckie oddziały dobrej pożyczki kredyty chwilówki reklama kredyt bank sa iii oddział w gdańsku kredyty bez bik miedzyrzecz pozyczka na dowod bez biku rzeszów bocian pożyczki godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki rata pożyczki pod zastaw pkd kredyt bank grojecka 186 podanie o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank wbk kalkulator meritum bank wniosek o kredyt online kredyt samochodowy ranking 2014 kredyt dla nestora w banku pocztowym kredyt bez bik od ręki kredyt inwestycyjny ranking banków gold pożyczki opinie kredyt studencki w credit agricole kredyt studencki jakie oprocentowanie kredyty bez bik wodzisław śląski jak działają pożyczki chwilówki szybkie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet szybkie pożyczki kalisz pozyczki bochnia umowa pożyczki udziałowca wzór kredyt bank kościan telefon santander bank kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego pożyczki bez bik radomsko umowa pożyczki z przewłaszczeniem zastrzeżenie karty kredyt bank kredyt bank kołobrzeska 12 umowa pożyczki z klauzulą wykonalności kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko reklama pożyczki ing kredyt bank bankomaty zielona góra kredyt bankowy pko kredyty bez bik tomaszow maz kredyt bank fax konwersja pożyczki na kapitał a odsetki kredyt bank lokalizacja pożyczki bez bik przeworsk kredyt bank rzeszów kontakt kredyt rodzina na swoim w getin banku forum pożyczki 500 zł kredyt online w idea bank kredyt bezzwrotny idea bank opinie pozyczk tygodniowki elbląg kredyt w lukas banku kalkulator kredyt bank warszawa wesoła pozyczki do domu w pabianicach kredyt w banku wikipedia umowa pożyczki nieoprocentowanej wzór kredyt bank spółdzielczy opinie banki udzielające pozyczek bez biku kredyt pod zastaw działki bez bik kredyt bank winogrady pożyczki bez bik do 1000 turbo pożyczki kredyt bank lokata progres kredyt dla firm bez bik forum wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej pod zastaw bank pekao sa pożyczki gotówkowe pozyczki na konto odsetki od pożyczki podatek u źródła kredyty mieszkaniowe londyn pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie umowa pożyczki cechy kredyt z orange 5 zł dwie pożyczki w jednym banku umowa pożyczki bez terminu zwrotu kredyt bank chełmska godziny otwarcia pozyczki w bankach pod zastaw bez zarobkow pożyczki bez bik poznań wzory pism umowa pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt studencki pko ile kredyt konsolidacyjny 100 wartości nieruchomości kredyt bankowy regulacje prawne kredyt bank w kepnie umowa pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego pożyczki oddłużeniowe warszawa kredyt z banku na otwarcie działalności pożyczki oddłużeniowe bez zabezpieczeń regulamin udzielania pożyczki dla firm w mbanku pożyczki chwilówki starogard gdański kredyty bez bik i krd poznań ekf pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe santander kredyt bez bik bielsko pożyczki bydgoszcz kujawska kredyt bank sa iban kredyt pozabankowy forum kredyt konsolidacyjny zabezpieczenia kredyt studencki pko 2013 kredyty bez bik szamotuły kredyt bank warszawa mokotów kredyt bank godziny otwarcia placówek kredyt bank chf kurs kredyt bank ul kasprzaka warszawa pożyczki lębork kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank opinie szybki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kredyt bank warszawa okęcie kredyt bank lokata roczna umowa pożyczki dla obcokrajowca umowa pożyczki prywatnej wzór kredyt studencki pko aneks do umowy kredyty chwilówki oferta w jakim banku najlepiej brać kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bez bik w płocku pożyczki korporacyjne w jakim banku wziac kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki chwilówki na dowód olsztyn profil aktywny kredyt bank kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki gofin kredyt bank kraków ul królewska 55 umowa zawarcia pożyczki pożyczki bankowe kalkulator kredyt bankowy jako źródło finansowania msp santander bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt bank konto internetowe logowanie okres przedawnienia pożyczki bankowej kredyt bank lokata opinie pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik na oświadczenie firma uzyskała kredyt w banku na 12 procent kredyt w citibanku pożyczki z funduszu pracy wzory dokumentów pożyczki skarabeusz pożyczki krosno pożyczki społecznościowe uk pożyczki obliczanie rat szybkie pożyczki kwidzyn kredyt studencki pko opinie pożyczki gotówkowe bgż kredyt m1 wzór umowy pożyczki finansowej pożyczki gotówkowe łomża kredyt bank gdynia chwaszczyńska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank bogactwo metali wycena kredyt bank godziny otwarcia marki kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator ing zwrot pożyczki bez umowy kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator rat kredyt bank abrahama godziny otwarcia jakie sa pozyczki w domu na oswiadczenie kredyt bank przasnysz kredyty w banku pko bp umowa pożyczki cywilno prawna wzór pożyczki bez bik bartoszyce konto pożyczki otrzymane kredyt bank conrada warszawa godziny otwarcia udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez udziałowca pożyczki podobne do żyrafy kredyt bank automatyczna spłata karty kredytowej kredyt konsolidacyjny w którym banku kredyty chwilowki belchatow skok stefczyka pożyczki dla zadłużonych pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik bydgoszcz pożyczki na uruchomienie firmy kredyty w bilansie banku kredyt mieszkaniowy rynek pierwotny kredyt konsolidacyjny kasa stefczyka jak dostac pozyczke w atiz umorzenie pożyczki wfośigw kredyt bank opole sosnkowskiego godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki małopolska pewne pożyczki online bez biku umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla spółki wzór kredyty pozabankowe piekary slaskie pożyczki chwilówki pruszków pożyczki 5000 zł kredyt bank jakie bankomaty bez prowizji kalkulator rat pożyczki ing pozyczki chwilowki na dowow osobisty walbrzych kredyt inwestycyjny banku bgż kredyty bez bik i krd walbrzych pożyczki chwilówki w starogardzie gdańskim kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibanku kredyty bankowe księgarnia kredyty pozabankowe krosno kredyt bank warszawa żeromskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki ostrołęka kredyt bank cennik kredyt bank przelewy wychodzące godziny przedawnienie umowy pożyczki kredyt bank departament windykacji kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny najtaniej cech pożyczki kredyty skok stefczyka kredyt na auto bez biku rata kredytu pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki w 15 minut źyrafa pożyczki kredyt bank wpłata preferencyjny kredyt studencki opinie pożyczki chwilówki warszawa puławska kredyt bank bielsk podlaski godziny otwarcia umowa przyrzeczenia pożyczki pozyczki w mielcu bocian umowa pożyczki pod przymusem optima pożyczki online kredyt bez bik chojnice kredyt bez zaświadczeń forum umowa pożyczki ustawa kredyt bank łódź oddziały restrukturyzacja pożyczki w skok stefczyka kredyt bank lwowska tarnów pozyczka pod zastaw samochodu bez wyciągu pcc od pożyczki dla udziałowca kredyt na budowe domu w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki bez bik mogilno umowa pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania wzór kredyt bank w pulawach kredyt bez bik i krd bedzin pożyczki pod zastaw tarnów panda pożyczki nysa opinie pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik kredyt bank lokata impet druk podatku od pożyczki kredyty chwilówki lichwa pożyczki pozabankowe dzierżoniów pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na dowód optima pożyczki dokumenty pożyczki bocian telefon meritum pozyczka na dowod i wyciag z konta pożyczki bez krd i bik dąbrowa górnicza kredyt bank w jakich bankomatach bez prowizji kredyt bank augustów godziny otwarcia kiedy umowa pożyczki jest ważna pożyczki pozabankowe radomsko pożyczki dla firm pozabankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy dla pary bez ślubu pożyczki bez bik big i krd poznań pożyczki chwilówki turek szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik banki dające wszystkim kredyt samochodowy pożyczki sezam wieluń kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank demo kb24 wylicz ratę pożyczki kredyt bank wawa pożyczki bez bik ogłoszenia kredyt chwilówka 2000 zł nowe pozyczki bez bik pożyczki dla zadłużonych poznań kredyt bank diners club kredyt bank powstańców warszawy kredyt bank kb token pożyczki bez bik lubartów umowa pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem pożyczki bez bik częstochowa kredyt bank kondratowicza 35 kredyty mieszkaniowe maciej molewski pożyczki wfośigw pożyczki chwilówki łęczyca kredyty chwilówki forum praca pożyczki chwilówki dla emerytów kredyty bez bik swidnica kredyty bez bik wodzisław śl auto komis kredyt bez bik pozyczki bez bik i krd gdansk jakie sa pozyczki w domu na oswiadczenie kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole opinie kredyt bank sa opole kredyty chwilówki zduńska wola rejestracja umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym pożyczki kieszonkowe dekretacja pożyczki szybki kredyt bez bik warszawa kredyty chwilowki slupsk getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową kalkulator pożyczki na dowód kielce umowa pożyczki pieniędzy gofin pożyczki dla gmin pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik wrocław wzór umowy pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs pożyczki mezzanine odsetki od pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu lendon pożyczka bez bik warszawa kredyty konsolidacyjne gotówkowe porównanie kredyty chwilówki pierwsza za darmo kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartości nieruchomości kredyt w aib cechy pożyczki odróżniające ją od kredytu wyszków pożyczki bez bik big krd szybkie pożyczki bez bik i big kredyt bank paypass kredyty chwilówki dąbrowa górnicza przeliczenie pożyczki pożyczki dla studentów i absolwentów kredyty bez bik i krd szybki kredyt sms bez bik kredyt bank placowki katowice kredyt bank 24 kredyty chwilówki w tvn pożyczki mieszkaniowe pko pożyczki w domu wałbrzych kredyty w skok bez bik alior bank kredyt kalkulator kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych przez internet kredyt bez bik czy warto kredyt mieszkaniowy pracuje za granica umowa pożyczki forma pisemna kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa zlecenie pozyczki z komornikiem miedzyrzec podlaski umorzenie pożyczki darowizna kredyt bank biuro prasowe pożyczki gotówkowe najtaniej kredyt konsolidacyjny minimum formalności bezpłatne konto w kredyt banku kredyt bank telefon całodobowy marka pożyczki rzeszów kredyt w pekao sa kalkulator ogłoszenia pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firmy bank pko bp oferty kredytów pozyczki bez bik do 25000 pozyczki na dowod wloclawek godziny otwarcia kredyt bank łańcut kredyt bank grudziądz godziny otwarcia kredyt na dowod od reki kredyty chwilówki konin te pożyczki opinie kredyty bez bik gdańsk pożyczki preferencyjne dla rolników pożyczki pod zastaw polkowice kredyt bez bik 2000 zł kredyt bank rondo onz godziny otwarcia

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad