kredyt online bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i krd kredyt bank wykaz bankomatów bez prowizji kredyt bank logowanie do konta pożyczki kalkulator ing kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim 2012 pożyczki dla małych i średnich firm umowa pożyczki od brata przelewy zagraniczne w kredyt bank pensje w kredyt banku prywatna pożyczka do ręki bez dochodu warszawa lombard pożyczki pod zastaw poznań bank santander kredyt na komornika pożyczki chwilówki na dowód kredyt kielce kredyt konsolidacyjny chf kredyt bank jastrowie kontakt profit pożyczki łódź umowa pożyczki provident kredyty w deutsche banku regulamin pożyczki kredyt bank sa włocławek kredyt samochodowy jaki bank kredyt pozabankowy 5000 na 2 lata pożyczki oddłużeniowe wrocław kredyt bank długa kraków godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki pruszków praca opinie kredyty w alior banku opinie bocian pożyczki kalkulator kredyt bank mickiewicza kredyt w rachunku bieżącym getin bank kredyt bank lodz ketlinga pożyczki w jakim banku kredyt chwilówka od 18 lat kredyt bank w łomży pszczółka pożyczki opinie kredyty chwilówki rydułtowy kredyty mieszkaniowe porównanie ofert szybki kredyt online bez bik kredyt na 5 zl orange kredyt z komornikiem bez opłat leasing a kredyt bankowy praca magisterska symulacja kredytu w banku wbk kredyt mieszkaniowy bank spółdzielczy opinie pożyczki dla nastolatków pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa o pracę na czas określony wzór umowy pożyczki zfśs kredyt studencki w pko sa getin bank pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki bez bik dla nowych firm kredyt bank w szczecinie mariusz wasilewski pożyczki pożyczki konsolidacyjnej bocian pożyczki zarobki świdwin kredyty wictoria opinie kredyt bank łowicz podrzeczna skarabeusz pozyczki pozabankowe lubin kredyt bank w suszu umowa pożyczki świadek pcc od pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki kredyt bankowy w niemczech pożyczki multibank wycena udzielonej pożyczki na dzień bilansowy umowa pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego kredyt studencki pko kiedy pozyczki żary na dowod pożyczka online do 60 dni umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami pcc zgłoszenie umowy pożyczki do urzędu skarbowego kredyt konsolidacyjny formalności pracownik pożyczki z zfśs umowa pożyczki szablon lublin mafia pozyczki umowa pożyczki kto płaci podatek oferteo pożyczki kredyt online bez biku umowy pożyczki pieniędzy druk oprocentowanie kredytów idea bank kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wymagania kredyt bank piaseczno warszawska bocian pożyczki windykacja kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking i wasze opinie jaki jest kod do orange na kredyt pożyczki do 10tys kredyt bank środa śląska kredyt bank tomaszów maz w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotowkowy kredyty bez bik szamotuły pożyczki na pierwszy biznes umowa pożyczki na rzecz spółki nowe pożyczki online kredyty pozabankowe śląsk umowa o kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny co to takiego prosta umowa pożyczki wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy w kredyt banku opinie kredyt studencki bank bph kredyty pozabankowe żary optima szybkie pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe do 7000 optima pożyczki konin pożyczki stefczyka bożena molenda provident kwota pożyczki kredyt bank krucza godziny otwarcia czy umowa pożyczki podlega opodatkowaniu szybkie pożyczki panda kredyt bank chełmża pożyczki chwilówki warszawa grochowska pod jaki numer wysyła się kredyt w orange kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zielona góra pożyczki bez bik wałbrzych kredyt na dowód bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank konto osobiste 7 pożyczki w domu klienta bytom pożyczki pozabankowe w gorzowie wlkp chojnów kredyty bez bikkrd czy umowa pożyczki podlega pcc kredyt na rok cienka kapitalizacja pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych rodziców pożyczki społecznościowe abis pożyczki bez dochodów kredyt bez bik slask flisak chełmno pożyczki getin bank warunki kredytu gotówkowego udzielone pożyczki aktywa kredyty chwilówki łodź pożyczki chwilówki kielce kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik 2013 pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik kraków kredyt bank gdynia karwiny godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki z udziałowcem wzór kredyt bank radość pozyczki pozabankowe w domu klijenta ostrow wlkp kredyty i pożyczki państwowego długu publicznego kredyt dla zadluzonych milleniumbank pożyczki w kokos opinie kredyty chwilówki konsolidacja pozyczka na dowod 18 lat online pszczyna mini pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank wisła pożyczki radom kredyty optima pożyczki numer tel kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe od 19 lat kredyt bank bankomaty tarnów spłata pożyczki w innym banku wysoki kredyt konsolidacyjny bip pożyczki warszawa pożyczki eurocent kredyt bank forum kredyt bank wrocław bolesława chrobrego umowa pożyczki pięniędzy umowa pożyczki dla spolki kredyt samochodowy dla firm oprocentowanie kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp kalkulator kredyt bank bz wbk fuzja pożyczki długoterminowe santander consumer bank kredyt kontakt amortyzacja pożyczki pożyczki bez dochodu łódź okres przedawnienia umowy pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla prowadzących działalność pozyczka nowa huta pożyczki u lichwiarzy bocian pożyczki bez zaświadczeń finan pożyczki kłodzko kredyt bank polski kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik katowice pożyczki chwilówki online bez bik kredyt bank fundusze szybkie pożyczki na dowód łódź pożyczki bez bik i krd białystok pożyczki bez bik piotrkow pożyczki bez biku opinie ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2013 umorzenie pożyczki zmarłemu pracownikowi kredyt w pko opinie kredyt bank osiedle kazimierzowskie pożyczki bez zaświadczenia o zatrudnieniu linia kredytowa w kredyt banku w jakim banku kredyt konsumencki kredyt bank legnica rynek godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp rodzina na swoim kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolność kredytowa zabezpieczenie pożyczki wfośigw kredyty bez biku dla zadluzonych kredyt w idea bank na start forum cienka kapitalizacja pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla bezrobotnych kredyt w getin banku bez bik kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka pismo o umorzenie kredytu z funduszu socjalnego fundusz górnośląski pożyczki pożyczki na dowód sandomierz pożyczki bez bik tomaszów mazowiecki pożyczki bez bik infomonitor kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2012 kredyt chwilówki żywiec kredyt konsolidacyjny rodzina na swoim opole pożyczka bez dochodów kredyt bank olsztyn kontakt kredyt bank regulamin kart kredytowych umowa pożyczki między spółką a udziałowcem bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy oprocentowanie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2012 kredyt w banku pko bp opinie umowa pożyczki ang kredyty chwilówki opinie klientów kredyt bez bik w rybniku kredyt bank nowy sącz lwowska kredyt bank wroclaw placowki kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kredyt bank żagiel lublin kontakt ostatni przelew w kredyt banku pozyczka bocian radom pożyczki jaworzno pożyczki dla ciebie getin noble bank kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki kredytu studenckiego w pko bp pożyczki w skoku pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki gwarant pożyczki gotówkowe 2014 alex pożyczki kredyt bank wspólnoty mieszkaniowe bank pekao sa kredyt studencki dokumenty kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji lublin kredyt bez bik 25000 kredyt bank akredytywa pozyczki na procent plock pożyczki na dowód tylko umowa ustna pożyczki pieniędzy placówki kredyt banku w warszawie szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez prowizji kredyt samochodowy bez bik big krd odsetki od pożyczki przychodem podatkowym kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek pożyczki prywatne radomsko pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców mazowieckie kredyt bank katowice kościuszki mini pożyczki trudne pozyczki poznan banki kredyty dla firm kredyt bez bik i krd zielona góra proximus pozyczki kredyt bank wąwozowa kredyt bank koszalin kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pko bp sprzedaż wierzytelności z tytułu pożyczki kredyty chwilówki stargard szczeciński kredyt bank prabuty kontakt pożyczki golden odsetki od pożyczki udziałowców obligacje narodowej pożyczki rozwoju sił polski drugi kredyt w tym samym banku forum banki kredyty ekologiczne umorzenie pożyczki cit pożyczki bez bik w radomiu umowa pożyczki od udziałowca a pcc szybki kredyt bez bik na dowod pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs pożyczki na oświadczenie kraków kredyty bankowe bibliografia kredyt bank bz pożyczki bez bik zaświadczeń kredyt samochodowy getin bank forum kredyt bank piotrków trybunalski godziny otwarcia szybkie kredyty bez bik i krd oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w eurobanku konto księgowe pożyczki bankomaty kredyt bank stargard dokumentacja podatkowa pożyczki wzór skarabeusz pożyczki krosno kredyt konsolidacyjny ile procent kredyty chwilówki szczecin krzywoustego pożyczki prywatne śląskie pożyczki z obsługą domową w jakim banku kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyty bez bik cała polska umowa pożyczki od wspólnika spółki z o o kod na kredyt w orange go wniosek o kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyty chwilówki wrocław opinie firma bocian pożyczki przedawnienie niespłaconej pożyczki odznaka pożyczki narodowej 1933 kredyt bank kupiony kredyt bank kontakt centrala pożyczki bez bik 24 kredyt samochodowy santander consumer bank kredyt bank lublin centrala pożyczki provident oprocentowanie kredyt bank limit dzienny kredyt bank sa adres wzór umowy pożyczki weksel pko kredyt mieszkaniowy forum kredyt bankowy na mieszkanie kredyty chwilówki bytom ul jagiellońska kredyt bez bik do domu pożyczki pułtusk kredyty chwilówki w 15 minut pożyczki bocian rzeszów udzielać pożyczki pożyczki online bez biku kredyt bez bik żory najtańszy kredyt w którym banku pozyczka oddłużeniowa na spłatę komornika pożyczki ok kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank opinie getin bank warunki ubezpieczenia kredytu szybkie pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kredyt konsolidacyjny gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny zabrze kredyt konsolidacyjny bez ubezpieczenia pozyczka 70000 bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw olkusz pożyczki gotówkowe toruń kredyt bank dabie kredyt na mieszkanie jaki bank forum kredyt bank wyplaty z bankomatu pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej i bik pozyczka na firme bez baz poznan kredyty mieszkaniowe dla osob pracujacych za granica kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pekao sa kredyt bank ostrow wlkp godziny otwarcia kredyt w nordea banku pożyczka dla zadłużonych w big puławy kredyty mieszkaniowe wrzesień 2012 pożyczki bez bik w olsztynie umorzenie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs idea bank kredyty online umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki księgowanie pożyczki od ręki toruń kredyt bank walcz pożyczki chwilówki chełm kredyt bank direct pcc od pożyczki wspólnika spółki jawnej kredyty bez bik mława pożyczki prywatne głogów potwierdzenie salda pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy wkład własny kalkulator drugi kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy włocławek oblicz kredyt samochodowy santander kredyt bank belgia kredyt bank wodzisław kredyt bank koszalin bankomaty kredyt bank tarnów lwowska pozyczki bez bik i krd w domu klienta ruda slaska kredyt bank augustów kontakt pożyczki jednostek samorządu terytorialnego pozyczki na dowod ketrzyn pożyczki olsztyn bez bik kredyt bank warszawa książkowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank olsztyn piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia pozyczki lubin kredyt studencki pko legitymacja kredyty chwilówki płock kwiatka kredyt bank bz wbk santander kredyty konsolidacyjne pozabankowe kredyty chwilówki tychy fabryczna 5 pożyczki chwilówki przez telefon kredyt bank racibórz kredyt bez bik bochnia pozyczki pod weksel olkusz pożyczki udzielane z budżetu państwa są pożyczki bez biku dla rolników pożyczki katowice ul moniuszki 7 kredyt bank radom traugutta najnowsze pożyczki chwilówki online pożyczki bez bik kasiora kredyty w nordea bank kredyt bez bik krd online pozyczka bez big w domu klienta wołow pożyczki ratunkowe kredyt chwilówka warunki kredyty chwilówki jakie oprocentowanie pożyczka 6000 bez infomonitora umowa pożyczki może być zawarta w dowolnej formie marr pożyczki dla firm warunki otrzymania kredytu konsolidacyjnego wbk koszty notarialne umowy pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny zadłużonych w zusie i w bankach wzór umowy pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki prywatne cała polska pożyczki brodnica kredyt bank lublin narutowicza kredyt na orange kod kredyt studencki warunki otrzymania czy skarabeusz pożyczki obsługuje kielce kredyty mieszkaniowe koszty pozyczka z obsluga w domu warszaw pt wygodne pożyczki opinie kredyt bank widok skierniewice pożyczki chwilówki rzeszów kredyty bez bik i krd olsztyn kredyt bez biku szczecinek pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bez bik bez dochodu kredyt bankowy jako źródło finansowania inwestycji skarabeusz pożyczki gotówkowe opinie kredyt bank w lubartowie pożyczki pod zastaw krosno umowa pożyczki notarialna pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości legnica kredyt bez bik jaworzno pożyczki pozabankowe bez providenta pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń skarabeusz kredyt bez bankowego rejestru pożyczki bez bik do 2000 zł kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kredytowa forum oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej opodatkowanie otrzymanych odsetek od pożyczki 2012 kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen o zarobkach kredyt bank leasing aukcje kredyty chwilówki lubin oferia pożyczki obligacje pożyczki narodowej 1934 kredyt bez bik zaswiadczen presto pożyczki wniosek kredyt samo hodowy bez bik kredyt w banku z bik getin noble bank spłata kredytu pożyczki wołomin kredyt bank włocławek godziny otwarcia kredyt bank iii oddział wrocław getin bank kredyt inwestycyjny oprocentowanie szczecin bank bos czas oczekiwania na kredytdla singli najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bez bik getin noble bank kredyt mieszkaniowy prywatne pożyczki lubań kredyt studencki bank pko bp kredyt bank wycena kredyt bez bik 10 000 w bielsku białej pozyczka na konto bez przelewania grosza kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen przez internet kredyt bank rzecznik pożyczki międzybankowe szybki kredyt pozabankowy kredyt mieszkaniowy bps kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator skok stefczyka kredyt chwilówki opole kraków pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank dekabrystów częstochowa firmy splacajace pozyczki niebankowe jastrzebie zdroj kredyty gotówkowe bez bik wrocław umowa zawarcia pożyczki wzór kredyt bank jarosław godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilowki krakow kalwaryjska kredyt bank zgłoszenie zagubienia karty kredyt na dowod od reki kalkulator pożyczki lukas bank pożyczki chwilówki płońsk umowa pożyczki jak się zabezpieczyć grupa inwestorska pożyczki społecznościowe kredyt bank zmiana pinu karty kredyty bez biku olsztyn umowa pożyczki z członkiem zarządu wzór kredyt bank częstochowa al nmp kredyt bank oddziały szybkie i tanie pożyczki przez internet szybkie pożyczki online bez bik i krd my banq pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe artykuł pożyczki przez internet lista umowa pożyczki referat kredyt bez biku na oświadczenie kredyty chwilówki siedlce gdzie najlepiej wziasc kredyt na oswiadczenie 2014 kredyt bez bik i zaświadczenia o zarobkach ogłoszenia pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt chwilówka prudnik kredyt bank sa warszawa adres pożyczki dla studentów i absolwentów umorzenie pożyczki w walucie obcej bocian pożyczki turek kredyt bank żagiel orange kody kredyt kredyt bank 2 oddział wrocław getin noble bank zdrowy kredyt udziele szybkiej pozyczki prywatnej zywiec pożyczki pozabankowe będzin profinet pożyczki opinie pożyczki na 90 dni kredyty chwilówki kadry kredyt bank ruczaj kredyt bank wzór zaświadczenia pożyczki pozabankowe na zakup samochodu preferencyjne pożyczki dla firm pożyczki bez biku kraków umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki skutki podatkowe kredyt bez biku na oświadczenie umowa pozyczki wzor pożyczka w domu klienta śląsk kredyt bankowy przedawnienie kredyt samochodowy w mbanku opinie kredyt bank lokaty listopad 2012 pko kredyt bez bik

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad