kredyt w eurobank opinie wydanie pożyczki nie oddaje pożyczki kredyty w banku millennium pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej szczecin pozyczkipod zastaw auta minsk maz eurobank pożyczki opinie kredyt bank warszawa dział windykacji asper pozyczki forum kredyt samochodowy w jakim banku najlepiej pozyczki prywatne wrocław pożyczki od rodziny kredyty bez bik tarnów kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp symulacja pożyczki na dowód debica umowa pożyczki forma kredyty chwilówki poznań 23 lutego spłata pożyczki osobie fizycznej kredyt bankowy sciaga kredyty mieszkaniowe forum 2013 kredyt bank warszawa krs zarabianie na pożyczkach pożyczki chwilówki kluczbork złe kredyty w działalności banków wszystkie pożyczki przez internet pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach przez internet pożyczki unijne na otwarcie działalności pożyczki chwilówki ostróda ranking kredytów samochodowych marzec 2013 zaciągnięcie kredytu bankowego jest operacją pożyczki bez bik ostróda pożyczki na dowód przasnysz pożyczki podobne do kokos kredyt bez bik na kilka miesiecy kredyt konsolidacyjny ge money bank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt bank w kołobrzegu kredyt bank żyrardów kontakt pożyczki na dowód inowrocław pożyczki i kredyty dla osób w bik i z komornikiem pozyczka na dowod bez zaswiadczen przez internet bocian umowa pożyczki wzór pieniędzy pt wygodne pożyczki opinie pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt lokatorski umowa pożyczki bez potwierdzenia odbioru kwoty kredyt bank opłaty za przelewy pożyczki prywatne z dostawą do domu kredyt pozabankowy gliwice kredyt bankowy książki chomikuj kredyty chwilówki bez bik i krd online kredyt na mieszkanie mbank kredyty chwilówki samochody kredyt bank żytnia 15 kredyt bank zolnierska olsztyn kredyt studencki bz wbk 2013 bocian pożyczkisanokkontakt kredyt bank giżycko kontakt kredyty chwilówki wonga pożyczki online od 18 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny po angielsku pożyczki chwilówki sokołów podlaski pożyczki na procent warszawa look pozyczki i podobne prodomo pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki chełmno kredyt bankowy z premią termomodernizacyjną kredyt bez bik mbank kredyt bank wypowiedzenie umowy ubezpieczenia kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk bank zachodni kredyty chwilowki w lodzi kredyt dla firm bez bik us zus pożyczki gotówkowe na poczcie szygula kredyt bankowy wydanie pożyczki lichwiarskie łódź eurocash pożyczki chwilówki żyrafa pożyczki pl www pl a kredyty chwilówki bez bik kredyt bank warszawa wawer kredyt pelikan z bik i krd kredyt bank sandomierz kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe śląsk kredyt studencki warunki pko kredyt bank rodzina na swoim kod kredyt w orange kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk opinie lendon pożyczki opinie pożyczki od rodziny podatek kredyt konsolidacyjny w db kredyt opinie pozyczki dla pracujacych w czechach pożyczki łuków pożyczki lichwiarskie łódź pożyczki na raty tygodniowe pożyczki gotówkowe krd kredyt przez internet na mieszkanie pożyczki prywatne holandia umowa pożyczki prawo bankowe pożyczki za 1 grosz kredyt mieszkaniowy marzec 2012 pozyczka dla pracujących na czarno bez bik wawa odsetki od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego gdzie najłatwiej o kredyt bez bik bankomaty kredyt bank łomża pożyczki bez bik na rok kredyt bank w ostrowi mazowieckiej obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki kalkulator optima kredyty warszawa jak dostac kredyt bez biku w jakim banku najlatwiej wziasc kredyt kredyty bez bik od dłuż kredyt w uk kalkulator gros pożyczki poznań przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki nowe pozyczki chwilówki bez bik kredyt bez bik 35000 pożyczki warszawa bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank otwock staszica pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik poznań umowa pożyczki spłata w ratach pożyczki pozabankowe w toruniu kredyty chwilowki lomza finan pożyczki kontakt pożyczki bez bik od 18 lat pozyczki chwilowki na dowow osobisty walbrzych kredyt w alior banku forum kredyt bank w gorzowie kredyt konsolidacyjny rio kredyt bez bik 5 tys pożyczki chwilówki ełk w jakim banku brać kredyt rodzina na swoim optima pożyczki toruń kredyt bez biku bez zaswiadczen w jakim banku najłatwiej o kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki nieoprocentowanej pożyczki przez internet lista firm ewidencja pożyczki udzielonej kredyty bankowe to konto pożyczki wewnątrzgrupowe kredyty chwilowki bez zaswiadczen pro domo pożyczki opinie kredyt bez bik i krd wzór wniosku o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp ksawer pożyczki ewidencja pożyczki z zfśs opodatkowanie umów pożyczki kredyt bank ostroleka godziny otwarcia leszno pożyczki bez bik pozyczka bez wykazywania dochodów pożyczki pod zastaw kielce pozyczki bez bik boleslawiec pozyczki bocian kontakt sroda wlkp pożyczki oświecim szybki kredyt bez biku i krd kredyt bank warszawa placówki kredyt bank poleasingowe kredyt bank w leborku wyłudzenie pożyczki kk kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank bph umowa pożyczki odstąpienie pożyczki internetowe opinie umowa pożyczki pcc a vat obligacje narodowej pożyczki rozwoju sił polski szybkie pożyczki bez bik łódź pozyczka bez big w domu klienta kredyty chwilówki głogów umowa pożyczki cywilnej pożyczki prywatne legnica pożyczki pod zastaw zgierz pożyczki kredyty na dowód kredyt bank dane do przelewu kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złą historią kredyt bank centrum handlowe warszawa kredyt w raiffeisen bank pożyczki kraśnik pożyczki chwilówki bez bik warszawa kredyt bank warszawa arkadia kredyty chwilówki wolbrom przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki ekspres kasa kalkulator pożyczki gofin umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wniosek profil aktywny kredyt bank pożyczki chwilówki tarnów prolongata pożyczki pekao sa szybkie pożyczki przez internet na raty kredyt studencki pko zasady kredyty chwilowki walbrzych kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator rat pożyczki pozabankowe koło kredyt bank program systematycznego oszczędzania pożyczki bez bik w warszawie kredyt bank notowania akcji kredyt konsolidacyjny w kredyt bank odsetki od pożyczki wyliczenie kredyt samochodowy deutsche bank kalkulator kredyt bank w janowie lubelskim pożyczki pozabankowe na telefon umorzenie pożyczki po angielsku neobank pożyczka bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny co oznacza kredyty w getin banku kredyt mieszkaniowy powyżej 100 kredyt bez bik skierniewice pozyczki dla zadluzonych przez telefon kredyt w multibanku kredyt bank w świnoujściu prywatne pożyczki dla rolników kredyt z chwilówki pożyczki akcess pożyczki ratalne pożyczki prywatne lębork kredyt samochodowy mbank opinie kredyty bez bik płock umowa pożyczki a podatek vat pożyczki atut wyliczanie odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bez bik który bank pożyczki pozabankowe we wrocławiu kredyty chwilówki w bełchatowie pożyczki bezzwrotne z urzędu pracy kredyt konsolidacyjny sgb kredyt bank oplaty prowizje kredyt bank w łowiczu pożyczki bez bik banki szybkie pożyczki przez internet opinie szybkie pożyczki bez bik udziele pożyczki prywatnie łódź kredyty bez bik rybnik wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw prywatne pożyczki rybnik kredyty chwilówki kraków ul długa pożyczki bez bik trójmiasto kredyt samochodowy na firmę dokumenty umowa pożyczki ze wspólnikiem spółki umowa pożyczki dla spółki od wspólnika wzór umowa pożyczki pieniędzy prywatnie kredyty chwilówki łuków idea bank opinie kredyt na start kredyt bank olsztyn aura kredyty bez bik i krd poznań kredyt bank aleje marcinkowskiego poznań szybkie pożyczki bez bik kielce lublin mafia pozyczki kredyt bez bik sochaczew szybka pozyczka 15 tysięcy karty kredytowe dla osob z komornikiem pożyczki cywilno prawne pożyczki gotówkowe bez dochodów pożyczki przez internet bez big bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez bik suwałki pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na raty oświadczenie o udzieleniu pożyczki betgang pożyczka umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór pdf kredyt gotówkowy w banku pko sa kredyt w ror bank pocztowy kredyt bank 2 oddział wrocław pozyczki inwestor prywatne odsetki karne od pożyczki bank żubr gliwice pożyczka bocian pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank godziny otwarcia czestochowa kredyty bez biku z komornikiem kredyt na samochod bez bik prywatny warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klijenta swidnica wzór umowy pożyczki dla syna vivus spłata pożyczki placówki kredyt banku poznań pożyczka z komornikiem bank pocztowy pozyczka pod zastaw kredyt konsolidacyjny który bank przeniesienie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kredyt konsolidacyjny w lloyds kredyt bank niepodległości świdnik pożyczki 10000 zł kredyty bez bik i krd warszawa umowa pożyczki pieniędzy spłata w ratach kredyt bank bfg kredyt bank grójecka godziny otwarcia umowa pozyczki pomiedzy matka a corka kredyt bank białystok zwycięstwa pożyczki 20 000 kredyty gotówkowe dla firm bez bik nowy kredyt pozabankowy podatek od pożyczki czynny żal pożyczki bocian w kaliszu kredyt pozabankowy lodz grupa inwestorska pożyczki społecznościowe szybki kredyt samochodowy bez bik kredyt bez bik toruń pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeńpoznan kredyt w banku bgż opinie pozyczki online bez przelewu na jaki numer wysyła sie kredyt w orange kredyt studencki pko sa regulamin bank bph kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie extra kasa pożyczki daily pożyczki potrzebuję pożyczki wrocław kredyt na mieszkanie w banku bph czy w pozyczce bocian udzielaja kredytu na24 miesiace kredyt w banku przez internet kredyty bez bik samochodowe w ktorym banku najtanszy kredyt bocian pożyczki bielsko biała kredyt bank twardzickiego bydgoszcz pożyczki ksu pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa bez bik jakie banki w stargardzie udzielaja kredyty kredyt bank w krośnie pożyczki pozabankowe dobre miasto kredyt bez bik optima pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd kredyt bank przedłużona gwarancja kredyt bez zaświadczenia o dochodach forum pożyczki pozabankowe duze kwoty kredyty pozabankowe do 20000 pożyczki pozabankowe żagań kredyt bank w rzeszowie kredyt bez bik pruszków pożyczki do domu białystok pożyczki ze środków obrotowych pożyczki 3000 pożyczki gniezno pożyczki z zakładu pracy kredyt bez bik 30000 kredyty konsolidacyjne lublin kredyty bez bik zielona góra kredyt gotówkowy w lukas banku pożyczki prywatne giełda kredyt w banku gdzie najlepiej kredyt bank popularna kredyt bank grójecka godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny bez małżonka pożyczki na telefon opinie nowak pożyczki głogówek szybka pożyczka 20tysięcy obsługa w domu pożyczki od ludzi umowa pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym pożyczka bez bik na samochód kredyt odnawialny w banku pekao sa kredyt w eurobanku dla emeryta kredyt bank karmelicka kredyt bank biała podlaska pożyczki chwilówki sms kredyt bank zespół zajęć komorniczych kredyty chwilówki gowork pożyczki bez bik śląskie kredyty chwilówki zarabiaj z nami opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na czas określony pożyczki dla firm bez bik zaświadczeń pożyczki nowe kredyty chwilówki rzeszów plac wolności umowa pożyczki osób prywatnych mariusz kowalski kredyty bydgoszcz bocian pozyczki swiebodzin pożyczki bez przelewu na konto kredyt bank lezajsk pożyczki na rok przez internet pozyczka jak provident bez big kredyt konsolidacyjny bez biku kredyt bank nowy sącz aleje kredyty chwilówki przemyśl kredyt bank zagiel nowe pozyczki udzielane w domu lublin kredyt w skok stefczyka opinie anulowanie pożyczki pewne pożyczki dla każdego kredyt bez bik i krd poznań pożyczki bank pko kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku kalkulator pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej szczecin tani kredyt bez biku wydanie przedmiotu pożyczki kredyt bez biku inowrocław pożyczki prywatne mazowieckie kredyt bank dąbrowskiego 129 pożyczki tax care opinie pożyczki gotówkowe szczecin dcf pożyczki wysoka prezyznawalnośc pozyczek konsolidacyjnych kredyt bank lublin zana 38 d kredyt konsolidacyjny dla kogo pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu lubuskie dyskonto pożyczki bocian pożyczki logo kredyt konsolidacyjny promocja chwilówki i pożyczki pozabankowe w starachowicach witam kredyt bez bik i krd kredyt bankowy słownik przedłużenie pożyczki vivus spłata pożyczki walutowej w złotówkach kredyt bank konsolidacyjny ewidencja księgowa pożyczki z bgk pożyczki z anglii pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kraków pożyczki ala provident pożyczki na dowód zakopane oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy kredyt bank wzór zaświadczenia wzór umowy pożyczki od brata optima pozyczka z obsluga w domu sanok i okolice jak udzielać pożyczki pożyczki ozorków sulechow pozyczki bez zaswiadczen z doreczeniem do domu kredyt bank godziny otwarcia radlin kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik forum kredyt bank godziny otwarcia poznań kredyty bez bik erif krd santander kredyt samochodowy prowizja kredyty bez bik olsztyn kredyt bank aktywowanie karty pożyczki w 15 minut na koncie kredyty chwilowki olawa praca w pozyczkach ostrowwlkp pożyczki w domu klieta kołobrzeg pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń przez internet pożyczki z funduszu rozwoju przedsiębiorczości bocian pożyczki inowrocław jak wyglądają pożyczki w providencie bocian pożyczki z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank forum kredyt na samochód używany bez bik kredyt studencki porównanie banków znaczenie kredytów w działalności banku umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki księgowanie oprocentowanie pożyczki w getin banku kredyt przez telefon bez peselu flisak pożyczki kontakt kredyty pozabankowe piekary slaskie zabezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej wekslem pożyczki w anglii forum kredyty chwilówki poznań 23 lutego cienka kapitalizacja pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez ubezpieczenia szybkie pożyczki kołobrzeg umowa pożyczki odstąpienie prodomo pożyczki forum kredyt bank janów umowa pożyczki w rodzinie druk pożyczki kredyt bank nr telefonu pożyczki gotówkowe tczew kredyty w aktywach banku szybki kredyt bez biku i krd przez internet kredyt bank skok polisa pożyczki getin bank warunki kredytu gotówkowego kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku opinie pożyczki prywatne mińsk mazowiecki kredyt studencki w wbk pożyczki od udziałowców księgowanie pożyczki biłgoraj pożyczki w domu klienta głogów pożyczki bezzwrotne dla młodych rolników kredyty chwilówki kamienna góra kredyty chwilówki kafeteria kredyt bank kabaty lubin pożyczki pozabankowe kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej w ing pożyczki w kasynach kredyty konsolidacyjne trudne umowa pożyczki a umowa użyczenia assa pożyczki kredyt do orange kod kredyt bank godziny pracy pelikan pożyczki umowa pożyczki dla udziałowca wzór kredyt pozabankowy na pit pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kraków szybki kredyt dla firmy bez bik umowa cesji pożyczki wzór asper pozyczki lodz kredyty chwilówki dla kogo kredyty bankowe pdf kredyt bank reklama ojciec chrzestny kredyt na dowód bez zaświadczeń forum umowa pożyczki pieniędzy między firmami kredyty gotówkowe alior bank kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowe na telefon pożyczka na dowód w pro domo nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt samochodowy bez bik wrocław odsetki od pożyczki a przychód pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń bydgoszcz kredyt bank wielicka kraków godziny otwarcia mikro pożyczki zamiast dotacji kredyt na dowód bank pocztowy bocian pożyczki jelenia góra kredyty chwilówki ostrów wielkopolski kredyty konsolidacyjny w2014 r optima pożyczki przez internet kredyt samochodowy w deutsche bank koszt przelewu z karty kredytowej pko bp pożyczki bez bik w suwałkach kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie ofert banków chwilówki i pożyczki gotówkowe firmy eurocent pożyczki chwilówki przez internet uk najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny na rynku pro domo pożyczki kołobrzeg pożyczki chwilówki przez internet pozabankowe dorota król pożyczki kredyt bank elektroniczny

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad