umowa kredytu w prawie rzymskim nadpłata pożyczki ing kredyt pozabankowy 20 tys kredyty chwilówki nowy sącz kredyt bez bik na splate komornika ubezpieczenie pożyczki obowiązkowe pożyczki bez sprawdzania bik i big pozyczki z funduszu dla zadluzonych bez baz ostatni przelew w kredyt banku kredyt bank pila sikorskiego santander consumer bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bank powstancow slaskich warszawa szybkie pożyczki bez bik bankomaty kredyt banku w krakowie kredyt bank aktualności kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochody z zagranicy kredyt bank ostrołęka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank spółdzielczy wschowa wrocław pożyczki prywatne fundacja kredyt banku kontakt pożyczki dla firm bez dochodu ogłoszenia pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank oddział w toruniu kredyt dla nowych firm idea bank opinie pożyczka bez zaświadczeń o dochodach przez internet reklama pożyczki vivus kredyt hipoteczny bez zaświadczeń oswiecim kredyt bank mickiewicza potrącenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt gotówkowy w banku wbk kredyt bank dział windykacji lublin kredyt bank logo eps kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania wrocław provident pożyczki online pożyczki spłacane tygodniowo częstochowa bocian pozyczki walbrzych pożyczki ratunkowe opole kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole kredyty i pożyczki krótkoterminowe w bilansie prodomo pożyczki nowe mia czy niespłacony kredyt w banku ulega przedawnieniu pozyczki chwilowki prywatne mielec kredyty chwilowki swidnica kredyt bank aktywacja listy haseł umowa pożyczki dla wspólnika w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki od ręki poznań pożyczki money kredyt konsolidacyjny fortis bank kredyty chwilówki tychy ul fabryczna 12 kredyt do reki warszawa umowa pożyczki po angielsku wzór umowa pożyczki pięniędzy pożyczki porównanie kredyt mieszkaniowy przed ślubem a rozwód citi handlowy pożyczki kredyt bank w przeworsku godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla mających komornika biz pożyczki wierzyciel pożyczki bez bik wcześniejsza spłata kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyt bank piła sikorskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank grodzka kredyt bank gowork pożyczki warszawa jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki wzór kredyty bez bik w lesznie kredyt bank lubartów telefon umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie umowa pożyczki nieodpłatna kredyty bankowe dla msp umowa ustna pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pekao oprocentowanie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca prywatne pożyczki na weksel alior bank kredyt internetowy kredyt bank w pelplinie szybkie pożyczki pierwsza za darmo getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyty samochodowe fax getin bank kredyt z bik alior bank kredyt umowa zlecenie kredyt bank stargard telefon kredyty bankowe wady i zalety banki pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki krecik kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy oprocentowanie szybkie pozyczki w domu pożyczki na oświadczenie dla firm kredyt prostoliczony śmierć pożyczki pozabankowe ruda śląska kredyt bank lublin zana zarejestrowanie umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym pożyczki warszawa szybkie pożyczki przez internet w 15 minut kredyt w banku spółdzielczym oprocentowanie kredyty chwilówki kasprowicza kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt bank gdańsk grunwaldzka godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez dochodu na dowód pożyczki prywatne w warszawie kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank kredyt bank rzecznik warszawa pożyczki prywatne umowa pożyczki deklaracja pcc kredyty pozabankowe pomorskie kredyt bank legnica mickiewicza pożyczki długoterminowe online kredyt bank police godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki racibórz umowa pożyczki a skutki podatkowe kredyt bank warszawa mokotowska kredyt dla firm w fm banku pożyczki piła pożyczki pod zastaw rtv kraków pożyczki cashper opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander pożyczki citibank kredyt chwilówka bocian kredyty chwilówki chorzów kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm zadłużonych kredyt bank karty kredytowe mikropożyczki dla firm wrocław mikropożyczki bangladesz kredyty pozabankowe kalkulator pożyczki dla niepełnoletnich pożyczki dla osób z komornikiem poznań nowe pozyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny licznik pożyczki dla mundurowych pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń o dochodach gross capital pożyczki pożyczki internetowe pozyczki do reki od 18lat w lesznie eurofin pożyczki kredyt studencki pko poręczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy mbank kredyt bank ii oddział warszawa udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę osobie fizycznej kredyt studencki pko bp wcześniejsza spłata w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy forum przewalutowanie pożyczki kredyt bank zastrzeżenie dokumentów magdalena lis pożyczki szukam pożyczki pozabankowej prywatnej kredyt w bos banku opinie kredyt bank radom pożyczki dla pracowników pożyczki bogatynia umowa pożyczki chwilówka pożyczki włodawa kredyt bank bydgoszcz gdańska 42 godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wbk kredyt kielce prowizji kredyt bank warszawa godziny przedawnienie pożyczki w providencie kredyt uk forum kredyt bank jastrowie godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik radom kredyty bez biku lodz czy łatwo dostać kredyt w getin banku kredyt bank lwowska chełm wycena bilansowa pożyczki w walucie szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz pożyczki bez erif, zdunska wola kredyt pod zastaw samochodu kredyty pozabankowe bez bik z komornikiem getin noble bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank koszalin kontakt kredyty bez bik i krd wrocław pożyczki piła godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w markach kredyty chwilówki zakopane pozyczki w domu klienta na dowod pożyczki bez bik i krd sosnowiec pożyczki podobne jak bocian kruk pozyczki dla zadluzonych kredyt bank adres do korespondencji pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń bydgoszcz pożyczki w domu klienta lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny długi okres spłaty kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pko bp pożyczki chwilówki na dowód lublin kredyt konsolidacyjny bank śląski wycena pożyczki według skorygowanej ceny nabycia kredyt bank piotrków godziny otwarcia pożyczki kraków bez bik kredyty pozabankowe pozyczki pozabankowe pszczyna od 18 lat kredyty bez biku rybnik pismo z prośbą o umorzenie pożyczki z fśs kredyt bank w tychach pożyczki na procent poznań w ktorym banku nalepiej brac pozyczke na samochod umowa pożyczki przelew kredyt bez bik na telefon pożyczki online bez bik kredyt pozabankowy kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe standard pożyczki na dowód pozabankowe oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank bph umowa pożyczki w kodeksie cywilnym kredyt bank raporty bieżące referat kredyty kredyty chwilówki nowy sącz lwowska tragedia w kredyt banku kredyty bez bik olsztyn pożyczki bezpłatne kredyt bank sa lublin zana kredyty bankowe i pozabankowe kalwaryjska krakow bank pekao sa kredyty studenckie pożyczki na dowód w poznaniu wniosek o kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior banku przedmiot umowy pożyczki i kredytu kredyt bank jutrzenki kredyt samochodowy ranking styczeń 2014 wycena pożyczki w bilansie gdzie pozyczke bez grosza kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki bez bik i krd łódź koszt pożyczki w providencie pożyczki w domu klienta bez przelewu za groszbydgoszcz pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik przez internet wynagrodzenie w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi wzór umowy o kredyt miedzyfirma a prywatna kredyt bank koło pożyczki bez bik chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny jak go dostać kredyt bez bik i krd kraków kredyt bank łodź bednarska kredyt bank lokata forum kredyty mieszkaniowe dane statystyczne kredyt bank w pszowie kredyty gotówkowe pozabankowe wrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy karta podatkowa kredyty bez bik pod zastaw samochodu pozyczki bez bik chelmno kredyt w banku bgż opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy starego portfela darmowe bankomaty w kredyt banku kredyt chwilówka warunki firmy dajace pozyczki zadluzonym u komornika pozyczki victoria pozyczki od osob rywatnych w zorach kredyt bank lokaty lipiec 2012 pozyczki na procent plock kredyty bez biku online kredyt bank w żyrardowie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy gofin pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla prokuratorów kredyt studencki pekao sa opinie turbo expres pożyczki pożyczki do domu optima pożyczki całkowicie przez internet argentum capital pożyczki pcc od pożyczki udzielonej spółce przez udziałowca pożyczki fines kredyt bank zachodniopomorskie kredyt bank pionki kredyt dla firm idea bank opinie pozyczki w uk po polsku kredyt konsolidacyjny na angielskie zarobki kredyty chwilówki proszę o pomoc amortyzacja pożyczki excel wzór umowy pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator w jakim banku wziasc kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt odnawialny w banku pko bp pożyczki pozabankowe biała podlaska kredyt bank zmienia właściciela przedawnienie umowy pożyczki duomax pożyczki kredyt odnawialny w millenium bank pożyczki pod zastaw kęty umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a prawną kredyt w pko bp opinie 2012 kredyt na dowód bez zaświadczeń bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw auta łódź udzielam pożyczki kredyt na mieszkanie ranking banków pożyczki udzielone przez polskę kredyt bank gdańsk godziny otwarcia sobota w jakim banku opłaca się wziąć kredyt gotówkowy umowa pożyczki a kredyt konsumencki pożyczki trzydziestki pożyczki lubin kredyt w banku a bik kredyt w banku żubr oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej alior bank kredyt bank zytnia 15 potrzebuje pinie pożyczki u prywatnej osoby krakow kredyt konsolidacyjny w lloyds kredyty bez biku leszno pozyczki 18lat bialystok kredyt studencki na mieszkanie lukas bank kredyt bank otwock praca prawo cywilne pożyczki kredyt bank długa kredyt bank lwowska kredyt dla młodych małżeństw forum santander consumer bank kredyty konsolidacyjne ustna umowa pożyczki w rodzinie umowa pożyczki wezwanie do zapłaty kredyt chwilówka oleśnica kredyt bank grójecka 45 godziny otwarcia wycena pożyczki wg zamortyzowanego kosztu warunki otrzymania pożyczki w pko skarabeusz pożyczki czestochowa pożyczki dla górników weksel pożyczki wzór kredyt bank poznań kredyt bank tfi kredyt samochodowy bez bik rzeszów pożyczki społecznościowe uk umowa pożyczki art umowa pożyczki profi credit umowa pożyczki 777 kredyt bank mława kontakt oblicz kredyt w credit agricole ciągnienie pożyczki umowa pożyczki kiedy pcc na jaki numer kredyt w orange bocian pożyczki praca opinie kredyt chwilówki kraków banki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt pozabankowy na kupno domu kredyty bez komornika biku pożyczki chwilówki zgorzelec kredyt online idea bank oblicz kredyt w credit agricole skarabeusz pozyczka do jakiej kwoty kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2014 kredyt gotówkowy lukas bank kalkulator kredyt pozabankowy olsztyn pozyczka z funduszu bez baz pożyczki bez bik cieszyn ahead pożyczki kredyt bez bik i krd zielona góra odsetki od pożyczki deklaracja kredyty chwilówki kozienice pożyczki pod zastaw żywiec kredyty chwilówki program partnerski kredyt bank poznań pożyczki pozabankowe profi credit refinansowanie pożyczki kredyt bank jak aktywować kartę czy bank stanfader udziela kredytow bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy stałe oprocentowanie kredyt bez biku nowy sącz kredyt samochodowy dla nowo otwartych firm jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki w skali roku gdzie kredyt samochodowy bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy z komornikiem księgowanie pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie kredyt studencki pko legitymacja bez biku kredyty oddłużeniowe konsolidacja pozyczka pod zastaw samochodu bez wyciągu kredyt konsolidacyjny dodatkowa gotówka kredyt bank w zielonej górze pożyczki na dowód bez bik łódź pożyczki prywatne śląskie kredyt mieszkaniowy w getin banku opinie kredyt bez bik dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank wąwozowa pożyczki 48h kredyty pozyczki bez biku kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacja kredyt w banku brodnickim wartość bilansowa pożyczki kredyt samochodowy fortis bank pożyczki pod zastaw rzeszów pożyczki z funduszu europejskiego pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów śląsk kredyt dla bedacych w bik katowice kredyt bank m1 kraków kontakt kredyt bank druki zaświadczeń kredyt bank żytnia 15 kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe opłaty kredyty bez bik słupsk kredyt samochodowy santander forum najtańszy kredyt w banku szybka pozyczka kwidzyn bank pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw kredyty chwilówki brzeg na jaki numer bierze sie kredyt w orange kredyty bez bik wałbrzych kredyty w alior bank forum kredyt bank zielona góra godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla zadłużonych forum wzór umowy o pożyczkę w zastaw kredyt bank gwarancje skarbu państwa uni cash pożyczki pożyczki w bedford kredyt bank końskie kontakt pożyczki na weksel kraków pozyczki w uk po polsku zopa kredyt bez biku dla zadłuzonych kredyt studencki oprocentowanie 2012 najkorzystniejsze pożyczki bankowe umowa pożyczki na czas nieokreślony kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank piła pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat pożyczki bez bik otwock kredyt bank piła telefon udzielanie pożyczki a vat kredyt bank rumia godz otwarcia kredyt na wyciag bankowy kredyt prostoliczony credit agricole kalkulator pożyczki starogard gdański kredyt bank lokaty negocjowane pożyczki prywatne opole kredyty mieszkaniowe porównanie ofert pro domo pozyczki grudziadz tfad pożyczki jak zaksięgować zaciągnięty kredyt bankowy getin bank oferta pożyczki kredyt bez bik w ing kredyt bank warszawa kabaty nobel za mikropożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny długi okres spłaty banki kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bank w łomiankach kredyt bank warszawa grojecka kredyt bank kradzież karty pożyczki z zakładowego funduszu socjalnego pożyczki pod zastaw sosnowiec kredyt bank sa gorzów wlkp bocian pożyczki ełk kredyt bank w krynicy pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik online odsetki od pożyczki pkwiu kredyt bank forum klientów częstochowa pożyczki bez bik praca w pozyczkach ostrowwlkp pozyczki bez bikikrd kredyty konsolidacyjne ze złą historią kredytową pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości olsztyn kredyt bank otwarcie pożyczki wołomin konsolidacja pożyczki czy kredyt bank ma problemy bocian pożyczki pomorskie lokata kredyt bank opinie pożyczki bez bik w skok kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaswiadczen kredyty bez biku na oswiadczenie pozyczki na procent credit agricole pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki dla osób prowadzących działalność kredyt gotówkowy getin bank kalkulator lisiak przemysław pożyczki pożyczki dla firm z unii europejskiej szybki kredyt bez bik warszawa kredyt getin bank 30000 kredyt bankowy gdzie w bilansie sprawdzone pozyczki prywatne pod weksel umowa pożyczki zastaw wzór kredyt bank leżajsk kontakt pożyczki żyrafa śrem karencja pożyczki kredyt studencki warunki otrzymania astra pożyczki warunki kredytu w getin banku kredyt bez biku bez zaswiadczen pożyczki na dowód podobne do providenta kredyt w banku bph kredyt bez bik szybko pożyczki firmowe bez bik kredyt bank swarzędz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank grunwaldzka rzeszów wszystkie pożyczki przez internet pożyczki dla zadluzonych z zajeciem komorniczym szybkie pożyczki na dowód bydgoszcz kredyt bank leżajsk wniosek kredyt samo hodowy bez bik banki które daja kredyt bez bik cechy pożyczki odróżniające ją od kredytu jaki jest numer zeby wziasc kredyt w orange szybkie pożyczki bez bik big i krd pozyczka online krotkoterminowa dla zadluzonych umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs gofin czy w pozyczce bocian udzielaja kredytu na24 miesiace pożyczki firmy bocian sezam pożyczki krotoszyn pożyczki gotówkowe gorzów pożyczki bankowe przez internet kredyt bez bik provident kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli w pko kredyty chwilówki starogard gdański pożyczki na dowód jaworzno argentum capital pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki grodzisk maz abis pożyczki dla każdego forum pozyczki w domu klijenta jarocin kredyt bank białystok skłodowskiej godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki krotoszyn umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem kredyt bank centrala tel idea bank kredyt na start firmy opinie

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad