kredyt pozabankowy forum rezygnacja z konta bankowego kredyt bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach olsztyn kredyt bank kubusia puchatka udzielę pożyczki prywatnej śląsk kredyt bez bik na konto pożyczki bez sprawdzania krd i bik kredyt bank z siedzibą w warszawie pożyczki gotówkowe wikipedia kredyty pozabankowe bytom pożyczki na które trzeba uważać kredyt bank regulamin kart kredytowych podatek od pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej meritum bank kredyt firmowy opinie kredyt chwilówki żary kredyty w fm banku opinie kredyt bank oswiecim godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez biku łódź ranking kredytów samochodowych dla firm istota kredytu i pożyczki kredyty spolecznosciowe lodz pożyczki bez bik big krd online pożyczki bez bik na dłuższy okres kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie kalkulator kredyt bank kupon 5 pożyczki od osób prywatnych warszawa ekspres kredyt dla firm bez bik us i zus kredyt na samochód w getin banku opinie pożyczki bez bik i krd głogów kredyty chwilówki firma bank bph kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki duże kwoty kredyt konsolidacyjny santander bank kredyt bank piaseczno warszawska 1 kredyt bank bialystok sklodowskiej kredyt bank w nidzicy wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw pożyczki przez internet plus kredyt konsolidacyjny 5 tys kredyt bank wejherowo pozyczki chwilowki natychmiastowe z komornikiem poznan nowe pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bank światowy pożyczki dla polski gross capital pożyczki pozyczka długoterminowa bez bik i krd dla bezrobotnych oprocentowanie pożyczki od udziałowca kredyty chwilówki kluczbork konsolidacja kredytu wbk prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki kredyt w ge money bank pozyczki od 19 lat dla zadluzonych online kredyt bank csr pożyczki de minimis kredyt bank multima kredyt odnawialny bank pko jak dziala pożyczki bez zaświadczeń gdańsk oferta pożyczki pko bp kredyt bank lublin ul zana 39a idea bank kredyt forum szukam pożyczki szczecin kredyt bank warszawa ul zeromskiego kredyt bank augustów godziny otwarcia pozyczki chwilowki bez bik krd od reki zabrze kredyt bank karta do bankomatu pożyczki bez bik na umowe zlecenie alior bank kredyt konsolidacja kredyt orange jaki kod umowa pośrednictwa pożyczki pożyczki gierka kredyt bez bik olsztyn kredyt bank rozana warszawa szybki kredyt bez zaświadczeń bez bik szybkie i tanie pożyczki od ręki olsztyn kredyty chwilówki jak założyć bocian pożyczki katowice kontakt sulechow pozyczki w domu na dowod włocławek pożyczki pod zastaw prodomo pożyczki nowe miasto lubawskie kredyty chwilówki siemianowice slaskie kredyty chwilówki wieluń kredyt bank w nowym targu kredyt ratalny w credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik piła al konstytucji pko bp kredyt dla niepracujacych umowa pożyczki a pcc 2012 bocian pożyczki nowa ruda kredyt mieszkaniowy mieszkanie spółdzielcze udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi księgowanie kod na kredyt w orange na karte kredyt bank placówki partnerskie kredyt na dom pozabankowy kredyt bank bankomaty olsztyn getin bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt samochodowy dla firmy wypowiedzenie kredytu getin bank pożyczka chorzów pożyczki ciechanów pozabankowe kredyty kredyt bank targowa godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zyrantow kredyt bank popularna telefon pożyczki prywatne będzin pożyczki prywatne na zakup nieruchomości kredyty chwilowki ruda slaska pożyczki pod zastaw auta poznań kredyty chwilówki mielec kredyt bank zagiel adres kredyt samochodowy w mbanku forum pożyczki bezzwrotne dla nowych firm mikropożyczki dla polski wschodniej pożyczki chwilówki lubuskie pożyczki w domu częstochowa pożyczki prywatne chorzów kredyt bank warszawa vii oddział banki udzielajace kredytu bez biku bocian pożyczki kalisz kredyt bank bez bik pożyczki konsolidacyjne pko pożyczki bez bik na umowe zlecenie bocian pożyczki siedziba kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy kredyt bez biku w banku pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego w santander pożyczki gotówkowe dla emerytów kredyt bank infolinia z komórki z komornikiem kredyt pożyczki dla zadłużonych katowice warunki pożyczki rodzina na swoim opinie pożyczki provident kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen dla firm pożyczki chwilówki pomorskie pozyczki calodobowe uk online kwota nominalna pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy mieszkanie spółdzielcze kredyt samochodowy raiffeisen bank bankomaty kredyt banku bez prowizji kredyt konsolidacyjny zarobki za granica kredyt bank pila godziny otwarcia marka pożyczki ełk pożyczki w credit agricole pożyczki pod zastaw opole kredyt samochodowy dla żołnierzy kredyt gotówkowy w raiffeisen bank bocian pożyczki leszno kredyty chwilówki historia abis pozyczki chwilowki kontakt telefonizny kredyt samochodowy kalkulator bank pocztowy kredyt bank w zambrowie kredyty bez bik na oświadczenie potwierdzenie zwrotu pożyczki wzór kredyt na samochód bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki na telefon bez bik lublin pożyczki gotówkowe z zajęciem komorniczym szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez krd pożyczki krótkoterminowe chwilówki forum ubezpieczenie pożyczki ing udzielenie pożyczki pkwiu czas oczekiwania na kredyt w credit agricole pozyczki dla kazdego 48 kredyt bank pruszków kontakt pożyczki prywatne chrzanów kredyt bank kołobrzeska gdańsk godziny otwarcia kredyt bank departamenty pożyczki bez bik toruń kredytypożyczki oddłużenia śląskie pożyczki prywatne giełda pożyczki umowa o dzieło bocian pożyczki chojnice pilnie poszukuję pożyczki pożyczki od osob prywatnych tychy kredyt bank krucza godziny otwarcia pożyczki na procent jelenia góra kredyty chwilówki opinia regulamin pożyczki pracowniczej zawieszenie kredytu studenckiego pko bp pozyczki z obsluga w domu lask kredyt bank zagiel lodz przedawnienie pożyczki bankowej umowa pożyczki jeremie bank pko pozyczka na dowod pożyczki na dowód sochaczew rzeszów kasa stefczyka kredyt na umowie zagranicznej kredyt studencki pko żyranci pozyczka oddłużeniowa na spłatę komornika pożyczki od ręki pieniądzie ostrowiec św pozyczki gotuwkoiwe prywatne firmy kredyt mieszkaniowy w którym banku kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank maksymalne oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty chwilówki krzeszowice pożyczki jednostek samorządu terytorialnego pożyczki zagranicznej a pcc kredyt bank królewska kraków godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe gostyń kredyty dla zadłużonych w uk pożyczki bez zaświadczeń leszno getin bank kredyt kontakt pożyczki tuchola ankieta bezpieczeństwa osobowego pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 45 pożyczki typu provident warszawa kredyty mieszkaniowe pojęcie czy umowa pożyczki ulega przedawnieniu kredyt bank w krakowie ul kalwaryjska przedłużenie pożyczki kredyt bank lublin żagiel ul zana umowa pożyczki wzór weksel kredyt samochodowy w mbanku oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego dla firm kredyt bank rodzina na swoim kalkulator kredyty chwilówki pit niespłacanie pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi a zus koszty pożyczki provident kredyty bez bik wieliczka kredyt konsolidacyjny zabrze umowa pożyczki spółka zoo open finance kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe porównanie ofert ubezpieczenie pożyczki pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator alior bank umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs dla emeryta pożyczki co to jest oblicz ratę pożyczki ing mikropożyczki finanse bocian pożyczki zarobki mikropożyczki kielce bocian pożyczki adres pozyczki żary bez zaswiadczenia kredyt w alior banku forum kredyt bank filia krasnystaw umowa pożyczki wzór spłata w ratach deutsche bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki z zadłużeniem komorniczym kredyt konsolidacyjny na oświadczenie o dochodach kredyt w postbank pożyczki preferencyjne dla rolników kredyt bank placówki lublin koszt umowy pożyczki notarialnej kredyt bank piotrków trybunalski godziny otwarcia kredyt pozabankowy na kupno domu nobilon pożyczki opinie kredyt bank janów pożyczki kredyty bez biku pożyczki bez krd i bik pożyczki rzeszów kiedy przedawnia sie kredyt w banku getin bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt pożyczka na dowód od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank piła kontakt kredyt bank włochy kredyt gotówkowy bez bik gliwice kredyt bank rodzaje kont pomysł na biznes pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt studencki warunki wiek kredyt bank gdynia świętojańska godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki termin przedawnienia kredyt bank częstochowa dekabrystów godziny otwarcia opodatkowanie umorzonej pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki piekary poznań chce wziasc 15000 tysiecy kredytu w pko bp pożyczki na dowód osobisty bez zaświadczeń pożyczki chwilówki na dowód poznań kredyt banki mikołów polskie finanse pożyczki kredyt bankowy jego funkcje kredyt bank czas przelewu pożyczki dla firm bez zaświadczeń kredyt w banku bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach pożyczki społecznościowe jak inwestować czy od pożyczki trzeba zapłacić podatek kredyt bank sa nip regon kredyty chwilowki strzegomska pożyczki online bez bik i krd bank bedzin ktory udzieli kredytu na dowod pożyczki chwilówki śląskie kredyt bank departament marketingu pożyczki z zadłużeniem komorniczym pożyczki pomysł na biznes wzór oświadczenia o zwrocie pożyczki pożyczki udzielane w domu klienta kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najkorzystniej kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank forum kredyty mieszkaniowe opinie kredyt bez bik do 50 tys szybkie pożyczki online na dowód kredyt bankowy jego rodzaje kredyt bank wrocław strzegomska pożyczki bez bik do 2000 kredyt bank w raszynie godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki wzór do pobrania elementy umowy kredytowej wg prawa bankowego umowa pożyczki z rodzicami alior bank kredyty studenckie oświadczenie poręczyciela pożyczki prodomo pożyczki podlaskie umowa pożyczki udziałowca wzór konwersja umowy pożyczki obligacyjnej pożyczki społecznościowe bezpieczeństwo pożyczki od ręki bydgoszcz kredyt mieszkaniowy program profit pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt bank vi oddział w warszawie pożyczki kalisz bez bik narutowicza pożyczki od najbliższej rodziny pożyczki lipno alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank główna siedziba prawo bankowe kredyt gotówkowy szybki kredyt pozabankowy przez internet umowa pożyczki gotówka kredyt bank warszawa czynny w sobotę kredyty bez bik w lodzi pożyczki access jak wyglądają pożyczki w providencie kredyt bank żagiel lublin narutowicza kredyt bank rybnik plac wolności pożyczki chwilówki lębork kredyt na dowod olsztyn oprocentowanie pożyczki w credit agricole provident pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank gdansk chalubinskiego kredyt bank kołłątaja szczecin kredyt mieszkaniowy marzec 2012 pożyczki na pit zielona góra pożyczki za gierka commodus pożyczki kredyt bank złotoryja kredyt bez weryfikacji w bik kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank kalkulator pożyczka bez dochodu i komornikiem na reke kredyt rodzina na swoim bank pocztowy kalkulator kredyt bank oddział częstochowa pożyczki bez poręczycieli kredyty pozabankowe atiz kredyt bank katowice altus zarobki w kredyt banku 2012 kredyt bank fundusz global partners pożyczki 30 dniowe kredyt bank adekwatność kapitałowa kredyt bank warszawa abrahama kredyt bank wilanowska prywatne kredyty hipoteczne lodz kredyt bank wbk opinie najtańszy kredyt samochodowy ranking pożyczki chwilówki na dowód bydgoszcz pożyczki prywatne umowa kredyt bank opłaty za prowadzenie konta w jakim banku kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyty bank wbk pożyczki w provident pożyczki bez sprawdzania zdolności kredytowej i bik pożyczki pozabankowe środa wlkp kredyt bank oddział warszawa kondratowicza kredyty pozabankowe lodz jak zdobyć kredyt bez bik kredyt bank obsługa klienta kredyt bank ostrowiec św szybkie pożyczki na dowód od 18 lat kredyt prawo bankowe definicja pożyczki dla porozumienia centrum kredyt bank zwolnienia 2012 pożyczki gotówkowe łomża kredyt pozabankowy plock kredyt w ktorym banku pożyczki kredyty bez biku kredyty chwilówki bez krd kredyt w pekao sa kalkulator zabezpieczenie notarialne pożyczki umowa pożyczki cywilnej wzór pożyczki kredyty na dowód kredyt bank września prywatne pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania w bik umowa pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie kredyty pozabankowe malbork pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości dla zadłużonych kredyt bank nieruchomości o banknot pozyczki mikropożyczki opinie pod jaki nr wziąć kredyt w orange kredyt chwilówka oleśnica udzielenie pożyczki akcjonariuszowi szybkie pożyczki żagań pożyczki gotówkowe w uk pozyczka bez big i krs pożyczki pozabankowe na działalność gospodarczą kredyty chwilówki nysa na czym polega umowa pożyczki kredyt bank praktyka kredyt bank warszawa godziny otwarcia sobota kredyt samochodowy w getin noble bank pożyczki z dostawą do domu pożyczki polaków pan stanisław wziął kredyt w banku oblicz kredyt w credit agricole pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych łódź pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik wzór na obliczenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki pod zastaw łódź pozyczki on laine bez biku na 15000 kredyt bank zarobki pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt lokatorski kredyt w raiffeisen bank opinie pożyczki chwilówki buk kredyt bank online kredyt chwilówka opole bez bik pożyczki w domu wałbrzych czy trudno dostać kredyt w getin banku umowa pożyczki spółce wzór kredyty chwilówki koszalin kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat pko wzór umowy pożyczki ratalnej w ktorym banku dostane dlugoterminowa pozyczke pożyczki oława pożyczki kórnik dobre pożyczki bez bik kredyt bez bik który bank kredyty bez bik opinie pożyczki mieszkaniowe sędziów kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp sa kredyt bank lubin kontakt kredyt bank fundacja warty kredyt bank sprzedaż waluty pożyczki na dowód bocian pożyczki bez bik turek kredyt bank ceny walut santander kredyt ratalny a bik pożyczki chwilówki bez sprawdzania w bik bankomat kredyt bank warszawa umowa pożyczki rejestracja w urzędzie skarbowym kredyt bez bik czy warto kredyt bank lubuskie kredyt mieszkaniowy w uk forum kredyt konsolidacyjny na dowod online takto pozyczka bez zaświadczeń kredyt mieszkaniowy wkład własny kalkulator kredyty chwilówki w łodzi pko bank polski sa kredyt studencki kredyt bank pełna nazwa pożyczki w skoku forum opodatkowanie pożyczki podatkiem vat alior bank kredyt dla lekarzy pożyczki gotówkowe śląsk lublin mafia pozyczki pożyczki mikro pożyczki udziałowców dla spółki kredyt bez bik dla firmy kredyt bank bezpieczne dziecko pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard adres telefon w jakim banku można wziąć kredyt na dowód pożyczki gotówkowe szybka gotówka od ręki kredyt na otwarcie firmy ze zla historia kredytowa kredyt bank krotoszyn rynek likwidacja rachunku w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny zestawienie banków pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy forum kredyty pozabankowe w toruniu zakładowy fundusz świadczeń socjalnych pożyczki easy cash pożyczki opinie kredyt bank krolewska krakow pożyczki pod zastaw kwidzyn kredyt bez bik w lublinie kredyt konsolidacyjny tłumaczenie kod kredytu do orange kredyty mieszkaniowe maciej molewski oddziały kredyt banku w katowicach kredyt bank pocztowy pozyczka na dlugi pod weksel oblicz kredyt w alior banku kredyt w barclays przez internet jak księgować pożyczki kredyty bez biku grudziadz pro domo pożyczki kontakt nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bank ozorków wymagalność umowy pożyczki kredyty chwilówki bez bik krd kredyt w eurobanku opinie w którym banku najłatwiej wziąć kredyt nazwa pozyczki udzielonej przez bank pożyczki tak to pożyczki panorama firm pożyczki dla firm bez big prodomo pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt w banku pocztowym opinie kredyt bank gdańsk wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej pdf opodatkowanie otrzymanej pożyczki kredyty bez bik wadowice kredyt chwilówka prudnik pożyczki pod zastaw wszystkiego poznań oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej pekao sa pożyczki do domu łódź pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd online szybkie pożyczki na dowód sosnowiec

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad