kredyt bank papiery dłużne kredyt bank jana pawła 12 pożyczki od osób prywatnych toruń szybkie pożyczki przez internet opinie pożyczka na dowód na oświadczenie wałbrzych opinie pożyczki prywatne kredyt studencki oprocentowanie pożyczki dla przedsiębiorczych kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego pożyczki bocian online pozyczki na konto kredyt bank dywidenda 2012 kredyty chwilówki gorzów wlkp skok kujawiak pożyczki pożyczki profit kredyt w banku alior kredyt bank bielany wrocławskie kontakt bocian pożyczki piotrków trybunalski kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najłatwiej kredyt bez bik 30 tys pożyczki bez bik w słupsku kto umowa pożyczki pod zastaw bocian pożyczki czat jaki bank da pozyczke bez biku kredyt idea bank opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy lukas bank kalkulator getin bank kredyty gotówkowe forum kredyt konsolidacyjny jaka rata szybkie pożyczki dla zadłużonych szczecin korzyści pożyczki gotówkowej umowa pożyczki odstąpienie pożyczki prywatne na terenie gostynia pożyczki gotówkowe w 15 minut umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór pożyczki dla małych firm z unii kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 000 umorzenie pożyczki z zfss udzielę pożyczi kredyt bez bik śląsk pożyczki pozabankowe na zakup samochodu optima kredyty lubin kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartości nieruchomości kredyt bankowy ksiegowanie kredyty bez biku radom sprzedaż kredyt banku 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny w skoku stefczyka umorzenie pożyczki zfśs a podatek szukam ekspresowej pozyczki tarnow kredyt konsolidacyjny w anglii pożyczki pozabankowe online bez bik wzory umowy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt w polskim banku dla obcokrajowca kredyt bank lease firma uzyskała kredyt w banku 12 kredyty konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank wolomin pożyczki piaseczno umowa pożyczki z odsetkami wzór umowy pożyczki od wspólnika kredyty mieszkaniowe forum 2013 zabezpieczenie pożyczki wfośigw kredyt bank w głogowie kredyt bez bik leszno pożyczki niskooprocentowane dla firm pożyczki mieszkaniowe pko umowa pożyczki ojciec syn wzór niskie pożyczki pożyczki pod weksel kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw domu kredyty konsolidacyjne 2013 pożyczki duże kwoty kredyt chwilówka windykacja kredyt bank świebodzin praca pożyczki prywatne jaki procent kredyt bank 3 maja słupsk pożyczki w lukas bank mikropożyczki bangladesz kredyt mieszkaniowy proces opty pożyczki koszalin umowa pożyczki dla nieletnich meritum bank kredyt online umowa pożyczki a umowa użyczenia pożyczki luton pożyczki na dowód mbank umowa użyczenia pożyczki w jakich bankach można wsiąść pożyczkę na dowod pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet bez bik pozyczki oddłużeniowe bez bik online bocian pożyczki złóż wniosek kredyty bez bik kutno getin bank online kredyt samochodowy pożyczki pozabankowe dla rolników kredyt bank fundacja kto da kredyt bez biku pożyczki wągrowiec pożyczki bez zaświadczeń słupsk pożyczki lukas elbląg ang pożyczki pożyczki jeremie łódź prywatne pozyczki siedlce be bik i krd mazowieckie kredyty bez biku i komornika pożyczki gotówkowe w santander wymagalność odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bankowy przez internet kredyt bank garbary 71 poznań najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt chwilowka czestochowa pilsudskiego kredyt konsolidacyjny alior opinie kredyt pozabankowy kontakt blog pożyczki prywatne otrzymanie pożyczki a pcc kredyt bez biku ełk pożyczki medyczne szybki kredyt na samochód bez bik pożyczki jako źródło finansowania kredyt studencki pko sa warunki pożyczki limanowa pożyczki dorfin kredyt bank jest bankiem kredyt bank bielsko tel prawdziwe pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank raporty bieżące pozyczka bocian bytom odsetki od pożyczki jak wyliczyć pożyczki 24h warszawa kredyt bank brodno pożyczki online 15 min kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik dla firm umowa pożyczki nieodpłatna pozyczki bez krs i bik na oswiadczenie forum pożyczki dla służb mundurowych kredyt bankowy praca licencjacka kredyt bank sa radom pozyczka na dowod bex biku zary telefon alior bank kredyt forum pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczenia o zarobkach kredyt bank siedziby warszawa umowa pożyczki przez internet kredyt w lukas bank kalkulator lokaty w kredyt banku kredyt bank skoczów telefon pozyczka bez big w domu klienta dolnosląskie pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczenia kredyty bez bik szczecin kredyt bank gpw kredyty mieszkaniowe 2013 pko bp kredyt samochodowy ranking banków pożyczki udzielane spółkom przez wspólników pożyczki chwilówki z bikiem pożyczki bez bik online kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulacja kredyt online idea bank opinie kredyty dla studentów wbk pożyczki na weksel poznań pf kredyty chwilówki pożyczki z funduszy pożyczkowych pożyczki na dowód bez biku kredyt na oświadczenie bez bik potrzebny szybki kredyt bez bik kredyt bank firmy kredyt bank polan poznań kredyty bez biku iz komornikiem kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw 2014 kredyty bez bik radom kredyt bank grodzisk mazowiecki kontakt kredyt bank łódź piłsudskiego kredyt bank w czestochowie kredyt bez bik i krd bolesławiec czarnecki pożyczki umarzanie pozyczek w parabankach dwie pożyczki w providencie pożyczki dla osób z niskimi dochodami kredyt bank pełnomocnictwo pożyczki prywatne poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny pułapki leasing a kredyt bankowy porównanie wylicz ratę pożyczki pożyczki oddłużeniowe pro domo pozyczki kolobrzeg numer tel express finance pożyczki kredyt bank starogard gdański pożyczki pozabankowe dla osób bezrobotnych kredyt studencki sgb bank kredyt bank aleksandrów kujawski pożyczki bez bik od ręki ubezpieczenie umowy pożyczki pożyczki z negatywnym bikiem feniks pozyczki kredyt bank pelna nazwa kredyt bank węgorzewo umowa pożyczki do pobrania import usług pożyczki bank pko kredyt rodzina na swoim warunki kredyty bez biku wadowice kwota nominalna pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe toruń wzór umowy pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kredyt studencki opinie pożyczki pomarańcza lublin kredyty chwilówki siedziba główna kredyt w orange na numer umowa pożyczki art pożyczki z komornikiem ruda śląska pożyczki bocian płock umowa pożyczki druk pcc panda pożyczki opinie kredyt gotówkowy bez bik łódź kredyty chwilówki zabrze opolska 2 wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziny bezpieczne kredyty dla firm na oświadczenie pożyczki żabka cała polska pożyczki chwilówki na dowód olsztyn kredyty chwilówki skoczów kredyt bank tychy kontakt provident zwrot pożyczki w ciągu 28 dni szukam pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki bez biku na dowud do domu pożyczki pozabankowe biała podlaska pożyczki bez sprawdzania historii kredytowej kredyty chwilówki 2000 epef pożyczki pożyczki na dowód lubań umowa pożyczki a umowa użyczenia kredyt samochodowy bez biku pożyczki natychmiastowe bez biku kredyty chwilówki w łodzi pożyczki chwilówki od 18 lat kredyt bank w gnieźnie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych łódź umowa pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt w bilansie banku pożyczki w skoku chmielewskiego pozyczki w uk po polsku kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp opinie 2012 księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki pożyczki bez bik kredyty bez bik będzin pożyczki między podmiotami powiązanymi pożyczki bgż pożyczki bez bik 15000 kredyt bank plac powstańców kredyt bank w mińsku maz umowa pożyczki a koszty uzyskania przychodu pożyczki końskie kredyt konsolidacyjny oblicz raty umowa pożyczki pcc 2011 pcc od umowy pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami rodzaje kredytów w banku komercyjnym kredyt bank mokotowska 49 warszawa kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin kredyt bank obsługa kart kredytowych kredyt samochod irlandii wysokie pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt samochodowy paribas bank kalkulator pożyczki bez bik przasnysz pożyczki chwili kredyt bank nadarzyn udzielę pożyczki na procent ikko projekt pożyczki kredyt ratalny przez internet bez bik kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik kredyty chwilówki wieliczka kredyt bez biku forum kredyt bez bik pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki gorzów wlkp 6 kredyty chwilówki nowy targ kredyt w millenium banku opinie pożyczki skok chmielewskiego kredyty chwilowki olawa kredyty bez bik krd big kredyt bez bik gdansk kredyt bank opole żwirki i wigury godziny otwarcia kredyt bank groupon w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy kredyt bank gdynia karwiny pożyczki z ue kredyty bez bik ranking księgowanie pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie kredyty chwilówki żyrardów wierzyciel pożyczki bez bik pożyczki rapida kredyt studencki lista banków kredyt w banku pko kredyt przez internet bez biku 3000zl nobilon pożyczki gdansk kredyt bank dabrowskiego poznan kredyt samochodowy w getin banku prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe bydgoszcz odmowa umorzenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank w lomiankach kredyt studencki oprocentowanie 2011 warunki do spelnienia kredyt alior kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank bocian kredyt wloclawek kontakt pożyczki dla bezrobotnych z pup pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości białystok pożyczki provident gdańsk kredyt mieszkaniowy org pożyczki bez bik online kredyt na umowie na czas określony kredyt bank kondratowicza warszawa kredyt bank księgowanie przelewów kredyt w banku spółdzielczym dla rolników pożyczki bez erif konto osobiste w kredyt banku opinie kredyt bank wyszogrodzka płock kredyt bez bik tarnowskie góry kredyt bank zajęcia otrzymanie pożyczki a pcc udzielę pożyczki prywatnej szczecin wzór druku pożyczki pożyczki oprocentowanie porównanie alior bank kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt dla firm bez bik i zus kod kredyt orange umowa pożyczki na konto umowa pożyczki spłata w ratach wniosek o kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór kredyt bank piotrkowska kredyt bank belchatow pożyczki chwilówki bez bik krd kredyt bank warszawa grójecka pożyczki przez internet w 15 minut kredyt bank radom kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób w biku pożyczki bocian w słupsku pożyczki bez biku w łodzi udzielić pożyczki po angielsku umowa pożyczki przykład kredyt bank iv oddział wrocław plac solny pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu koszalin kredyty gotówkowe w banku pko sa pożyczki na konto bankowe pożyczki rzeszów bez bik pożyczki online z bikiem kredyt bank założyciele umowa pożyczki pieniędzy spłata w ratach pożyczki chwilówki przez internet od 18 lat przedawnienie pożyczki art ekspert pożyczki kredyt samochodowy ing bank kredyt remontowy w banku pekao sa pożyczki chwilówki przez internet 24h pozyczki prywatne ostrow wlkp pożyczki chwilówki bez bik gdynia pożyczki unijne na rozwój firmy pożyczki gotówkowe w alior banku wycena pożyczki na koniec roku kredyty bez bik do 20000 kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osoby samotnej kredyt bez bik długoterminowy kredyt bank kalisz godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp symulacja beta pożyczki kredyt bankowy teoria kredyt bank koszalin oświadczenie spłaty pożyczki pożyczki bez bik 2000 zł szybkie pożyczki dla zadłużonych szczecin koszty notarialne umowy pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w bnp paribas kredyt bez bik w bytomiu umowa ramowa pożyczki kredito24 kredyt bank w legnicy umowa pośrednictwa pożyczki kredyt na samochód bez bik i krd kredyt odnawialny w banku bgż kredyt bank godziny otwarcia łódź pożyczki wieloratalne bez bik kredyt bank sa bielsk podlaski kredyt bank grunwaldzka 345 gdańsk windykator terenowy kredyty chwilówki opinie kredyt bank lublin centrala pożyczki pozabankowe w warszawie kredyt studencki warunki otrzymania pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik na oświadczenie abis slask pozyczki kredyty i pożyczki dla jst prywatne pożyczki pod weksel kredyt pozabankowy na pit pożyczki pod zastaw żory pożyczki gotówkowe firmy pożyczki na jaki procent umowa pożyczki kto zgłasza do urzędu skarbowego kredyt bank grójecka 186 godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw forum idea bank opinie kredyt dla firm umowa pożyczki spłacana w ratach kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw domu kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko sa pożyczki ebroker umorzenie pożyczki pismo kredyt konsolidacyjny odmowa część pożyczki kredyt bank oddział w warszawie bocian pożyczki pomorskie pożyczki łuków pozyczki do domu podkarpacie kredyt bank 24 login pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń skarabeusz kredyt bank limit kredytowy pożyczki między firmami pcc w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy forum pożyczki poznań bez bik kredyt chwilówka windykacja pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik poznań wpłatomaty kredyt banku warszawa pożyczki dla polaków uk pożyczki dla emerytów i rencistów w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki bez banku kredyt w banku spółdzielczym warunki kredyty chwilówki gliwice matejki kredyty chwilówki pierwsza za darmo kredyt bank opłata za przelew bocian pożyczki starachowice oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy pożyczki pod zastaw rtv nowy sącz pożyczki bez bik legnica kredyty konsolidacyjne lodz pożyczki jeremie pomorskie kredyty chwilówki os teatralne wrocław pożyczki prywatne pożyczki bez bik elk pożyczki bez bik do domu pożyczki dla pracujących na czarno kredyt bank kontakt szczecin ceny transferowe umowa pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór odsetki kredyt w banku warunki kredyt bank zablokowana karta kredyt bank godziny pożyczki pomiędzy podmiotami powiązanymi w jakim banku wziąć kredyt forum w jakim banku wziąć kredyt konsumpcyjny kredyt bank łochów pożyczki 7 oświęcim pożyczki pod zastaw maszyn pożyczka dla skok pożyczki dla emerytów kredyt chwilówka opole pożyczka na procent brodnica getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki bez bik mielec kredyt bank liczba oddziałów alior bank oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego biuro dobrej pożyczki marża banku kredyt w euro kredyt bez bik od reki pożyczki plus kredyt bank 24 pl pożyczki chwilówki bartoszyce kredyt bank w policach kredyt bank karta zbliżeniowa kredyt bank polish sailing team pożyczki na chwilę alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm ing bocian pożyczki gostyń kredyt bank notowania funduszy inwestycyjnych kredyty chwilówki żyrardów kredyt w banku pocztowym dla funkcjonariuszy kredyt bank warszawa chełmska godziny otwarcia wzór wniosku o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp kredyt bez biku online kredyt bank ii oddział w warszawie pożyczki bez biku i zaświadczeń pożyczki przez internet bez bik kredyty chwilówki warszawa wzór umowy pożyczki dla spółki kredyt bez biku szczecinek kredyt bank wiek kredytobiorcy żółty jeż pożyczki kredyt w banku na spłatę komornika pozyczki z obsluga w domu lask kredyt bank mława kontakt kredyt bank warszawa ken pożyczki chwilówki wodzisław śląski kredyt bank kontakt oprocentowanie pożyczki pracowniczej warunki dostania pożyczki kredyt w ge money bank kredyt na alimety bez big pożyczki bez biku na dowud do domu kredyty bez bik krd big kredyt mieszkaniowy brak spłaty koszt pożyczki w lombardzie pożyczki w spółce cywilnej gdzie mozna dostac kredyt bez biku kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki pozabankowe dla malych firm credit agricole pożyczki kalkulator prometeusz pożyczki kielce kredyt bank polna warszawa kredyty bez bik biała podlaska pożyczki w ramach regionalnych funduszy pożyczkowych umowa pożyczki in blanco pożyczki gotówkowe od 18 lat kredyty bez bik sochaczew kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlatwiej

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad