waloryzacja pożyczki kredyt bank kapital 3 pożyczki tczew udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez członka zarządu kredyt mieszkaniowy wkład własny kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe od osób prywatnych kredyt bank numer bic pozyczki online przez poczte pożyczki przeterminowane kredyt bank rudnickiego kredyt bank wrocław plac legionów godziny otwarcia pożyczki na oświadczenie warszawa kredyt bank galeria mokotów bank pocztowy kredyt online kredyty pozabankowe katowice getin bank auto kredyt kalkulator serwis finansowy dobrej pożyczki kredyty chwilowki opole getin bank kredyty samochodowe forum kredyt bankowy kodeks cywilny szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe warszawa kredyt w uk przez internet przedawnienie pożyczki odnawialnej kredyt konsolidacyjny notus kredyt bank sanok szopena kredyt bank sopot godziny otwarcia kredyt pod zastaw auta bez biku czy udzielenie pożyczki podlega vat kredyt konsolidacyjny gliwice kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny do jakiej kwoty pożyczki oprogramowanie ranking pozyczek bez bik i z odbiorem na poczcie pożyczki bez bik kalkulator kredyty chwilówki w krakowie czy w santanteze banku latwo jest dostac pozyczke wierzyciel pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank faktoring kredyty bez biku bytom pożyczki dla rolników 2013 kredyt bank mielżyńskiego kredyty bez bik mikołów kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank przekazanie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik na oświadczenie warunkowa umowa pożyczki wzór pożyczki w kredyt banku plock kredyty bez bik opinie kredyt w banku na dowód kredyty chwilówki lębork pożyczki w domu klieta kołobrzeg darmowe bankomaty w kredyt banku kredyt bankowy a akt notarialny te pożyczki pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu kredyt bank sesje bankowe warunki kredytu samochodowego getin bank kredyty chwilówki tychy ul fabryczna 12 pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń online pożyczki na pesel kredyt bank limit dzienny szybkie kredyty bez bik kredyt getin bank oprocentowanie kredyt bank medicover obliczanie rat pożyczki wiarygodne pożyczki bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie wzór pożyczki bocian polkowice pożyczki do 30 dni umowa pożyczki gotówki druk do ilu zl bocian udziela pozyczek na dowod kredyt bank w aleksandrowie kujawskim iwona wayne pożyczki kredyt bank zwolnienia grupowe przelew własny w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki jaki sąd kredyt bank 25 kredyty bez bik i zus wydanie przedmiotu pożyczki kredyty chwilówki email bank pekao sa ubezpieczenie kredytu w jakim banku kredyt online kredyt w uk dla każdego umowa w sprawie pożyczki z zfśs mti pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości małopolska przedawnienie długu pożyczki prywatnej kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla 2013 minutka pożyczki pozyczki tempo finanse oddzial mosina pożyczki bez bik big i krd poznań kredyt chwilówka bedzin umowa pożyczki niedozwolone klauzule pożyczki z nigerii kredyt bankowy w rachunku bieżącym kredyt bank centrala wrocław pożyczki 24 na dobe kredyt bank niskie oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki dla spółki osobowej kredyt w banku na rozpoczęcie działalności extra kasa pożyczki kredyt bank x oddział w warszawie bankomaty kredyt banku lublin jak grzecznie odmówić pożyczki deutsche bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator umowa pożyczki na samochód pożyczki kredyty gotówkowa udziele pożyczki prywatnie kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach forum dyskusyjne kredyt bez bik bialystok kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank polecacie żyrafa pożyczki chwilówki opinie kara za niezgłoszenie umowy pożyczki kredyt bez bik na dowod sosnowiec pozyczka w bankomacie tczew kredyt do orange kod bocian pożyczki jaki procent kredyty chwilowki zielona gora pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik płock kredyt bank wyciągi bankowe kredyt studencki pko opłaty manipulacyjne lendon pożyczka bez bik warszawa pomoc w uzyskaniu pożyczki w uk kredyt studencki pko druki marka pożyczki rzeszów kredyty pożyczki bankowe kredyty bez bik na pit czy umorzenie pożyczki jest przychodem potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki szybki kredyt dla firmy bez bik kredyt studencki pko bp powtarzanie roku kredyt bank w markach pożyczki inne niż provident pożyczki odnawialne kredyt bank b24 kredyt bank jana pawła warszawa pożyczki bez bik plus pożyczki z najniższym oprocentowaniem kredyt bank warszawa ul marszałkowska pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy dla studenta pko kredyty chwilówki kraków teatralne kredyt mieszkaniowy belgia kredyt w lukas banku na dowód bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2012 kredyt bank w skoczowie karr pożyczki kredyt bank zablokowana karta pożyczki celowe pożyczki dla zadłużonych radom pożyczki bez bik gryfice kredyt bez biku bielsko kredyt bank chrobrego umowa pożyczki dla kolegi pożyczki w bankach ranking wzór umowy pożyczki między firmami gdzie mozna dostac kredyt bez biku oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp pożyczki chwilówki bez bik łódź oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank lublin tomasza zana 39 dobra pożyczki kod o kredyt w orange pozyczki na procent warszawa wzór umowy pożyczki udziałowca kto udzieli pożyczki pozabankowej agnieszka panek pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny alior praca za granica pożyczki dla osób fizycznych pożyczki na dowód gniezno kredyt mieszkaniowy dofinansowany przez państwo umowa pożyczki między najbliższymi kredyt w raiffeisen bank opinie rekrutacja w kredyt banku kredyt bankowy ksiazka pożyczki na dowód bez dochodów kredyty konsolidacyjne bez zaświadczeń o dochodach umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w ratach pożyczki chwilówki kredytum pozyczyki atiz umorzenie pożyczki a kup kredyt bank oswiecim godziny otwarcia cesja z umowy pożyczki jak odmówić komuś pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw gorzów wlkp pożyczki opole godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki jana pawła getin bank konsolidacja kredytów szybki kredyt bez biku przez internet kredyt bank sa wałbrzych kredyt bez bik i krd dla firm kredyty w skok bez bik wierzyciel pożyczki opinie szybkie i tanie pożyczki przez internet pożyczki gotówkowe getin bank kredyt bank warszawa komisji edukacji narodowej kredyt bez bik śląsk kredyt bank oddział włocławek bocian pożyczki rzeszów kontakt kredyt bank współczynnik wypłacalności pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej kredyt bank kontakt lublin kredyt dla nowo powstałych firm bez bik pożyczki 500 zł kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku bgz rafał konarski pozyczki szybkie pożyczki kalisz szybkie kredyty bez biku kredyt studencki pko wysokość kredyt bez bik 5 tys pożyczki do domu warszawa alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny dokumenty kredyty chwilówki żyrafa kredyt bank konto ekstra oszczędnościowe umowa pożyczki ze spłatą w ratach pozyczki na dowod ze zadluzeniem inowroclaw pożyczki bez bik jarosław poręczenie pożyczki z urzędu pracy pożyczki dla gmin pozyczki na oswiadczenie ichwilowki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczenia o dochodach kredyty bez bik kraków pożyczki w 15 minut na konto tarr pożyczki pożyczki prywatne skarżysko pozyczki chwilowki na dowow osobisty walbrzych umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie kredyt w banku dla bezrobotnych pozyczki dzialdowo niespłacenie pożyczki meritum bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bank chrzanów kontakt przedawnienie niespłaconej pożyczki kredyty bez bik tomaszow maz kredyt bank ketlinga kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy alior bank presto pożyczki umowa pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego pożyczka w domu klienta jelenia góra kredyty bez bik walbrzych kredyt samochodowy w getin noble bank pożyczki bez bik big erif kredyt bank iphone kredyt bank żagiel szczecin umowa cywilno prawna pożyczki wzór kredyt bank niepodległości poznań kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim ranking kredyt chwilówki końskie oprocentowanie kredytów mieszkaniowych pko nowakka pożyczki online pożyczki gotówkowe białystok kredyt bank łódź oddziały kredyty chwilówki starogard gdański kredyt bank warszawa światowida kredyt bank żagiel nr tel umorzenie pożyczki w wpf pożyczki prywatnie wrocław kredyt bank lista placówek kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kredyt bank lublin zana 39 optima namysłów pozyczki pozyczki prywatne bialogard kredyt bank ndm pożyczki prywatne umowa cywilno prawna kredyt bank warszawa radość umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki chwilówki bez sprawdzania kredyt bank wejherowo telefon pożyczki konsolidacyjne bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe gros pożyczki kartuzy udzielane w domu kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny czy się opłaca prywatne firmy pozyczkowe gliwice kredyt obrotowy deutsche bank oprocentowanie kredyty chwilowki strzegomska skarabeusz pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kalkulator kredyt bank warszawa popularna pożyczki prywatne podatki pożyczki dla firm na oświadczenie kredyt bank osiedle kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem warszawa kredyty bez bik mysłowice kredyt samochodowy w santanderze pożyczki w banku ing pożyczka pod zastaw auta zdunska wola kredyt ratalny pozabankowy aby wziasc pozyczke w noble banku co potrzeba kredyt w banku pekao pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik lublin kredyt samochodowy paribas bank opinie kredyty bez bik bialystok kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i krd kredyt bank koszalin piłsudskiego 85 pożyczki dla nowo powstałych firm kredyty chwilówki bez bik i krd kredyt bank bankomat ustka kredyt konsolidacyjny z zabezpieczeniem kalkulator kredyt gotówkowy alior bank pożyczki podatek arleg pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe rybnik universum pożyczki koszt przelewu zagranicznego w kredyt banku szybkie pożyczki firmy chwjlowki pozyczki bez bik krd gliwice kredyt bankowy istota pozyczki chwilowki pozabankowa pszczyna kredyt obrotowy idea bank opinie kredyt chwilówka na dowód warszawa bocian pożyczki oddział warszawa kredyty studenckie oprocentowanie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli dofinansowanie pożyczki pod zastaw maszyn kredyt w banku raty pożyczki ostrów wlkp dla zadłóżonych kontakt tel kredyt bez bik online 25000 szygula kredyt bankowy wydanie kredyt hipoteczny bez zaświadczeń oswiecim kredyt w banku pocztowym forum mikropożyczki dla firm wrocław obliczanie odsetek pożyczki podatek od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyty pozabankowe sosnowiec pożyczki chwilówki bez bik gdańsk pożyczki oddłużeniowe pozabankowe kredyt bank łódź piotrkowska godziny otwarcia regulamin udzielania pożyczki dla firm w mbanku pożyczki pozabankowe trójmiasto pozyczka z pracy bezprocentowa w uk nr telefonu na pozyczki w uk kredyt bank sa adres siedziby kredyt bank token kredyt konsolidacyjny wągrowiec kredyt bank bankomaty włocławek kredyt w pko bp oprocentowanie pożyczka 25000 kokos kredyt bank praca warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny bez pracy pożyczki pozabankowe łódż oprocentowanie pożyczki w credit agricole kredyt bank w radomsku kredyt bank jelenia góra ul wolności pożyczki alter kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp sa kredyt bank w oleśnicy pożyczki pozabankowe w pile kredyt bank otwock staszica kredyty chwilowki ledziny pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu forum kredyty pozabankowe poznan kredyty gotowkowe lodz prywatnie getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy opinie pożyczki na dowód przez telefon jak księgować pożyczki marka puławy pożyczki na dowód pożyczki toruń kredyt bank debet pożyczki gotówkowe bytom pożyczki bez opłat rejestracyjnych pożyczki pozabankowe mińsk mazowiecki kredyt w banku getin bank bocian pożyczki praca łódź banknot pozyczki pożyczki prywatne lubin alior bank kredyt gotówkowy jakie dokumenty przekształcenie pożyczki w darowiznę pożyczki bez biku w starachowicach kredyt na start bez bik i krd kredyt w banku a podatek pożyczki prywatne sanok kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator ing pożyczki prywatne wałcz kredyt bank profil aktywny bocian pożyczki nidzica pożyczki bez bik i krd gdańsk pożyczki dla nastolatków kredyt bank lublin zana 38 kredyt bank placenie karta za granica pożyczki prywatne ostrów wielkopolski kredyt konsolidacyjny poczta polska kredyt pekao sa kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny dla bezrobotnych ewidencja umorzenia pożyczki umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu prawo szybkie pożyczki bez bik do domu dolny śląsk parabanki udzielające pozyczek bez sprawdzania biku eurocent podobne pozyczki kredyty bez bik od 4000 pożyczki chwilówki online bez zaświadczeń pożyczki w domu koszalin bocian pożyczki tczew pozyczki pila umowa zawarcia pożyczki kredyt bank fax pożyczki start up kredyt w eurobanku opinie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik online kredyt bank białystok lipowa odnowienie pożyczki w koncieżyrowanie pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe dla samotnych matek 2013 pożyczka na dowód od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank oddział warszawa kasprzaka kredyt bank luboń telefon wymagalność rat pożyczki kredyty chwilówki w 15 minut kredyt bank radom godziny otwarcia pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny millennium bank pożyczki dla firm z unii europejskiej kredyt bank zniknie umowa pożyczki pcc 3 pożyczki pozabankowe piła kredyty bankowe ksiazki pożyczki na chwilę umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pracownikowi nbp kredyt konsolidacyjny jak udzielić pożyczki znajomemu pożyczki bez bik z komornikiem pożyczki oława kredyty konsolidacyjne gliwice pozyczka bez zdolnosci kredytowej wzór do ewidencja spłat pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki społeczne w polsce pożyczki pod zastaw złota lublin odsetki ustawowe od pożyczki 2011 getin zawiesić na rok kredyt ciągnienie pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy szybki nieoprocentowane pożyczki dla pracowników umowa pożyczki zfron potwierdzenie pożyczki kredyty chwilówki sms kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym forum kredyt konsolidacyjny bez wychodzenia z domu czy warto wziąć kredyt w getin banku kredyt orange kod umowa pożyczki pieniędzy u notariusza pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości gdynia umowa pożyczki miedzy osobami fizycznymi asper przyznawalnosc pozyczek kredyty chwilówki ruda śląska kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa zlecenie bezpieczny kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki za 1 grosz kredyt bank gostyń tel kredyty pozabankowe gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny meritum bank opinie kredyty chwilowki windykatorzy kredyty bez bik gdynia opodatkowanie pożyczki udzielonej spółce pożyczki bez bik na konto kredyt bank pekao sa pożyczki pozabankowe jastrzębie zdrój 24h kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza kontakt kredyt bank piotrków trybunalski godziny otwarcia optima pożyczki olsztyn pożyczki gotówkowe tczew kredyt bank bogatynia godziny otwarcia pozyczki bez big i bik dla zadluzonych jak umorzyc pozyczki pozabankowe pozyczka na konto bez przelewania grosza alior bank i kredyt konsolidacyjny provident nr pożyczki kredyt bank bytom kredyt bankowy w księgach pożyczki gotówkowe gros kapitał kredyt mieszkaniowy pko symulacja kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe kredyt bank łęczna kredyt bank polan 100 pożyczki profit kredyt bank poznan dabrowskiego pożyczki z komornikiem kredyt bank windykacja jak wyliczyć odsetki od udzielonej pożyczki sms kredyt bez biku profi credit czy udziela pozyczki bez u mowy o prace jakie oprocentowanie pożyczki od udziałowca umowa pożyczki pieniędzy podatek kredyt bank żagiel szczecin kredyty bez biku i krd na sam dowów w kielcach pożyczki z sektora pozabankowego msp pożyczki bocian w ostrowcu godz pracy pożyczki bez bik zabrze raciborz pozyczka pod weksel kredyty mieszkaniowe blog kredyt bank w pulawach pożyczki w krakowie kredyt bank aktualne oprocentowanie lokat umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej wzór kredyt bank krdbplpw baltic money pożyczki umowa pożyczki pod zabezpieczenie symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej ing tczew pożyczka z bankomatu kredyty pozabankowe śląsk

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad