szybki kredyt pozabankowy eurofin pożyczki w jakim banku wziac kredyt jak zaksięgować udzielone pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank forum kredyt samochodowy getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking lipiec 2012 kredyty pozabankowe czestochowa kronos pożyczki opinie kredyt bez bik gotówkowy pożyczki janosik umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem kredyty bez biku warszawa kredyt bank patriotów umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs wzór kredyt bank nowe konto oszczędnościowe kredyt chwilówki praca opinie wzór umowy pożyczki ratalnej pożyczki dla pracowników a vat kredyt konsumencki prawo bankowe getin bank kredyt gotówkowy oprocentowanie kredyt bank oprocentowanie kart kredytowych pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy wymagania umowa pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi kredyty pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny zdunska wola kredyty internetowe bez bik umowa pożyczki pozew udziele pożyczki prywatnie czechowice pożyczki płock bez bik kredyt bank pocztowy online optima pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt bank w iławie pożyczki prow kredyt bank maciej bardan najnowsza pożyczka bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy opłaty notarialne pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klijenta swidnica kredyt raz dwa trzy w banku pocztowym oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego pko bp banki kredytu konsumenckiego pożyczki internetowe bez bik kredyt studencki bank pko pożyczki chwilówki wrocław kredyt bank windows phone mieszkaniowe kredyty preferencyjne pozyczki na doeod bez biku na dowod telefon zary historia pożyczki pożyczki mysłowice umowa pożyczki zwrot w ratach kronos pożyczki tychy kontakt kredyt bank zamość kredyty bez bik kalisz kredyt konsolidacyjny odstąpienie kredyt chwilówka czerwionka finan pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dofinansowany kredyt chwilowki poznań pożyczki w różnych bankach kredyty bez bik śrem kredyt bez bik dla kazdego kredyt chwilówka getin bank kredyt ratalny w getin banku kredyt bez bik oprocentowanie umowa przedwstępna pożyczki wzór kredyt na dowód getin bank pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wielkopolska nowe pozyczki 2014 umowa pożyczki sprawa cywilna kredyty bez sprawdzania w biku kredyt bank zielona góra wojska polskiego pożyczki internetowe bez przelewu kredyt bank jana pawła gdańsk udzielenie pożyczki udziałowcowi a pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku bgz pożyczki pozabankowe kraków forum kredyt bank olsztyn kontakt kredyt sms orange pop pożyczki dla pes pozyczki prywatne cywilno prawne na 30000 olesnica kredyt konsolidacyjny bph kredyty chwilówki trzebinia geronimo gdańsk pozyczka kredyt bank sieradz umowa użyczenia pożyczki kredyty bez bik dabrowa gornicza kredyt mieszkaniowy dla studenta 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny rata pożyczki prywatne łomża kredyty chwilówki procent kredyt bez bik zabrze do 30 tys pożyczka na dowód piła do 20 otwarcie pożyczki 0 procent kredyt bank w kościanie bocian pożyczki inowrocław konwersja pożyczki na kapitał 2013 pozyczka bez zdolnosci kredytowej kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych forum odsetki od pożyczki przychodem osoby fizycznej mikropożyczki indie kredyt bank konto osobiste opinie kredyt bank łomża praca alior bank kredyt odnawialny oprocentowanie bank pekao sa pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty mieszkaniowe nowe zasady kredyt bank romera kredyt bank mielec kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych singli witam kredyt bez biku szukam osoby do wziecia kredytu ostrow wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator eurobank credit agricole swiebodzin pozyczka 10tys kredyt bank departament windykacji kontakt kredyt bank samochody poleasingowe bank kredyt dom lębork pożyczki barcin pozyczki z krd w starachowice wyliczanie oprocentowania pożyczki kredyty chwilówki inwestor kredyty gotówkowe bez sprawdzania w bik pod jaki numer wysyła się kredyt w orange pożyczki ostrów wlkp dla zadłóżonych kontakt tel kredyt bank został sprzedany udzielenie pożyczki w bilansie pożyczki w domu klienta włocławek kredyt bank wilda bocian pożyczki biała podlaska pożyczki na dowód braniewo pożyczki bocian zielona góra pożyczki księgowanie kredyty bez biku poznań kredyty chwilówki poznań praca fast pożyczki kredyt bank nowy targ kredyt bankowy dla msp pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej wrocław pozyczka 70000 bez bik kredyty chwilówki tychy fabryczna 12 pożyczki w domu klienta bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez bik i krd kraków pozyczki do domu klienta swidnica pożyczki toruń bez bik pożyczki z komornikiem bydgoszcz pożyczki polskiej pcc od pożyczki dla udziałowca alior bank kredyty kredyty i chwilówki kredyt bank godz otwarcia kalkulator pożyczki ekspresowej pekao kredyt bank franczyza umowa pożyczki pkzp kredyt bank łomianki godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki bielsko umowa pożyczki a weksel opole pożyczka bez dochodów bocian pożyczki bez bik udzielenie pożyczki a podatek vat pożyczki gotówkowe na pit kredyt studencki pko bp powtarzanie roku kredyt konsolidacyjny w getin banku forum kredyt bank puławska kredyt bank rozmowa kwalifikacyjna pozyczki w domu warszawa kredyty chwilówki łomża cetelem bank kredyt przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny db kredyt opinie pożyczki na dowód tychy kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking 2012 pożyczki gotówkowe na poczcie pożyczki prywatne wołomin kredyty bez bik krd wrocław pożyczki społecznościowe ryzyko ustna umowa pożyczki a pcc kredyt bank w gliwicach pożyczki w domu klienta żnin kredyt w meritum banku opinie pożyczki porównywarka kredyt bez biku płock pożyczki na dowód tczew kredyty pozabankowe bez bik w poznaniu kredyty chwilówki warszawa pożyczki dla zadłużonych pod zastaw kredyt bank sa z siedzibą w warszawie pozyczki na dowud lub firme kredyt bank wbk połączenie kredyty pozabankowe sochaczew kredyt bank trójmiasto kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę kart kredytowych ranking banków kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt studencki banki 2012 pozyczki na weksel u klienta w domu mazowieckie kredyty chwilówki tarnów pokwitowanie pożyczki wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny potrzebne dokumenty kredyt w banku bez umowy o prace kredyt bank jastrzębie zdrój godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki pko ostatnia transza kredyt bank w wbk łatwy kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyt bank bankomaty euronet kredyt bank radlin kontakt kredyt bank międzyzdroje praca umowa pożyczki konsensualna pozyczka w domu wałbrzych udziela prywatnie pozyczek caly kraj kredyt na mieszkanie w banku wbk pozyczka w domu bialystok pożyczki chwilówki bez pracy kredyt bank powstańców śląskich warszawa kredyt na dowód bez bik zaświadczeń optima namysłów pozyczki pożyczki bez żadnych formalności karr pożyczki oblicz ratę kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim kredyt bank wpłata pożyczki włodawa pożyczki chwilówki w olsztynie preferencyjny kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt konsolidacyjny wcześniejsza spłata bocian pożyczki białystok bocian pożyczki forum pracowników pożyczki na innowacje kredyt bank rodzina na swoim kredyt bank kiedy sesje umowa pożyczki od udziałowca druk kredyt bank gostyń wlkp pożyczki na dowód bez bik krd kredyt 4000 bez bik online ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt oniliaj pożyczki na dowód od 18 lat online kredyt bank obecnie kredyt ratalny alior bank opinie kredyt bank z bz wbk wnioski o kredyt studencki pko bp pożyczki gotówkowe getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy marzec 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór idea bank kredyt dla firm opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny a rozwód nowe pozyczki chwilówki bez bik marka pożyczki rzeszów pożyczki pozabankowe lubelskie kredyty mieszkaniowe bph kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce kalkulator kredyt bank adres lublin kredyt bank w uk kredyty bank pko bp kredyt bank oddział lublin żagiel pożyczki dla ludzi w bik kredyt bank bezprowizyjne bankomaty w jakim banku wziac kredyt gotówkowy kredyty bankowe sciaga provident zasady pożyczki nowość pożyczki do domu kredyt bank bedzin kredyt orange 5 zl kredyt bank klienci kredyty chwilówki opole reymonta kredyt bank wolomin czy udzielenie pożyczki podlega opodatkowaniu vat provident symulacja pożyczki kredyt bank bierz co chcesz pro domo pożyczki pożyczki w domu koszalin pożyczki pożyczka dla rencistów pożyczki niezabezpieczone pożyczki uk online bank pko bp kredyty opinie kredyt bez bik millenium umowa pożyczki jak wypełnić szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe grudziądz pożyczki chwilówki tarnowskie góry agata lis pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlepiej forum kredyt bez biku dla firmy adresy kredyt banku w poznaniu auto kredyt bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny kudoz pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej lublin kredyty chwilówki zakopane pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd online kredyt mieszkaniowy szybsza spłata el global pożyczki kredyty chwilówki zarabiaj z nami opinie kredyt bank bialystok gdzie uzyskac kredyt bez bik kredyt w pko bp oprocentowanie kredyt bank w opolu pożyczki bez opłaty rejestracyjnej anonse kredyty z komornikiem wzór poręczenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank polen pożyczki społecznościowe łódź polski kredyt bank sa kredyt bank iii oddział kraków kredyt samochodowy getin bank forum czy latwo dostac kredyt w credit agricole pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw mieszkania kredyt bank rzeszów godz otwarcia kredyt bez bik w poznaniu skarabeusz pozyczki wielkopolska kredyt bank krapkowice kontakt szybkie pożyczki chwilówki online kredyt bank zmiana oprocentowania pożyczki dla osób z zajęciem komorniczym kredyt zagraniczny opinie kredyt bank auta poleasingowe pożyczki na dowód bielsko biała pożyczki domówki kraków zwrot pożyczki english umowa pożyczki wzór weksel wzór umowy pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyty bez bik big komornik konsolidacja pożyczki pozabankowe z obsługą w domu duet pozyczka numer tel pożyczki regita oddziały kredyt banku w krakowie kredyt bank koniec prawo cywilne wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki forum pożyczki chwilówki czy kredyt w banku ulega przedawnieniu kredyt bank wyrobienie nowej karty umowa cywilno prawna pożyczki wzór bocian pożyczki czat kredyt konsolidacyjny zadłużonych w zusie i w bankach pożyczki pozabankowe cała polska kredyt bank police godziny otwarcia ranking banków na kredyt kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko bp kredyty mieszkaniowe 2004 pożyczki sezam wieluń kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka pożyczki w inowrocławiu kredyt bank garbary 71 poznań pożyczki internetowe ranking pozyczka bez big w domu klienta dolnosląskie bocian pożyczki oddział warszawa kredyt chwilówka współpraca kredyty i pożyczki państwowego długu publicznego kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczki chwilówki na dowód przez internet kredyt bank wałbrzych godziny otwarcia w którym banku kredyt gotówkowy kredyty chwilówki tarnów bema kredyt na wyciag bankowy kredyt konsolidacyjny niezabezpieczony kredyt bank knurów kredyt dla firm bez bik zielona góra kredyt studencki warunki przyznania kredyt bank oplaty i prowizje kredyt mieszkaniowy stałe oprocentowanie wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej pod zastaw kredyty chwilówki wonga pożyczka bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw rtv radom kredyt mieszkaniowy na 30 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny agricole kronos pozyczki kredyt dla firm idea bank opinie łączny koszt pożyczki pożyczki lubsko szybka pożyczka 20tysięcy obsługa klijenta w domu fundusze inwestycyjne pożyczki kredyt bank wniosek o zamknięcie konta kredyt bank białystok godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych forum pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu warszawa kredyt w banku na spłatę komornika umowa pożyczki jeremie pożyczki z ratami tygodniowymi kredyt bank żary kontakt kredyt bank wołomin kontakt kredyty chwilówki sochaczew umowa pożyczki pieniężnej między firmami kredyt bez bik bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank 3 maja lublin kredyt bank jest bankiem atrakcyjny kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank kredyt samochodowy telefon kredyt bank wołomin kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku millennium kredyt w banku forum oprocentowanie kredytu w banku pko bp kredyt bez bik chełmno pożyczki credit agricole pożyczki pozabankowe w wałbrzychu kredyt bez bik bank spółdzielczy kredyty chwilówki system partner pożyczki gros kapitał kredyt bank wypłata z bankomatu za granicą przedawnienie długu pożyczki prywatnej szukam pożyczki wrocław kredyty i pożyczki prezentacja pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu bez bik kredyt bank 24 kredyt bankowy konto kredyt samochodowy deutsche bank kredyty chwilowki do 100 000 kredyt bank prowizja od wypłaty kredyt bank kalisz godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki warszawa umowa pożyczki między podatnikami vat kredyty bez biku inowrocław kredyt bez bik do 30000 kredyt bank pko sa visset pożyczki bez bik na dowód kredyt gotówkowy bez bik łódź pożyczka pod zastaw nieruchomości filia w koszalinie kredyty bez bik i krd przez internet kredyt gotówkowy bez bik forum aport pożyczki rarr pożyczki na start pożyczki mieszkaniowe pwr leasing a kredyt bankowy porównanie kredyt bank opłata za kartę pożyczki chwilówki w płocku udzielę pożyczki prywatnej szybko i bez sprawdzania provident wysokość pożyczki pożyczka od 18 lat bez bit potrzebuje pożyczki mam komornika kredyty pozabankowe alex pożyczki wrocław pożyczki dla młodych firm kredyt unijny idea bank forum kredyt bank kasprzaka 22 kredyt na orange kod wyludzenie pozyczki ekspresowej pożyczki ratunkowe opole historia pożyczki jak dostać kredyt bez bik kredyty chwilówki pracownik reklamy kredyt bank w leborku pożyczki pod zastaw gliwice pożyczki bez bik elk kredyt bez bik radom pożyczki gotówkowe prywatne pozyczka dla zadluzonych w getin banku umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi kalkulator odsetkowy pożyczki kredyt bank godziny otwarcia kielce pożyczki pozabankowe kluczbork kredyt z komornikiem piekary sl kredyt mieszkaniowy dla malzenstw umorzenie pożyczki z zfss pożyczki na rok pożyczki udzielane przez internet pożyczki pozabankowe lubin kredyt bank w mlawie kredyt bankowy podsumowanie pożyczki bocian praca opinie kredyty konsolidacyjne leszno pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław pożyczki gotówkowe ranking 2013 szybkie pożyczki gdynia kredyt bank rydla szczecin pożyczki bez bik sms pożyczki długoterminowe wikipedia kredyt konsolidacyjny jak działa oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej w ing pożyczki provident gdańsk kredyt bankowy na mieszkanie pożyczki wfośigw kredyty bez bik tarnowskie góry kredyty mieszkaniowe dla emerytów pożyczki pod weksel warszawa pożyczka od zaraz chełm kredyt studencki jakie warunki kalkulator rat kredytu pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla powiatu kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw pko pożyczki ngo udziele pożyczki prywatnie 2013 kredyt bank człuchów ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych marzec 2013 kredyt dla bedacych w bik katowice pożyczki społecznościowe jak najtańszy kredyt bankowy pożyczki za granicą kredyt bank starachowice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank konto ekstra oszczędnościowe kredyt getin bank forum akt notarialny umorzenie pożyczki dla syna kwota pożyczki bez zgody małżonka wzór oświadczenia o zwrocie pożyczki pożyczki bocian tarnobrzeg pożyczki pod zastaw rtv tarnów kredyt samochodowy meritum bank kredyt bank nowa sól nazwa pożyczki udzielonej przez bank odsetki od pożyczki nkup kredyt w provident utrata pracy konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy a pcc wierzyciel pożyczki forum kredyt samochodowy w fiat bank umorzenie pożyczki w spółce pożyczki długoterminowe wikipedia oddziały kredyt banku w polsce kredyt bank warszawa ul fieldorfa pożyczki bez dochodów warszawa kredyty chwilowki opole

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad

 
 
Bill Casselman's Words of the World & Canadian Word of the Day:Their Etymologies & General Word Lore at www.billcasselman.com

 Follow BillCasselman on Twitter

   

“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

Previous Columns/ All Entries / Contact / SiteMap / Bio
Buy My Books Online / Schedule / Photos / Buy Ad Here

Bibliography of my works published in book form My Blog / Good Reviews /

More Features of this Website

 

Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad