skarabeusz pożyczki krotoszyn pożyczki dla zadłużonych uk pomarańcza owocne pożyczki umowa pożyczki na samochód kredyt bez bik do 100 000 udzielenie pożyczki a vat 2012 oprocentowanie kredytów w banku pko bp kredyt bank rakowicka kraków szybkie pożyczki na dowód wrocław zarobki w kredyt banku 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny jaki bank forum kredyty chwilowki walbrzych kredyt bank skrytki bankowe promocja pożyczki kredyty chwilówki w płocku oprocentowanie kredytów mieszkaniowych pko kredyt konsolidacyjny w parabankach bocian pożyczki ostrów wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny zasady kredyt bank kontakt kredyt bank lokaty sierpień 2012 kredyt pozabankowy lublin pożyczki w domu klienta polkowice pozyczki bez zaswiadczen w uk getin noble bank zdrowy kredyt pożyczki działdowo pozyczka długoterminowa bez bik i krd dla bezrobotnych kredyt dla mundurowych w banku pocztowym idea bank kredyt dla firm opinie kredyt bank kto jest właścicielem kredyty i gwarancje bankowe zbigniew dobosiewicz pdf ksiegowanie pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt bank w gnieźnie kredyt mieszkaniowy plus gotówka paulina gąska pożyczki udzielanie pożyczki przez firmę w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty duże na dowód wrocław kredyt bank koszalin zwycięstwa pożyczki w 15 minut od 18 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny i gotowka pożyczki udzielane z budżetu państwa są podatek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej abis wniosek o kredyt kredyty pozabankowe bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt na mieszkanie oferty banków kredyt mieszkaniowy wkład własny kalkulator provident zwrot pożyczki w ciągu 28 dni kredyt gotówkowy przez internet bez biku pożyczki bez bik na dowód podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank jędrzejów kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt kredyt bank karty bankomatowe kody do orange na kredyt umowa pożyczki proz mikropożyczki klon kredyt konsolidacyjny plus gotowka kredyty konsolidacyjne bz wbk kredyt ok siedlce godziny otwarcia pożyczki otwock getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczeń księgowanie pożyczki udzielonej dobranie pożyczki w ing kredyt bank oferty kredytowe gros pożyczki kwidzyn kredyty chwilówki jarosław kredyt bank cena euro kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat wbk umowa cesji pożyczki wzór kredyt pozabankowy słupsk kredyt bez bik zielona gora pożyczki prywatnie poznań księgowanie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki społecznościowe telefon oświadczenie o przyjęciu pożyczki kredyt bez biku i zaświadczeń kredyt obrotowy w getin banku pożyczki pracownicze oprocentowanie kredyt bez bik 30 tys santander bank kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego ppozyczka na sam dowod osobisty zabrze kredyt bank ken 19 kredyty bez bik śląsk odzyskanie pożyczki bez umowy bank pko sa symulacja kredytu pożyczki 10000zł kredyt bank warszawa marszałkowska kredyt studencki pko bank pekao sa symulacja kredytu kredyt bank prabuty godziny otwarcia najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 kredyty chwilówki email bocian pożyczki żnin pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki państwa pożyczka od osoby fizycznej turek pożyczki na procent płock pożyczki w bankach pożyczki dla zadłużonych kraków pożyczki chwilówki bez bik online kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik poznań kredyt na umowe na czas określony pożyczki pozabankowe legionowo akt notarialny umorzenie pożyczki dla syna kredyt cetelem bank pożyczki od rodziny znajomych kredyt bank oferta pracy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zdolności kredytowej w jakim banku wziac kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt bank warszawa żytnia czy latwo otrzymac w m banku kredyt konsolidacyjny banki udzielajace kredytu wspolnotom pożyczki pod zastaw dla zadłużonych pewny kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank wita stwosza wrocław umowa pożyczki wzór weksel kredyt na samochód bez bik poznań kredyty bez bik bydgoszcz pożyczki pozabankowe do 40000 bocian pożyczki podobne kredyty bez biku toruń kredyt bank lokaty maj 2013 kredyt bank mieszkaniowy alior bank kalkulator kredytu samochodowego prywatne pożyczki na weksel kraków kredyt bank założenie konta kredyty chwilówki siedlce pożyczki ostróda pożyczki w domu klienta bydgoszcz optima pożyczki online kredyt bank multima kredyt bank gora kalwaria kredyt konsolidacyjny kasa stefczyka kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym spłata pożyczki przychód pożyczki bez bik sosnowiec pożyczki polska pożyczki sezam całą polska kredyt konsolidacyjny do 15 lat szybki kredyt bez bik on line kredyt bank świebodzin praca kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kredytowa kronos pożyczki praca pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet bez bik i krd pożyczki bez bik zus kredyt studencki pko sa linia kredytowa w kredyt banku kredyt studencki pekao bp szybkie pożyczki kutno kredyty pozyczki bez biku kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca kredyt studencki banki 2012 kredyt bank janów kredyty pozabankowe i rozne zrudla dochodow mazowieckie pozyczki plock umowa pożyczki proz umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw samochodu kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus forum kredyt bank dział marketingu pozyczki chwilowki pozabankowa pszczyna wzór umowy pożyczki pcc pożyczki w domu częstochowa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości dla zadłużonych pożyczki bez bik współpraca pożyczki z komornikiem kraków kredyt bank w tarnobrzegu akcje spółki kredyt bank sa w warszawie umowa pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych odsetki karne w pożyczkach kiedy nota pożyczki jeremie kredyt w banku gdzie najlepiej kredyty trudne bez bik prywatne umowa pożyczki spółki umowa pożyczki stowarzyszenie aureus pożyczki kredyty konsumpcyjne w działalności banku pożyczki bocian wągrowiec tanie pożyczki częstochowa kredyty mieszkaniowe białystok w jakim banku brać kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki na procent bydgoszcz kredyt bank pelplin godz otwarcia idea bank kredyty gotówkowe pozyczka chwilowka elk kredyty bankowe praca magisterska kredyt bank kosciuszki lodz kredyt bank bialystok radzyminska kredyt bez bik na pit pożyczki prywatne kto udzieli bank bgż kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt bank oddział w białymstoku bip pożyczki opinie kasa polska kredyt na umowe zlecenie pożyczki internetowe bez biku kredyt bank sa centrala pożyczki bez bik i krd wrocław umowa pożyczki osób prywatnych kredyt bez bik gostyn niespłacany kredyt w banku druk udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa telefon kredyty chwilówki fabryczna 12 tychy kredyt bank chrzanów godziny otwarcia kredyt na wyciąg z konta bez bik konin kredyt bank poznań krauthofera pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki prywatne a urząd skarbowy zywiec prywatne pozyczki kredyty chwilówki uwaga pożyczki online opinie kredyt bankowy ewidencja pożyczki na podjęcie działalności gospodarczej kredyt bank platnosc karta za granica aureus pożyczki kredyt bank ul kasprzaka 2 8 warszawa bank pekao sa kredyt na samochód kredyt bank liczba akcji kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najłatwiej udzielenie pożyczki z budżetu gminy pożyczki bez bik 2000 kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie oprocentowanie kredyty chwilówki lichwa kredyt studencki forum 2013 pozyczka z funduszu bez baz pożyczki bez sprawdzania w big kredyt obrotowy idea bank opinie kredyt bank w raszynie kredyt bank poznań adres umowa pożyczki kc umorzenie pożyczki a przychód podatkowy kredyt bank koło szybkie pożyczki śląskie emilion pożyczki kredyt studencki pko czy pekao pożyczki bez krd olsztyn kredyty chwilówki z komornikiem kredyt gotówkowy w banku millenium kredyty chwilówki feniks symulacja kredytu na kamienice lubań kredyty pod zastaw mieszkania nowe miasto lubawskie pożyczka na dowód lukas bank kredyt przez internet pożyczki w domu klienta warszawa firma kronos pożyczki kontakt kredyt odnawialny w millenium bank kredyty mieszkaniowe knf pożyczki od rodziny a podatek kredyt bankowy a faktoring kredyt w idea bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny we frankach kara za niezgłoszenie umowy pożyczki wyludzenie pozyczki ekspresowej kredyt samochodowy ing pożyczki społecznościowe bezpieczeństwo podatek od umorzonej pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bez bik ruda slaska pożyczki konsolidacyjnej kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kraków kredyt bank legionów wrocław pożyczki pozabankowe śląsk kredyt bez bik wadowice kredyt bank z bz wbk kredyt bank wypowiedzenie umowy ubezpieczenia kredyty bankowe księgarnia pozyczki provident i inne krakow pozyczka na dowod 18 lat online pszczyna pożyczki gotówkowe dla każdego pożyczki bez poręczyciela kredyty bez bik mielec pożyczki na dowód radom renata pikuła pożyczki kredyt samochodowy mbank online pożyczki dla zadłużonych kraków wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego udzielenie pożyczki członkowi zarządu kredyty chwilówki kraków librowszczyzna 1 finan pożyczki opinie pożyczki tlf anna kochańska pożyczki kredyt bank 3 marca 2001 pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta pożyczki online opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy można odliczyć od podatku getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie pożyczki dla firm z unii europejskiej tanie kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzina na swoim pożyczka z żyrantem reklamy pozyczek pozabankowych w ostrowie i kaliszu umowa pożyczki podatek pcc umorzenie pożyczki cit szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń w uk kredyt bank ix oddział warszawa pożyczki prywatni inwestorzy kredyt w banku lukas bocian pożyczki przedstawiciele kredyt bank reuters pozyczki na dowod konin kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 45 potrzebuję pożyczki wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny 25000 kredyt bank opłaty za konto pożyczki prywatna od ręki pewne pożyczki dla każdego opinie kredyt bank kepno szybki kredyt pozabankowy przez internet użyczę pożyczki oferta pożyczki gotówkowej santander consumer bank kredyt bez bik nobilon pożyczki gdansk kredyt w pekao sa kalkulator kredyt bank karty zbliżeniowe kredyt bank police kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza tel kredyt samochod irlandii pożyczki na dowód oława pożyczki pozabankowe bez biku jaki jest kod na kredyt do orange pożyczki dla jst kredyty pozabankowe prywatne pożyczki bez bik w kaliszu kredyt bez bik nowa sól kredyt konsolidacyjny najkorzystniejszy pożyczki chwilówki zestawienie kredyty bankowe rachunkowość przedawnienie umowy pożyczki bankowej kredyt w gorzowie bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki udzielone i należności własne przykłady kredyt bez biku lodz kredyt samochodowy bez bik ka pożyczki na założenie firmy kredyt chwilówka bochnia alior bank kredyty gotówkowe kalkulator pożyczki bez bik wałbrzych ryzyko operacyjne w kredyt banku bank ing czynny udzielanie kredytu bocian pożyczki rawicz kredyt bank milanówek wanluks pożyczki kredyty bankowe gdzie w bilansie kredyt bank wychodzące kredyty pozabankowe bytom kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej santander pozyczki pozabankowe kartuzy udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez spółkę kredyt bank plac powstańców kredyt konsolidacyjny fm bank pożyczki prywatne wołomin kredyt na dowod do reki bez dochodow gryfino wzór umowy pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt samochodowy w jakim banku najlepiej zabezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej wekslem kredyt bank bankomaty szczecin pcc od pożyczki wspólnika spółki komandytowej kredyt samochodowy bez bik 2013 umowa pożyczki z budżetu gminy kredyt konsolidacyjny bph kalkulator pożyczki przemyśl dokumentowanie pożyczki kredyt bank profil ambitny kredyt bank konstancińska kredyt bank pszczyna telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pko sa kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millenium opinie kredyty chwilówki praca kierowca rzeczywisty koszt pożyczki żyrafa pożyczki krs kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe regulamin pożyczki prywatne wielkopolska pożyczki profi credit kalkulator kredyt bank marki godziny otwarcia kronos pozyczki przyznawalnosc kredyty bez komornika biku szybka pozyczka bez zaswiadczen tylko na dowod grojec getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyty samochodowe fax pożyczki prywatne tablica siódemka pożyczki oświęcim podatek od pożyczki udzielonej firmie kredyt bank prowizje pozyczki pod zastaw leszno centrala kredyt bank lublin kredyt w banku uk pożyczki 4000 kredyt konsumpcyjny w kredyt banku kredyt mieszkaniowy ltv udzielam pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bełchatów w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt kredyt odnawialny w banku pko sa kredyt bank piotrków pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik na dowód pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych warszawa trusty pożyczki kredyt samochodowy forum opinie pożyczki prywatne olsztyn kredyt bankowy dokumenty kredyt bank opłata za pakiet kredyt bank z jakich bankomatów kredyt konsolidacyjny pułapki kredyty chwilówki legnica kredyty chwilówki bez bik i krd online najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny forum pożyczki vivus kredyt samochodowy w deutsche bank pożyczki bez dochodu łódź kredyt w banku na umowe zlecenie pożyczki chwilówki bez sprawdzania kredyt studencki pko bp konsolidacja kredytów gdzie najlepiej kredyt konsolidacyjny meritum bank opinie pozyczki udzielane w domach garwolin pożyczki bez bik dla nowych firm orange kredyt na 5 zł pozyczki z marr jak ksiegowac kredyt w banku pocztowym oprocentowanie konsolidacja kredytów gotówkowych mbank pożyczki przez internet na dowód bez bik kredyt na dowód bez zaświadczeń rejestracja pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym getin noble bank centrum kredytów samochodowych kredyt pozabankowy śląsk kredyt studencki pko niezaliczony semestr kredyt bank oddział lublin krakowskie przedmieście pożyczki z up pożyczki chwilówki żywiec ewidencja księgowa pożyczki dla pracownika konsekwencje niespłacania pożyczki pozyczka dla firm bez oprocentowania dotacje białystok pożyczki grudziądz pozyczka nowa huta kredyt na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd katowice pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów opole pożyczki na własną działalność gospodarczą pozyczli bez bik na sms pozyczka do domu bez bik blog pożyczki prywatne activia 500 pozyczki czy sa w raciborzu kredyt konsolidacyjny poznań pożyczki prywatne olsztyn pożyczki pozabankowe ciechanów kredyt pozabankowy wrocław pożyczki dla mundurowych konwersja pożyczki na kapitał a pcc pożyczki mieszkaniowe pko udziele pożyczki prywatnie 2013 alior bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator wbk kredyt bank poznan krauthofera kredyt mieszkaniowy we frankach kalkulator lukas bank kredyt gotówkowy przez internet pożyczki bez bik gdzie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd przez internet pożyczki chwilówki bez pracy kredyt bez biku dla firmy kronos pożyczki warszawa kredyty bez bik września kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe concerto kredyt bankowy koszty kredyt bank górczewska 200 kredyty chwilówki rzeszów rejtana bocian pożyczki olsztyn kredyt samochodowy w alior banku partner pożyczki opinie kredyt bank nowy sącz aleje wolności kredyt bank głogów godziny otwarcia szybkie kredyty dla firm bez bik pożyczki dla nowych firm bez bik kredyty bez bik banki pożyczki typu wonga sms365 przedłużenie pożyczki kredyty bez bik w sosnowcu kredyt odnawialny w alior banku opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny na ryczałcie pożyczki do 15000 bez bik kredyt bez sprawdzania bik pozyczki z komornikiem miedzyrzec podlaski pożyczki świnoujście kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka kalkulator pożyczka prywatna bez sprawdzania baz kraków kredyt bank 3 maja kredyt konsolidacyjny skok stefczyka pozyczki lichwa pila pozyczki w domu klienta poznan kredyty bez biku zielona góra kredyty chwilówki nowe pożyczki od ręki gdańsk kredyt mieszkaniowy kwiecień 2013 pożyczka zdunska wola bez bik do 6000 wypowiedzenie umowy kredytu credit agricole kredyt mieszkaniowy jaka pensja bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2013 karencja w spłacie pożyczki co to jest kredyty chwilówki bielawa pożyczki poza systemem bankowym kredyty mieszkaniowe wrzesień 2012 szybkie pożyczki online pierwsza za darmo kredyt bez biku opinie pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności gospodarczej kredyt bankowy funkcje

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad