kredyt bank warszawa ul chełmska 9 najszybszy kredyt w banku kredyt bank kondratowicza warszawa witam kredyt bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówki miechów kredyt bank transze pożyczki bez bik do 2000 big apple pożyczki kredyt studencki w banku pko sa kredyty dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych forum kredyt bank plock wyszogrodzka umowa pożyczki do wypełnienia cesja wierzytelności pożyczki umowy pożyczki wzory szybki kredyt bez przelewu czy bocian pożyczki sprawdza bik pożyczki przez internet plus kredyty chwilówki sieradz kredyty bez bik oddłużeniowe pożyczki 30 dniowe kredyty pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bankomat kredyt bank lubin kredyt mieszkaniowy na zarobki w anglii kredyt bank ken warszawa pożyczki prywatne pod weksel warszawa pożyczki milicz idea bank pożyczki dla firm kredyt bank wiarygodność kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie stałe czy zmienne kredyty bankowe współpraca umowa pożyczki lichwa abis slask pozyczki kredyt bank kościuszki kielce uzasadnienie przyznania pożyczki alior bank kredyt preferencyjny druk umowy pożyczki od udziałowca prywatny kredyt na dowod bez dochody online pożyczki gotówkowe przelicznik kredyt bank sa relacje inwestorskie kredyt samochodowy bank pko bp kredyt w alior bank opinie prodomo pożyczki nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2012 pozyczka pod zabezpieczenie weksla bialystok kredyt bank matejki szczecin pożyczki kraków bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank sesje bankowe pożyczki na 24 miesiące kredyt bank kraków kapelanka kontakt kredyt odnawialny w banku śląskim pożyczki kredytum pozyczki od osob prywatnych bialystok udzielić pożyczki po ang kredyt ratalny w credit agricole pożyczki all money kredyt bank zagiel lodz pożyczki z funduszu pracy kredyt bank światowida kredyt banki 24 pozyczki na dzialalnosc bez bik kredyt bank w legionowie godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe do domu gdzie dostac pozyczke z komornikiem w starachowicach umowa pożyczki odzyskanie pieniędzy podanie o udzielenie pożyczki w pracy gdzie otrzymac kredyt bez bik prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe poznań pożyczki bez bik tczew kredyt bank klodzko pożyczki bez bik włocławek pożyczki do domu kraków kredyt bank mława telefon kredyt mieszkaniowy bez wkładu własnego 2012 zarobki kredyt bank forum pożyczki najtańsze kredyt bank galeria mokotów bocian pożyczki a bik kredyt w banku spółdzielczym forum pozyczka bez bik pozabankowa lublin pożyczki kwidzyn na telefon umowa pożyczki kto składa pcc kredyt studencki banki 2013 kredyty bez krd do domu emida pożyczki prywatne gdzie dostac kredyt bez biku kredyt pozabankowy 3000 pożyczki bez biku śląsk kredyty i pożyczki jst kredyt bank nowy sącz godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik oława kredyt konsolidacyjny bank zachodni wbk kredyt gotówkowy banku pocztowym pożyczki chwilówki dąbrowa górnicza szybki kredyt bez bik forum pożyczki pozabankowe rzeszów prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości warszawa kredyt studencki w pko bp kredyt bez bik racibórz kredyt konsolidacyjny przy niskich zarobkach pożyczki pozabankowe umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kapitałowymi pozyczki w domu klijeta pożyczki dla pracownika pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet forum kredyt bank w zambrowie kredyt bank żyrardów kontakt umowa pożyczki od członka rodziny bocian pożyczki bez bik co to znaczy kredyt bez bik oprocentowanie pożyczki w bankach pożyczki alternatywne niezarejestrowana umowa pożyczki kredyt bank plac zbawiciela telefon kredyty konsolidacyjne rzeszów gdzie wziąć kredyt bez bik kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank bph oprocentowanie kredytu studenckiego w pko bp kredyt w orange pop numer kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osob zadluzonych pozyczki gros leszno kredyt bez bik do 25 tys hortus pożyczki siedlce kredyt bank mikołów godziny otwarcia optima pożyczki oddziały pozyczka na dowod osobisty numer tel chełm kalkulator pożyczki kredytowej kredyt bank płock ul wyszogrodzka pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz kredyt bank demo chwilówka bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank koło tel kredyt bank lublin tomasza zana 39 pożyczki głogów kredyt gotówkowy eurobank kalkulator optima pożyczki leszno pożyczki starogard gdański pożyczki pod zastaw działki kredyty bez bik i bez zaświadczeń odsetki karne w pożyczkach kiedy nota kredyt konsolidacyjny kasa stefczyka zabezpieczenie pożyczki nieruchomością pożyczki dla zadłużonych kielce idea bank kredyty online kredyt bank polen kredyt mieszkaniowy bps pożyczki prywatne częstochowa kredyt bank ul kasprzaka 2 8 warszawa kredyt bank krapkowice pożyczki pod zastaw racibórz szukam pożyczki dla zadłużonych kredyt bank wypowiedzenie ubezpieczenia na życie kredyt bank nowy dwór mazowiecki godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki skargi w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na dom kredyt bank bydgoszcz pożyczki gotówkowe lukas bank pomoc w uzyskaniu kredytu warszawa kredyty gotówkowe bez bik dla firm kredyt bez bik poznań bocian pożyczki jelenia góra prado pożyczki katowice kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator porównanie pożyczki chwilówki bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank telefon kontaktowy kredyty chwilówki net kredyt studencki w credit agricole pożyczki społecznościowe finansowo kredyt gotówkowy bez bik katowice umowa pożyczki wzór zabezpieczenie kredyt pozabankowy 5000 zl kredyt bank w kwidzynie odsetki od pożyczki koszty uzyskania przychodu kredyt samochodowy dla młodych ludzi kredyt studencki bz wbk pożyczki chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny długi okres kredytowania w jakim banku najkorzystniej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy pozyczka bez bik na oswiadczenie dla zadluzonych kredyt bank godziny otwarcia czestochowa pożyczki od ręki bez bik pożyczki pozabankowa kredyt bank białostoczek udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez wkładu własnego pożyczki pozabankowe bez prowizji kredyt bank oferta dla wspólnot pro domo pożyczki toruń kredyt konsolidacyjny na karty kredytowe gros pożyczki toruń kredyty bez biku gorzow najkorzystniejsza pozyczka bez krd kredyt bez biku bielsko biala kredyt w getin banku bez bik pozyczki pod weksel olkusz kredyty chwilówki rozmowa kwalifikacyjna bocian pozyczki wągrowiec pozyczki mikrokasa opinie przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank druk szybkie pożyczki bez bik big i krd optima pożyczki kalisz kredyt bank adres e mail kredyt bank janów lubelski kontakt alior bank proba wyludzenia kredytu kredyt bank warszawa zytnia kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy bgz pożyczki zielona góra podatek od pożyczki w rodzinie 2013 kredyt bank call center pożyczki firmowe prodomo pożyczki opinie ubezpieczenie kredytu w fm banku atiz pożyczka umowa pożyczki w pierwszej grupie podatkowej kredyty chwilówki dział marketingu kredyt bank łódź godziny otwarcia kredyt bank bankomaty za darmo pożyczki bytom szybkie pożyczki bez bik radom szybkie pożyczki dla rolników kredyt rodzina na swoim getin bank kalkulator oddziały kredyt banku w poznaniu umowa pożyczki pieniężnej formularz pożyczki gotówkowe comperia kredyt bank lokaty kalkulator kredyty chwilówki praca kalisz kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób w bik kredyt bank w wieliczce pożyczki bez bik tczew obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki kalkulator bocian pożyczki odstąpienie od umowy przepisy regulujące pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking banków kredyt bank piaseczno umowa pożyczki pcc zwolnienia kredyty bez bik konin pożyczki dla zadłużonych kalisz pożyczki katowice 3 maja oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs gofin kredyt w lukas banku forum decyzja kredytowa w kredyt banku 2012 czy kredyty chwilowki sprawdzaja bik i krd podatek od pożyczki w banku pekao sa wniosek o kredyt studencki kredyty gotówkowe bank spółdzielczy kredyt studencki pko bp warunki alior bank kredyt z ubezpieczeniem kredyt bez bik firma kredyty bez bik i krd wrocław pożyczki online z bikiem kredyt mieszkaniowy ile do spłaty kredyt bank toruń telefon getin noble bank kredyt dla firm pożyczki online bez grosza kredyt bank zytnia warszawa jak napisać wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kalkulator oprocentowania pożyczki umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator rat rodzina na swoim kredyt mieszkaniowy credit agricole forum dokumentacja podatkowa pożyczki wzór mbank pożyczki dla firm wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw auta kredyt na prawo jazdy pożyczki kraków bez zaświadczeń kredyty chwilówki piła odsetki od pożyczki wyliczenie pożyczki przez internet alior bank bes bik pożyczki bez biku świdnica szybki kredyt bez bik placówki kredyt banku w rzeszowie pożyczki żabka cała polska kredyt bank sa akcje alior bank kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt pożyczki gotówkowe suwałki pożyczki lębork pożyczki door kredyt pozabankowy dla bezrobotnych pożyczki na dowód w lublinie pożyczki prywatne dla firm pożyczki optima kontakt kredyt bank kalisz pułaskiego pożyczki pieniężne poza systemem bankowym kredyt w banku bez zaswiadczen pożyczki na sam dowód bez zaswiadczeń łomża pożyczki bez bik katowice w domu klijenta pożyczka bez biku lublin umorzenie pożyczki walutowej pożyczki z kruka kredyt w banku na umowe zlecenie kredyt bank zniżki pożyczki bez krd i big pożyczki chwilówki bez przelewania grosza kredyt bank grojecka warszawa księgowanie umowy pożyczki od udziałowca oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej pekao sa pożyczki chwilówki na konto pożyczki chwilówki rawicz pożyczki chwilówki kredyty kredyt bank spółdzielczy opinie kredyty chwilowki lask kredyt bank elbląg godz otwarcia pożyczki dla ludzi z komornikiem kod na kredyt z orange bocian pozyczki walbrzych kredyty chwilówki inowrocław opodatkowanie odsetek pożyczki pożyczki bez meldunku i dochodu chwilówki stargard bocian pożyczki oddział warszawa pożyczki bez bik wronki prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe bydgoszcz kredyty chwilowki slupsk szybka pozyczka z dostawa do domu zywiec pożyczki chwilówki online bez krd kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osob mieszkajacych za granica kredyt obrotowy w idea banku opinie pożyczki chwilówki gryfice kredyt bank lokaty lipiec 2012 pożyczki na dowód w 15 min kalkulator pożyczki kasa stefczyka pożyczki z funduszy pożyczkowych pożyczki bez bik łódz kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku najtaniej kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik nowość pożyczki do domu pożyczki prywatne śrem kredyt studencki pko powtarzanie roku kody do orange na kredyt kredyt bank komisji edukacji narodowej pożyczki prywatnej udzielę pozyczka na wysoki procent na dowod nowy sacz bocian pożyczki nowa sól przeniesienie pożyczki do innego banku kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik z komornikiem kredyt bank belchatow pożyczki przez internet pierwsza za darmo pożyczki lipno umowa pożyczki obowiązek podatkowy umowa pożyczki raty pożyczki bezzwrotne dla firm kredyty bankowe definicja bocian pożyczki żywiec kredyt na orange kod jakie banki udzielaja kredytu bez bik pożyczki bez biku grudziądz pożyczki w żagiel feniks pożyczki olecko kredyt konsolidacyjny santander pożyczki częstochowa kredyty chwilówki opinie forum tanie pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulator kredyt bank kantor pożyczki bez dochodów 24 h pożyczki kontakt kredyt bank wiatraczna godziny otwarcia kredyt bank bankomaty warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe na pit pożyczki bez bik big erif kredyt z banku rozwoju rady europy kredyt z idea banku opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny i gotowka pożyczki urząd skarbowy umowa zwrotu pożyczki wzór pożyczki prywatne bez opłat wstępnych pożyczki natychmiastowe kredyt bank żniwna poznań godziny otwarcia kredyt bank konstantynów łódzki godziny otwarcia eurocash pożyczki toruń maksymalny okres pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki credit agricole pożyczki pozabankowe konin pożyczki bez bik chojnice pożyczki kredyty dla nowych firm pożyczki dla firm suwałki koszty pożyczki prywatnej kredyt w banku dla zadłużonych pożyczki dla firm porównanie pożyczki prywatne lubin mikropożyczki z efs pożyczki bez bik zakopane kruk pożyczki kredyt w getin banku bik pożyczki chwilówki online od 18 lat opodatkowanie umorzonej pożyczki pożyczki pelikan gdzie otrzymać kredyt bez bik kredyt gotówkowy w santander oprocentowanie udzielić pożyczki ang pożyczki społecznościowe opinie 2012 kredyt bank mielec godziny otwarcia kredyt bank kraków wielicka kredyt bankowy krótkoterminowy bank pko kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt samochodowy dla firm bez bik pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń przez internet bank pko sa kredyt samochodowy pożyczki pozabankowe z bikiem najtańsze kredyty gotówkowe bez bik kredyt bank raty kontakt pożyczki banki kredyty bez bik w olsztynie kredyty chwilówki sucha beskidzka umowa pożyczki podatek zwolnienie kredyt konsolidacyjny expander kredyty chwilówki kalisz najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej 2012 kredyty chwilówki ostrów wlkp kredyty chwilówki tychy jana pawła ii pożyczki ratalne bez bik pożyczki z poręczycielem kredyt w millenium bank umowa pożyczki a zgłoszenie do urzędu skarbowego łatwe pożyczki bez bik kredyt w banku bez krd kredyty bez bik sandomierz pożyczki dla firm pożyczki w bedzinie kredyty pozabankowe bielsko biala kredyty pozabankowe malbork kredyty helios pożyczki bez bik raty idea bank pożyczki dla firm kredyty pozabankowe trojmiasto bocian pożyczki formularz kredyt bank elixir sesje kredyty chwilówki w domu klienta amber gold pożyczki opinie 2012 pożyczki prywatne wołomin kredyt konsolidacyjny 300 tys kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk bank zachodni szybkie darmowe pożyczki optima pożyczki numer tel pożyczki z najmniejszym oprocentowaniem pożyczki novum opinie kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyty wspólnoty mieszkaniowej premium pożyczki opinie pożyczki i należności własne kredyt obrotowy w idea banku opinie kredyt bank gdynia chwaszczyńska godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe w uk kredyt bez biku 10 tys boleslawiec kredyt bez biku gdańsk kredyt bank biała podlaska brzeska 21 kasa pożyczki kredyt bank krotoszyn godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe konin kredyt gotówkowy w banku paribas kredyt bank sprzedaż santander umowa pożyczki z datą wsteczną getin bank warunki udzielenia kredytu podatek od pożyczki z banku kredyt konsolidacyjny dla kazdego pożyczki publiczne bocian pożyczki wrocław pożyczki bez bik oława bank pekao sa kredyt dla singla kredyty mieszkaniowe co trzeba wiedzieć pożyczki pozabankowe w domu klienta kredyty chwilówki lubin prywatny kredyt bez bik z komornikiem dobre pozyczki przez internet kredyt bank kraków kapelanka kontakt pożyczki chwilówki olkusz potrzebuje pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt bez bik jasło bezpieczny kredyt pozabankowy bikuś pożyczki pozyczki dla zadluzonych bydgoszcz kredyt bank gdańsk targ drzewny godziny otwarcia kredyt lloyds uk 2014 kredyt konsolidacyjny na 12 lat kredyt bank lokaty czerwiec 2013 kredyty bez bik bytom pożyczki dla uczących się kredyt w mbanku kredyty bez bik tarnów kredyt bank poznań pożyczki pod zastaw międzyzdroje kredyt bank zapomniałem hasła kredyt bank białystok skłodowskiej godziny otwarcia kredyt chwilówki nowy sącz kredyt konsolidacyjny działalność gospodarcza umorzenie pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych takto pożyczki kontakt pożyczki dla pracowników a pcc pulawska kredyty chwilowki warszawa bez bik i krd bocian pożyczki chełmża kredyt konsolidacyjny w parabanku udzielę pożyczki pożyczki bez umowy o prace łodz pożyczki chwilówki w poznaniu bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2013 pożyczki internetowe bez prowizji vivus przedłużenie pożyczki pożyczki prywatne zdunska wola pożyczki ferratum kredyt w banku w holandii kredyty chwilówki stalowa wola okulickiego

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

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funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad