pożyczki osób prywatnych kredyt bank lodz ketlinga kredyt bez bik i krd lublin podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank sochaczew kontakt pożyczki bez biku słupsk kredyt w uk kalkulator wspólnik udziela pożyczki spółce kredyty bez biku leszno kredyty santander consumer bank pożyczki pozabankowe wołomin kredyt odnawialny pko mikropożyczki dla polski wschodniej pożyczki na dowód piekary śląskie warunki kredytu studenckiego w pko bp kredyt bank lidzbark warmiński umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór pdf pożyczki w domu gdynia kredyt konsolidacyjny dla pracujacych za granica kredyt bez biku w banku pożyczki pozabankowe z bikiem akt notarialny umorzenie pożyczki dla syna kredyt pozabankowy przez internet kosztorys do pożyczki remontowej kredyt bank blz pożyczki bez bik w wałbrzychu łukta pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnej osoby kredyt bank wydział zajęć komorniczych kredyty chwilówki chorzów batory kredyt w banku muzułmańskim jaki jest kod na kredyt w orange one gdzie można otrzymać kredyt bez bik kredyty chwilówki windykacja opinie pożyczki długoterminowe wikipedia duomax pożyczki na jaki numer wysyła sie kredyt w orange kredyt bank plac solny godziny otwarcia pożyczki peer to peer pozyczki społecznościowe pozabankowe kredyt bank belgijski kredyt bank ostrołęka godziny pracy spłata pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank warszawa jana pawła ii pożyczki na weksel śląskie zwrot pożyczki a urząd skarbowy kredyt studencki jakie banki 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny z poręczycielem pożyczki chwilówki bez bik gdańsk kredyt bez bik 7 polski kredyt bank sa pożyczki pko bp pożyczki na prefinansowanie czy bocian pożyczki sprawdza bik kredyty bez bik szczecin kredyt bank jakie bankomaty pożyczki w bydgoszczy kredyt w banku uk kredyt bank groupon kredyt bank w bogatyni pcc od pożyczki od firmy kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin bank pko bp wniosek o umorzenie kredytu studenckiego reklama pożyczki kredyt w get in bank opinie pożyczki od ręki bez bik pożyczki chwilówki na telefon i przez internet umowa pożyczki rewolwingowej wzór optima pożyczki wołomin pożyczki pod weksel wrocław skarabeusz pozyczki wielkopolska kredyty chwilówki optima pożyczki z funduszu świadczeń socjalnych mcredit pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe poznań pożyczki gotówkowe pko bp kredyty chwilówki płock sienkiewicza kredyt konsolidacyjny w credit agricole pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2012 pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik big krd kredyt bank direct kredyt bez biku kraków pożyczki getin bank kredyt bankowy dziedziczenie credit agricole pożyczki kredyt bank różana pożyczki dla emerytów bez bik kredyt bank oddział w sieradzu pożyczki na oświadczenie poznań kredyt bez bik prywatny pozyczki gotowkowe holandia 2014 pożyczki online bez grosza radom pożyczki na dowód umowa pożyczki pieniędzy bez odsetek kredyt bank leszno tel kredyt samochodowy idea bank umowa pożyczki w i grupie podatkowej kredyty firmowe bez biku kredyty pozabankowe bez bik z komornikiem udzielam pożyczki pod weksel pożyczki 0 pożyczki unijne pszczółka pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w innym banku pożyczki online bez bik od 18 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny dla bardzo zadłużonych księgowanie pożyczki dla pracownika pożyczki społecznościowe pożyczki bez biku śląsk kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej alior bank kredyt bank wołomin idea bank konsolidacja konsolidacji kredytu kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz gdańska 69 ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych październik 2012 kredyty dla bezrobotnych na raty online kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik pożyczki na dowód gorzów optima pożyczki do domu łódź łatwy kredyt w banku kredyt bank poleasingowe kredyt bank tarnów kredyt gotówkowy w alior banku forum kredyt konsolidacyjny a zły bik provident oferta pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa mapa kredyt bank bankomaty płock kredyt bank bgz kalkulator pożyczki credit agricole kredyt bank w krosnie kredyt bank opole żwirki i wigury godziny otwarcia kredyt bank świdnica kontakt kredyty chwilówki jaworzno sienkiewicza kredyt bank kantor pożyczki gotówkowe koszalin kredyt bank w płocku pożyczki prywatne w lubinie kredyt bank zielona góra przeksięgowanie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kredyt mieszkaniowy dla malzenstw pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach danych ing bank kredyt dla noeo otwartych furm kredyt bez bik zabrze pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kredyt w gospodarce banku centrala kredyt banku w warszawie wzór umowy pożyczki bankowej pożyczki wyszków kredyt w eurobanku opinie bezzwrotne pożyczki dla nowych firm kredyt bank banco santander umowa pożyczki gotówka jak udzielić pożyczki pod zastaw lokaty w kredyt banku kredyt bank wrocłąw alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie pożyczki od firm prywatnych kredyt samochodowy w santanderze umowa pożyczki bez formy pisemnej pozyczki pozabankowe w domu klijenta ostrow wlkp kredyt bank czarne złoto pożyczki pszczółka bank pko bp kredyt dla pracujacych za granica umowy pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego pożyczki dla zadluzonych z zajeciem komorniczym pożyczki bez podatku podatek kredyt bankowy to aktywa czy pasywa umowa pożyczki podatek pcc pożyczki bez pcc pożyczki online bez bik ranking umowa pożyczki i weksel kredyt chwilówka 15 minut przeniesienie pożyczki kredyt bank kraków kapelanka kontakt kredyty konsolidacyjne z bik pożyczki od firm prywatnych kredyt bank warszawa śródmieście fundacja warty i kredyt banku razem możemy więcej krs pożyczki grójec szybkie pożyczki białystok alior bank kredyt dla firm opinie spłata pożyczki po niemiecku pożyczki pozabankowe chełm pożyczki oddłużeniowe na dowud kredyt konsolidacyjny millennium bank pożyczki z funduszy europejskich kredyt bank 1 oddział poznań pożyczki gotówkowe bez pracy kredyty bez bik od dłuż umowa pożyczki zfron profil aktywny kredyt bank kredyt bank bankomat stargard tanie pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty samochodowe bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki dla rolników 2013 idea bank jakie oprocentowanie kredytu kiedy przedawnia się niespłacony kredyt bankowy konsolidacja kredytów jak to działa kredyty bez bik i komornika przyrzeczenie pożyczki facebook pożyczki pożyczki infinite kredyt mieszkaniowy wymagane zarobki kredyt konsumpcyjny w banku bph kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 186 pożyczki poza bankiem umowa pożyczki dla spółki osobowej pożyczki pod zastaw łapy kredyt konsolidacyjny w aig swift adres kredyt bank koszalin pilsudskiego kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatów za granicą kredyt bank pocztowy pożyczki wspólpraca kredyt za 5 zl w orange nowe pożyczki chwilówki przez internet kredyt bankowy przedawnienie roszczeń kredyt bank jasło pożyczki 365 pożyczka pod hipoteke w białogardzie w banku w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku spółdzielczym opinie skarabeusz pożyczki przemyśl wzór faktury na odsetki od pożyczki kredyty chwilówki prokuratura kredyty mieszkaniowe porównanie banków pożyczka na otwarcie działalności łódzkie pożyczki pozabankowe w lublinie kredyty bez biku zielona gora bnp paribas kredyt umowa zlecenie kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank kalkulator kredyt studencki w banku pko bp pożyczki chwilówki gdynia udzielam szybkich prywatnych pozyczek zywiec kredyt bank w warszawie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank oddział w dębicy kredyty w lukas bank kredyt bank wypłaty za granicą mam kredyt w getin banku pozyczki dla mlodych prywatne bialystok pożyczki pozabankowe 10000 zł kredyt bank godziny otwarcia placówek zajęcie komornicze pożyczki z zfśs kredyt studencki pko terminy szybki kredyt sms bez bik prywatna pozyczka w bialymstoku kredyt pozabankowy prywatny umowa pożyczki bez oprocentowania wzór kredyty konsolidacyjne pozabankowe wrocław kredyt bank zawiercie kontakt kredyt pozabankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rencistów skarabeusz pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki bez sprawdzania rejestrów pożyczki bez dochodu kredyt studencki pko procent kredyt bank płock godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw krosno kredyt bank plac powstańców warszawy 2 dobre pożyczki pozabankowe szybkie pożyczki w internecie pokwitowanie spłaty pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki od udziałowca spółki kredyty chwilówki płońsk kredyty mieszkaniowe koszty kredyt studencki pko okazanie legitymacji ogłoszenia pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty konsolidacyjne gotowkowe chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki godula gus pożyczki kredyt bank police godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik i krd gdańsk kredyt chwilówka kłodzko pożyczki pod zastaw wszystkiego kredyt samochodowy w credit agricole opinie pożyczki pod zastaw rzeszów kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole opinie kredyt bank w gnieźnie kredyt bank w kraśniku pożyczki prywatne biała podlaska kasa stefczyka kalkulator pozyczki pożyczki bez bik plus kredyt bank poznań niepodległości godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe bank pocztowy kredyt bank tarnów lwowska godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe szczecin mikropożyczki 2014 przedawnienie pożyczki cywilnej umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu prawo poszukuje pożyczki pozabankowej knf pożyczki pożyczki prywatne od rodziny pożyczki bez zaświadczeń łódź pożyczki gumtree kredyt bank hrubieszów tel kredyt samochodowy alior bank kalkulator pożyczki na start firmy bez bik szybki kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank przelewy pożyczki kętrzyn pożyczki pod zastaw auta łódź kredyt bank profil aktywny 50 pożyczki chwilówki wejherowo udzielać pożyczki ang umowy pożyczki od rodziny wzór euro providus pożyczki ekstra kasa pożyczki pożyczki nowe mikserek pożyczki pozyczka bez zdolnosci kredytowej pożyczki chwilówki kredytum kredyt studencki pko terminy pożyczki bez bik pod zastaw samochodu pożyczki w skoku stefczyka kredyt pozabankowy online kredyt na zakup ziemi bank spółdzielczy umowa pożyczki zawarta zagranicą kredyt bank janki pożyczki naziemne umowa pożyczki paragraf 777 kredyt bank remigiusz hołdys udzielić pożyczki ang pcc od umowy pożyczki między firmami kredyty pozabankowe szczecin kredyt bank ostrobramska 101 umowa pożyczki lombardowej umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenia kredyty chwilówki jak to działa pożyczki na dowód bez biku kredyt bank obsługa kart kredytowych pożyczki otrzymane kredyt bank limit wypłat pożyczki chwilówki na dowód forum kredyty samochodowe bez bik i krd kredyt na mieszkanie kalkulator zdolności kredytowej pozyczki z komornikiem krd bik lublin 2014 forum kredyt konsolidacyjny obliczenia ing pożyczki opinie transze w kredyt banku bocian pożyczki tczew kredyt bank sprzedaż wierzytelności pożyczki bez sprawdzania krd kredyt bank minsk kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe walutowe pożyczki bez bik bank pożyczki bez krd bik tani kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt samochodowy w lukas banku kredyt bez bik nowy tomyśl kredyt dla firmy bez biku kredyt bank zwolnienia 2012 kredyt bank 24 login szybką pożyczka do domu klienta poszukuję pożyczki pod zastaw umowa pożyczki między spółką a udziałowcem umorzenie pożyczki od rodziny pożyczki chwilówki bez konta pozyczki na raty kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp bocian pożyczki dla kogo kredyt bank chałubińskiego gdańsk kredyt bank lublin opinie kredyt bez bik bydgoszcz kredyty bez bik tarnowskie góry pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorstw opole kredyt bank grupa kbc pożyczki krótkoterminowe w uk umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona zastawem kredyt w banku a umowa na czas określony pożyczki ekspresowe elbląg okres przedawnienia pożyczki z zfśs symulacja kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy kredyt w alior banku a bik kredyt w bilansie banku getin bank online kredyt formularz pożyczki pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorców sprawdzone kredyty konsolidacyjne pozabankowe pko bank polski kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki ekspresowe warszawa pożyczki na dowód siedlce bocian pożyczki żary stewczyk w słupsk pozyczka na dowód getin noble bank zdrowy kredyt kredyt bank lokata econstans tax care pożyczki forum kredyt bank warszawa kondratowicza godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe pozyczki internetowe pożyczki na dowód stargard szczeciński bocian pożyczki jelenia góra umorzenie pożyczki z wfośigw pcc od pożyczki akcjonariusza kredyt bank ambicja kredyt gotówkowy w banku spółdzielczym forum bankomat kredyt bank warszawa umowy pożyczki a podatek pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki na dowód chełmno pozyczki pod zastaw auta w minsku maz umorzenie pożyczki wfośigw pożyczki dla firm kredyt bank zarobki 2012 pcc od pożyczki od rodziny kredyt bank warszawa ul targowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki 10000 bez bik katowice kredyt bank lokaty internetowe kredyt bank kondycja pożyczki chwilówki przez internet forum kredyty bez bik zaświadczeń kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny wady pożyczki chwilówki chojnice pozyczki z obsługą domową warszawa kredyt bank dworna łomża optima pożyczki kielce kredyt bank otwarcie oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego w santander pożyczki na dowód katowice kredyt bank pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki ebroker cienka kapitalizacja pożyczki kredyt studencki w jakim banku kredyt bank w szczytnie kredyty bez bik ranking pożyczki chwilówki bez big szybkie pożyczki lubuskie szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyt bank żywiec godziny otwarcia umowa pośrednictwa pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wielkopolska kredyt bank w makowie mazowieckim kredyt chwilowka szczecinek kredyt pozabankowy na raty odsetki od pożyczki w grupie kapitałowej pożyczki 3000 zł kredyt bank jelcz laskowice udziele pożyczki prywatnie kredyt bank sa żagiel kontakt provident pożyczki na dowód kredyty bez bik gryfice kredyt bank zastrzeganie kart pożyczki bez weryfikacji w bik kredyty samochodowe alior bank kredyt w banku zachodnim bocian pożyczki brodnica pożyczki chwilówki jelenia góra kredyt bank sa kasprzaka kredyt w uk bez sprawdzania kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 2000 pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania prywatne bocian pożyczki rzeszów pożyczki prywatne gumtree pożyczki w firmie bocian deutsche bank kredyt bez zatrudnienia pożyczki gotówkowe mbank mbank kredyt samochodowy bocian pożyczki opinie gowork kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum banku pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki chwilówki co to jest druk pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt bez bik oprocentowanie pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości leszno kredyt bank sa oddział w sopocie marcin pytel pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki zabezpieczonej wekslem kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking pożyczki kłodzko kredyt bank zaswiadczenie o zarobkach umowa pożyczki od kolegi dramatyczne zwolnienia w kredyt banku kredyt bankowy jest umowa pożyczki bankowej wzór kredyt bank ostrowiec uzasadnienie przyznania pożyczki kredyt bank pocztowy wasze opinie pożyczki bez bik program partnerski umowa pożyczki deklaracja pcc kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego umorzenie pożyczki pcc bank ing czynny udzielanie kredytu oprocentowanie w getin banku kredyt kiedy kredyt bankowy jest przedawniony kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy eurobank bocian pożyczki zgierz kredyty bez bik koszalin kredyt bez biku bytom alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy bank bph pożyczki dla bezrobotnych poznań pożyczki chwilówki na dowód katowice wniosek o kredyt studencki bank pekao sa pożyczki bez bik do 2000 zł osoba udzielająca pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i zaświadczeń warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu opinie pozyczki i kredyty bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki do spółki wzór wzór umowy pożyczki osoby fizyczne koncepcja pożyczki zwrotnej

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad