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pod zastaw maszyn rolniczych pożyczki chwilówka od ręki ranking banków udzielających kredyt rodzina na swoim mini pozyczki be bik oprocentowanie kredytu w banku bgż kredyt bank tarnobrzeg kontakt kredyty trudne bez biku i prywatne kredyt bank aleje marcinkowskiego poznań kredyty bez bik bez zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw wzór kredyt bank kosciuszki sopot kredyt w skok stefczyka forum udzielę pożyczki na wysoki procent w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na firmę kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osoby samotnej podatek od pożyczki pomiędzy firmami kredyt studencki bank pko pożyczki gotówkowe typu provident pko bp poznań kredyt studencki gowork kredyty chwilówki zarobki w kredyt banku 2012 kredyty mieszkaniowe bph pożyczki bankowe kredyt bank lublin zana kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe provident pozyczka 70000 bez bik pożyczki poznań gumtree kredyt bank wiarygodność kredyt studencki pko wakacje szybkie pożyczki częstochowa kredyt chwilówka w krakowie pożyczki chwilówki świdnica kredyt odnawialny w eurobank bocian pożyczki i podobne pożyczki kredyty dla zadłużonych leasing czy kredyt samochodowy forum mikropożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności 2014 kredyt bank nysa kontakt kredyty na umowe na czas okreslony oddziały kredyt banku szczecin kredyt pozabankowy pod weksel kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza kredyty chwilówki kontakt dobranie pożyczki w providencie kredyty chwilówki 0 pożyczka bez bik bez zaświadczeń puck firma bocian pożyczki kontakt pozyczka pod zastaw auto chrzanow placówki kredyt banku gdańsk pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczenia pożyczki dla małych firm darmowa umowa pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa aleja krakowska godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki bez bik online umowa pożyczki spółce z o o wzór kredyt bank w jakich bankomatach kredyt na start w idea bank opinie kredyt bank w zduńskiej woli oblicz ratę kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim umowa pożyczki z własnym pracownikiem pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorstw kredyt bez bik wałbrzych kredyt bez biku żywiec pożyczki gotówkowe łódź pko kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kalkulator kredyt bank w mielcu pożyczki chwilówki bez big umowa pożyczki z własnym pracownikiem kredyt bank kondratowicza godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wolczanska lodz potrzebuję pilnej komentarz kredytu klient maj 2014 kredyt na start bez biku kredyt remontowy w banku pekao sa kredyt w banku przelicznik kredyt chwilówka kłodzko kredyt bank aplikacja pożyczki bez bik chojnice getin noble bank kredyt deweloperski umowa pożyczki powtórnej pożyczki w domu śląsk kredyty konsolidacyjne porownanie ofert pozyczki augustow przez internet przedawnienie długu pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki na dowód bolesławiec szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki gotówkowe na pit kredyt bez bik credit agricole pcc od pożyczki od udziałowca 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny karta kredytowa kredyt samochodowy getin noble bank opinie pozyczki calodobowe uk online pożyczka z żyrantem kredyty do firm parabanki kredyt bank filia jastrowie nowe pożyczki bez bik pożyczki 24 pro kredyty na firme bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wymagania pożyczki prywatne na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank poraj umowa pożyczki jakie opłaty pożyczki pro domo czy kredyt bank ma problemy duże pożyczki bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw wszystkiego poznań pożyczki chwilówki płońsk kredyt bank mickiewicza godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lublin windykacja kontakt w jakich bankach można wsiąść pożyczkę na dowod kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok jaworzno kredyt bank w skierniewicach kredyt mieszkaniowy bz wbk forum kredyty konsolidacyjne w getin banku pożyczki na dowód ekspres kasa kredyt bankowy bez bik pożyczki pierwsza pożyczka za darmo kredyt konsolidacyjny pko kalkulator eurocash pożyczki chwilówki praca pożyczki łódź kredyt studencki pko opłaty manipulacyjne kredyt gotówkowy banku pocztowym kredyt w banku pożyczki studenckie uk kredyt bank goleniów godziny otwarcia pozyczki placówki w pabianicach pożyczki bocian opinie magdalena boczarska pożyczki pożyczki all money opinie kredyt konsumpcyjny w alior banku cesja z umowy pożyczki profi credit czy udziela pozyczki bez u mowy o prace kredyty mieszkaniowe nowe zasady 2013 kredyt bank sandomierz godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik i krd legnica kredyty chwilówki system partner pl jak odmówić pożyczki kredyt bez biku na telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny a umowa zlecenie kredyt bank rezygnacja z konta pożyczki oddziały warszawa proximus pozyczki pożyczki bez opłat rejestracyjnych open finance pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki pod zastaw w poznaniu konwersja pożyczki na kapitał odsetki kredyt bank bocian niespłacone pożyczki z zfśs kredyt banku pko kredyt oddłużeniowy w banku pożyczki novum opinie kredyt bank nfc kredyt bank gliwice dworcowa pożyczki gotówkowe dla emigrantów pożyczki bez bik bochnia kredyt bank wiarygodność pożyczki dla nowej firmy kredyty bez bik chojnice kredyty bez bik stargard szczeciński kredyt w banku rodzina na swoim kredyt bank lokaty jednodniowe wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pod jaki numer się bierze kredyt orange kredyt bank kielce pozyczki prywatne na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd tczew pożyczki chwilówki na dowód pożyczki chwilówki żagań pozyczki mikrokasa opinie pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców mazowieckie kredyt bankowy rodzaje status pożyczki kredito24 bocian pożyczki lidzbark warmiński pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet pożyczki ue pożyczki częstochowa kredyt pod zastaw samochodu bez bik kredyt bank problemy z logowaniem placówki kredyt banku w białymstoku kredyty chwilówki kalisz aby wziasc pozyczke w noble banku co potrzeba pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki warszawa pożyczki na dowód bez zdolności kredytowej kredyty chwilówki lublin kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe 2013 pożyczki bez bik z obsługą w domu pozyczki żary na dowod kredyty dla zadłużonych bez biku pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach pożyczki pomarańcza lublin global pożyczki świdnica kredyty chwilówki pośrednictwo kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim ranking pożyczki bocian w pile kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim 2013 pożyczki kraków szlak kredyt samochodowy bez bik wrocław opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki udzielonej spółce kiedy kredyt bankowy jest przedawniony pożyczki chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski umowa pożyczki a pcc umowa pożyczki rodzaje kredyt bank 3 marca 2001 pożyczki pozabankowe wałbrzych pozyczka online w niedziele obliczenie raty pożyczki pożyczki bez bik w starachowicach ranking kredytów samochodowych marzec 2013 księgowanie pożyczki zfśs kredyt dla studentów mbank mariusz lipiński pożyczki pozyczki walbrzych z bik krs i komornikiem ang pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe luty 2013 pożyczki na dowód bank kredyty chwilówki w katowicach kredyt bank karmelicka kredyt gotówkowy w alior banku forum kredyt bank adres lublin najleprzy kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenia bank pko sa kalkulator kredytu kredyty bez biku gdynia pożyczki na dowód gdynia pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik najtańszy kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt dla zadluzonych boleslawiec kredyt bank nowy sacz kontakt kredyty chwilówki szczecinek kredyt lombardowy banku komercyjnego umowa pożyczki i weksel kredyt bank rzeszow 3 maja kredyt bank niepodległości 54 kredyt według prawa bankowego oświadczenie o przyjęciu pożyczki kredyt bank aktywacja tokena kredyt w banku z komornikiem kredyt kupiecki w banku najtańsze pożyczki ranking ksiegowanie pozyczki de minimis pożyczki z obsługą w domu klienta pożyczki gotówkowe z bikiem getin bank kredyt na pit oprocentowanie pożyczki chwilówki na dowód forum kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank pożyczki bez bik września kredyt bank noskowskiego pożyczki przez internet forum kredyt bez bik gdansk duo pożyczki chwilówki udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez osobę fizyczną kalkulator pożyczki bgż pożyczki w domu klienta głogów pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bez bik tarnów umowa pożyczki pieniędzy do spółki pożyczki gotówkowe ranking kredyt bankowy bez zaświadczeń kredyt przez internet w idea bank 10000 pożyczki na dowód legnica kredyty chwilówki jaworzno sienkiewicza najtańszy kredyt samochodowy dla firm pożyczki bez krd i big firmy leasingowe pożyczki assa pożyczki szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń błyskawiczne pożyczki bez bik fines pożyczki jaki kredyt konsolidacyjny wybrać kredyt mieszkaniowy w idea bank czy chwilówki dają pożyczki dla bezrobotnym kredyt bank oddział lublin żagiel alior bank kredyt inwestycyjny oprocentowanie kredyty mieszkaniowe bez zdolności kredytowej pożyczki bez krd i bik kredyt bank białystok lipowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank laczy sie z wbk pożyczki chwilówki dzierżoniów pożyczki internetowe pożyczki gotówkowe nowy sącz amber fish pożyczki kredyt bank zmiana limitu dziennego oferta pożyczki pko bp pożyczki chwilówki skawina kredyt bank w zyrardowie szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki pozabankowe przepisy pożyczki bez bik kontakt kredyt dla rolników bez biku kredyt bez weryfikacji w biku umowa pożyczki opracowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla działalności gospodarczej opodatkowanie niezgłoszonej pożyczki kredyty chwilówki świecie kredyt bank puławska umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziców kod orange na kredyt szybkie pożyczki przez internet na dowód bezbik kredyt konsolidacyjny to pożyczki oświęcim kredyt bank w leżajsku pożyczki bez bik warszawa kredyty chwilówki starogard gdański kredyt bank vi oddział w warszawie kredyty bez weryfikacji w biku kredyt bank sa lublin kontakt kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe opłaty pożyczki online bez odsetek kredyt bez bik olsztyn udzielam uczciwych prywatnych pozyczek cashflow pożyczki kredyt bank wrocław chrobrego tel pożyczka pod zastaw auta zdunska wola jak obliczyć odsetki od umowy pożyczki umowa pożyczki matka córka kredyt w meritum bank forum kredyty chwilówki soho bezpłatne pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki na dowód bez umowy o prace pożyczki gotówkowe szybka gotówka od ręki kredyt bank karta kredytowa pożyczki bez bik do 2000 kredyt bank warszawa wawer kredyt mieszkaniowy na remont mieszkania pożyczki między firmami pcc godziny przelewów w kredyt banku kredyt gotówkowy skok chmielewskiego jaki jest numer do finan pozyczki kredyt bank nowy sącz godziny otwarcia kredyt bank karta prepaid umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki przychód jakie banki w poznaniu udzielaja kredytow kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim 2012 kredyt bank łowicz godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne szukam kredyty bankowe bilans kredyt online kredyt konsolidacyjny wniosek on line kredyt samochodowy dla ludzi w bik pozyczki inwestor prywatne pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy karta podatkowa w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy bocian pożyczki praca opinie getin noble bank ubezpieczenie kredytu pozyczka pod weksel bialystok kredyt bez bik online getin noble bank kredyt rodzina na swoim pożyczki społecznościowe prawo kredyt bank tczew kontakt gdzie szukac pożyczki pozabankowej w starachowice kredyt bank w mielcu szybkie kredyty bez biku pożyczki pozabankowe porady kredyt bank w konstancinie kredyt bank kontakt mailowy kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw domu pożyczki prywatne weksel kredyt odnawialny w banku pko bp duze pozyczki pod weksel kredyt bank maestro pożyczki pod zastaw auta śląsk prywatne pożyczki tczew kredyt orange 5 zł kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki kredyt jako produkt bankowy praca licencjacka kredyt bank marszałkowska pożyczki chwilówki bielsko biała pożyczki bez infomonitora pożyczki bez bik do 10 000 kredyt w banku spółdzielczym a bik pożyczki bez bik gorzów wlkp białystok pożyczki bez bik kredyt w banku pekao sa opinie kredyt dla emerytow w banku pocztowym kredyt odnawialny w mbanku dla studenta współpraca pożyczki pozabankowe wzór umowy pożyczki rodzinnej czy warto brać kredyt studencki forum pożyczki gotówkowe na pit w ktorym banku dostane dlugoterminowa pozyczke kredyt bank goleniów kontakt kredyt bank nowy świat kredyt bank plus pożyczki abis forum kredyty mieszkaniowe 2012 forum kredyt bank zawiercie telefon kredyty pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bez bik bez poreczycieli kredyt bank powstańców śląskich wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki przyznania pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz kredyt pelikan z bik i krd slwstrzymanie splaty kredytu czy w paribas kredyt jest bez bik pozyczki walbrzych z bik krd i komornikiem brak zwrotu pożyczki przestępstwo kredyt bank kolobrzeska udzielone pożyczki aktywa kredyt bank konstancińska pozyczki calodobowe uk online kredyt w pko getin bank konsolidacja kredytów kredyty chwilówki dział marketingu kredyt mieszkaniowy proces pozyczki na nowa firme aport pożyczki nowe pożyczki internetowe kredyt konsolidacyjny idea bank kredyt 4 tys na dowód prowident kredyt bank metro imielin wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pdf kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osob pracujacych za granica natychmiastowe pożyczki przez internet promocja w kredyt banku rafał konarski pożyczki idea bank kredyty online dobre kredyty bez biku umorzenie pożyczki po angielsku kredyty bez biku konin rybnik pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank plonsk pożyczki lubuskie warunki kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyty pozabankowe do 20000 kredyt bank prabuty godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez biku legnica bocian pożyczki bolesławiec pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe zfśs pożyczki prywatne wągrowiec pożyczki chwilówki na dowód rzeszów wzór na obliczenie oprocentowania pożyczki pożyczki prywatne podatek kredyty bez bik big komornik konsolidacja pożyczki z funduszu pracy

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad