kredyty chwilówki konsolidacja bocian pożyczki goleniów pożyczki kujawsko pomorskie kredyty mieszkaniowe obliczanie rat pożyczki prywatne podkarpacie kredyty mieszkaniowe dla singli 2013 kredyt bank kolobrzeska gdansk kredyt gotowkowy w banku santander pożyczki bezzwrotne dla młodych rolników kredyt bank nr telefonu kredyt mieszkaniowy w millenium forum kara za niezgłoszenie umowy pożyczki kredyt bank iii oddział w warszawie szybki kredyt dla firm bez bik kredyt pozabankowy bielsko kredyt konsolidacyjny praca w uk umowa pożyczki wzór pieniędzy getin noble bank dział kredytów samochodowych kredyt bank ząbkowice śląskie kredyty chwilówki gdańsk kredyt bank popularna godziny otwarcia szukam szybkiej pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki przez internet ranking kredyt konsolidacyjny expander kalkulator kredyt bank bielawa pożyczki w uk dla polaków kredyt bank warszawa praga południe kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik krd fides pożyczki pozyczka pieniezna w dublini rejestracja umowy pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank nr iban bocian pożyczki kielce kredyt bank warszawa ursynów udzielić pożyczki po niemiecku kredyt samochodowy na oświadczenie bez bik w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt kredyt bank w świnoujściu kredyt bank akcje kredyt z bik kredyty bez baz kredyt na komornika na oświadczenie kredyt bank zamość godziny pracy kredyt bank sa warszawa adres pożyczki chwilówki nowe umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami a pcc szybki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki w domu wałbrzych kredyt konsolidacyjny pko kalkulator kredyt bank kontakt lublin kredyt bank oddziały warszawa wola kredyty i gwarancje bankowe dobosiewicz pdf pozyczka z obslugą klienta w domu kredyt bank lublin centrala kredyt bank żołnierska kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki umowa pożyczki do spółki wzór pożyczki pozabankowe na 30 lat pożyczki prywatne wyszków pożyczki bocian zielona góra pożyczki w tax care księgowanie odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki szybkie pożyczki bartoszyce pożyczki dla posłów umorzenie pożyczki z banku kredyt bank lublin windykacja kontakt pożyczki cała polska pożyczki dla małych firm na start kredyt bank sa centrala warszawa umowa pożyczki a skutki podatkowe pożyczki chwilówki na dowód rzeszów najszybszy kredyt w banku spłata kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyt bank krasnik kredyt bez bik tarnowskie góry pożyczki prywatne piotrków trybunalski pożyczki pozabankowe do domu udzielenie pożyczki gofin pożyczka przez internet pozabankowa bełchatów pożyczki bez bik provident pozyczka w parabanku bez bik do 20000 umowa pożyczki między członkami rodziny wzór pożyczki pozabankowe zielona góra kredyt bank ul żytnia kredyt samochodowy w banku pocztowym kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko kredyt bez bik bez konta bankowego kredyt bank warszawa ciołka abil pożyczki getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczeń opinie pożyczki oddłużeniowe kredyt bez bik konin udzielenie pożyczki bratu umowa pożyczki do wydruku fundusz górnośląski pożyczki kredyt bez bik i zaswiadczen o dochodach pożyczki gotówkowe ranking 2013 kredyt bank w ciechanowie kredyt bank adekwatność kapitałowa istota pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie warunki kredyt bank ii oddział kraków kapelanka kredyty firmowe pozabankowe umorzenie pożyczki zfśs radan pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt studencki jakie banki kredyt w getin bank kalkulator kredyt bank lubuskie kredyt obrotowy w jakim banku pożyczki gotówkowe inowrocław kredyt bank pyskowice kredyt samochodowy w fiat bank kredyt bank bielany warszawa udzielenie pożyczki a podatek pcc gdzie najszybciej kredyt online na koncie czy ubezpieczenie pożyczki jest obowiązkowe kredyt pozabankowy z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki pozabankowe 30000 pożyczki bez zaświadczeń jelenia góra kredyt bank kosciuszki lodz flisak pożyczki kontakt forum pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki od osób prywatnych łódzkie kredyty chwilówki strona główna kredyt pozabankowy forum kredyt bez bik do 12miesięcy kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kalkulator kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania w biku alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny pit pożyczka na 60 dni skarabeusz pożyczki praca ogłoszenie pożyczki kredyt bank lublin tomasza zana kredyt bank ix oddział warszawa kredyt bank konto osobiste oprocentowanie kredyty mieszkaniowe sierpień 2012 warunki otrzymania pożyczki w vivus szybkie kredyty gotówkowe bez biku kredyt bank warszawa żoliborz cechy pożyczki i kredytu kredyt bank zaloguj kredyt konsolidacyjny w jst pożyczki gotówkowe długoterminowe kredyt orange jaki nr pożyczki prywatne bez bik szczecin bocian pożyczki kredyt bank wrocław plac solny godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki jaki procent symulacja kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy pożyczki ostrowiec prywatne pożyczki kościan w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy 2013 pożyczki na rok przez internet www optima pl do ilu daja kredyt kredyt bank ekstrakonto s kredyty chwilówki toruń opinie pożyczki na sam dowód myszków auto kredyt bez bik forum kredyt bank rawicz ul sarnowska kredyt studencki opinie kredyt bank bankomaty wbk ubezpieczenie kredytu w banku millennium kredyt bank w olkuszu kredyt samochodowy na firmę dokumenty kredyt bank gdansk chelm godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zielonka telefon pożyczki chwilówki siedlce kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko pożyczki chwilówki bez bik poznań kredyt bank szuwarowa godziny otwarcia jaki jest nr na kredyt w orange pożyczki jeremie łódzkie pożyczki bankowe ranking kredyty chwilówki katowice szopienice kredyty chwilówki bez zaświadczeń ptp pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe gostyń kody orange na kredyt pozyczka bez wykazywania dochodów agito pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 procent poliso lokata w kredyt banku pro domo pozyczki kolobrzeg numer tel kredyt od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń online umowa pożyczki podatek 2012 pożyczki żyrafa kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób w biku pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wejherowo bank pekao sa kredyty kalkulator umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od osoby prywatnej duomax pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bielsko uzasadnienie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank zachodni wbk kredyt bank w toruniu godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik biała podlaska kredyt bez biku przez internet kredyt konsumpcyjny bank spółdzielczy szybkie kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik czy kredyt konsolidacyjny jest kredytem konsumenckim numer telefonu do banku o pożyczkę bez dochodów pożyczki gotówkowe porównanie banków jakie są ustawowe odsetki od pożyczki tani kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń umowa pożyczki wzór word kredyt konsolidacyjny anglia odmowa udzielenia pożyczki kredyt chwilówka na dowód warszawa gdzie mozna dostac kredyt bez biku pozyczki prywatne wrocław kredyt bankowy a kredyt konsumencki polisa pożyczki kredyt bez bik i krd dla firm profit pożyczki włocławek kredyt bank sa warszawa adres pożyczki na procent kraków kredyt studencki pko umowa umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego a podatek kredyty chwilówki praca bytom kredyt bankowy z komornikiem gold cash pożyczki alior bank kredyt obrotowy pożyczki gotówkowe sosnowiec kredyt bez zdolności kredytowej pożyczki bez bik szamotuły szybkie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet pożyczki udzielone bilans kredyt bank otwock staszica kredyt w jakim banku najlepiej kredyty sms bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlepiej forum udzielać pożyczki english pożyczki ostatnia deska ratunku kredyty chwilowki dabrowa gornicza pożyczki pozabankowe racibórz kredyt bank 3d secure kredyt gotówkowy w banku millenium opinie getin bank kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bank oszczędnościowe kredyt bez bik 20000 zł kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim 2012 kredyt bank lokaty terminowe oprocentowanie kredyt bank plac solny godziny otwarcia kredyt w alior banku a bik kredyt bank święty marcin asper przyznawalnosc pozyczek kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki rekreacyjnej żyrafa pożyczki krs pożyczki chwilówki od 18 pożyczki bez baz przez internet kredyt chwilowki krakow pożyczki gotówkowe anglia pozyczki prywatne wloclawek umowa pożyczki wzór urząd skarbowy kredyt chwilówka bochnia kredyt 4 tys na dowód prowident umowy pożyczki pieniędzy wzory pozyczki bez zaswiadczen chrzanow przeliczenie pożyczki uczciwe pożyczki prywatne głogowski pożyczki getin bank kredyty bez biku pożyczki pozabankowe w zielonej górze kredyty bez bik zgorzelec polskie pozyczki opinie kredyt bankowy dla msp umowa pożyczki profi credit kredyt w banku przez internet szukam szybkiej pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe lukas bank kredyt samochodowy bez bik na oświadczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny oplaca sie pożyczki na dowód kołobrzeg pożyczki chwilówki bez bik pożyczki jeremie wrocław przelewy walutowe w kredyt banku asper pozyczki forum oprocentowanie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs kredyt bank strzegomska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank bankomaty zielona góra kredyt na dowód pożyczki krótkoterminowe przez internet aktualizacja wartości pożyczki bankomaty kredyt banku w lublinie pożyczki w allegro kredyt samochodowy bez bik rzeszów pożyczki pod zastaw starachowice szybkie pożyczki przez internet pożyczki sezam wieluń pożyczki bez zaświadczeń od ręki umowa pożyczki podatek pcc kredyt bank godziny otwarcia olsztyn nominalne oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku umowa pożyczki z poręczycielem wzór kredyt bank w kaliszu pozyczki online przez poczte pozyczki prywatne na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd tczew pożyczki prywatnie dobranie pożyczki w ing kredyt chwilówka kondratowicza pożyczki na dowód opole kredyt bez konta w banku kredyt bank bankomaty toruń pozyczki z komornikiem boleslawiec pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik kredyt bank oddziały warszawa mokotów kredyt konsolidacyjny expander kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę kart kredytowych umowa podporządkowania pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa chełmska 9 czy pozyczki marka sprwdzaja bik big czy krd oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej alior bank umowa pożyczki osób fizycznych kredyt konsolidacyjny na dowód pożyczka chwilówka bez potwierdzania konta deklaracja pcc od umowy pożyczki oakham pożyczki kredyt bank grudziądzka 93 kredyty chwilówki radom malczewskiego pozyczki z komornikiem umowa pożyczki pcc 2012 credit agricole pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki gotówkowe alior bank kredyty bez bik konstantynów przedawnienie odsetek ustawowych umowa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator online kredyt konsolidacyjny zabrze pożyczki prywatne od inwestorów kredyt w banku kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik piła kredyty chwilówki skoczów kredyt studencki bank polski pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik poznań niespłacony kredyt a bik pożyczki bez bik tczew wycena pożyczki na koniec roku pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej bydgoszcz warunki umorzenia pożyczki z wfośigw kredyt konsolidacyjny w instytucjach pozabankowych morgis pożyczki opinie kredyty bez biku na oświadczenie kredyt bank rozana kredyt bank łódź piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia bardzo szybki kredyt bez bik umowa pożyczki nieważna kredyt bank kraków kalwaryjska prywatna pożyczka komornik warszawa dostępne pożyczki kredyty chwilówki katowice warszawska kredyt bank brodno żyrafa pożyczki pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt bank lokata strukturyzowana pożyczki ranking 2013 kredyt bank popularna kredyt bank kłobuck kredyt techniczny banku centralnego mikropożyczki toruń wycena bilansowa udzielonej pożyczki niespłacanie kredytu mieszkaniowego pożyczki na dowód tylko kredyt bank włodawa kontakt pożyczki prywatne etc pożyczki przez internet ranking kredyt bankowy pcc kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie warunki pożyczki bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny firma pożyczki od 19 lat przez internet pożyczki dla zadłużonych gdańsk opinie pożyczki provident optima pożyczki chojnice druk pcc umowa pożyczki kredyt orange na jaki numer pożyczki chwilówki zielona góra kredyt bank problem z logowaniem kredyt bank warszawa kabaty pożyczki pozabankowe 5000zl pożyczki bez bik bydgoszcz pożyczki bez bik gorzów wlkp umowa pożyczki pod przymusem nowe pozyczki 2014 kredyty chwilówki od 18 lat pożyczki niskooprocentowane kredyt bank długa godziny otwarcia nowy kredyt w domu kredyt bank matejki szczecin białystok pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank cena akcji kredyt bank police godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy getin bank kredyty bez biku radlin kredyty bez bik lomza kredyt samochodowy dla pracujących za granicą kredyt bank warszawa chełmska 9 umowa pożyczki wzór odsetki pożyczki atiz kredyt studencki banki 2012 kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rodziny asper pożyczki opinie kredyt bez biku tczew duży kredyt bez bik pożyczki w 24h przez internet bez zaświadczeń pewne pożyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki chwilówki na dowód pożyczki nysa kredyt bez biku i zaswiadczen abis pozyczka głogów pożyczki ltro mariusz dudziński pożyczki pozyczki pozabankowe na kazdy dochod siedlce kredyt bank kupon 6 pożyczka na sam dowód bez przelewania pieniazków pozabankowe kredyty pozyczki deblin bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe legnica pożyczki prywatne w płocku kredyt bank dział windykacji lublin kontakt kredyty pozabankowe jaworzno pożyczki programy partnerskie kredyt bank mysłowice kredyt bank windykacja nr telefonu prywatne pożyczki kwota pożyczki bez zgody małżonka lokata rentierska w kredyt banku tukan pożyczki kredyty pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik kredyty chwilowki sprawdzają bik pro domo pozyczki kolobrzeg numer tel kredyt konsolidacyjny db umowa pożyczki wzór gofin kredyt bank legionowo godziny otwarcia pożyczki kolno pozyczki na dowod bez zaswiadczen elk kredyt częstochowa forum 2014 umorzenie pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych pożyczki między najbliższymi kredyt bez zdolności 10000 porównanie pożyczki i kredytu kredyt bank kondratowicza ekspresowe pożyczki ełk kredyt samochodowy raiffeisen bank szybkie darmowe pożyczki kredyt na pit bez biku kredyt bank godziny otwarcia poznań kredyty pod zastaw auta bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank kredyt bank rozana pożyczki pozabankowe we wrześni umowa pożyczki miedzy członkami rodziny novum pozyczki oddział gdańsk pozyczki bez bik i krd na oswiadczenie kredyt bank legnica bankomat kredyt bez biku gorzow preferencyjny kredyt studencki forum pożyczki pod zastaw chojnice pożyczki na dowód chorzów bocian pożyczki jarocin kredyt bank sa departament centralnych operacji szybki kredyt samochodowy bez bik umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs dyskontowanie pożyczki kredyt bank olkusz godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kredyt konsolidacyjny plock w jakim banku kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim umowa pożyczki pomiędzy wspólnikiem a spółką pożyczki w 15 minut pożyczki pozabankowe gniezno pekao sa kredyt studencki wniosek kredyt studencki bz wbk 2012 pozyczki krotko terminowe oprocentowanie kredytu studenckiego pko bp pożyczki pod zastaw elektronarzędzi radom pożyczki drawsko pomorskie umowa pożyczki koszty pożyczki pozabankowe kłodzko pożyczki bez bik w głogowie kredyty bez bik czestochowa oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej pekao sa dobry kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyt bank sprzedaż 2012 kasa pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne wbk gwarant pożyczki opinie kredyt bank sa zagiel kredyt bank biała podlaska brzeska 21 kredyt w przeźmierowie szybkie pożyczki bez bik białystok kredyt samochodowy bez bik opinie mikropożyczki definicja kredyty gotówkowe pozabankowe wrocław pożyczki bez bik kętrzyn kredyt bank zapomniałem pin bank pożyczki na dowód umowa cywilno prawna pożyczki wzór kredyty mieszkaniowe w norwegii kredyt restrukturyzacyjny eurobank najkorzystniejsza pozyczka bez krd gros kapitał pożyczki opinie

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad