pożyczki najkorzystniejsze pożyczki lubartów wyliczenie rat pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa wiatraczna szybka pozyczka bez zaswiadczen tylko na dowod grojec kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób samotnych pożyczki dla firm bez dochodu kredyt w banku zagiel kredyt bank lokaty oszczędnościowe kredyty chwilówki zabrze pożyczki pod zastaw cieszyn kredyt bank sa piła pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania w bik potrzebuję pożyczki 2014 kredyt bank warszawa swift asper pożyczki pożyczki pko sa pożyczki w banku wbk szybkie pożyczki prywatne warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik pożyczki atiz konwersja umowy pożyczki obligacyjnej pożyczki bez bik oświęcim pożyczki w wojsku umowa pożyczki wzajemna pożyczki na weksel szczecin atut pożyczki opinie kredyt bankowy na oświadczenie pozyczka z biura pracy wodzisliu podstawa opodatkowania pożyczki kredyt bank w kościanie udzielenie pożyczki udziałowcowi przez spółkę kredyt bank psie pole wrocław bocian pożyczki z komornikiem kredyt bez bik lębork pożyczki skok wesoła pozyczki bez zaswiadczen w inowroclawiu kredyt konsolidacyjny koszty kredyt bank warszawa czynne w sobote pożyczki bezprocentowe kredyt bank w bzwbk kredyt bez biku opinie pożyczki dla osób zadłużonych pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczenia kredyt bank poznań morawskiego pożyczki gotówkowe nowy sącz kredyt gotówkowy od osób prywatnych bez krd pożyczki oddłużeniowe łódź kredyt bez bik 5000 wrocław pożyczki alternatywne finan pożyczki kredyt bank definicja umorzenie pożyczki a przychód podatkowy kredyt bank spółka akcyjna warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny płock kredyt dla zadluzonych bez biku kredyt bank lokaty kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy powyżej 100 kredyt bank numer banku pożyczki gotówkowe w pko bp kredyt bank nowe środki kredyt bank 4 kredyt bank rzeszow godziny otwarcia pożyczki udzielone w bilansie pożyczki bez bik i krd w domu kredyt konsolidacyjny wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania w biku pożyczki pozabankowe od osób prywatnych pożyczki konsolidacyjne pko pozyczki pod zastaw leszno pozyczki od 18lat dla zadluzonych w bik najtanszy kredyt w jakim banku kredyt bank choszczno kredyt bank radom żeromskiego godziny otwarcia pozyczki z funduszu dla zadluzonych kredyt bank bialystok kredyt orange yes pożyczki na dowód bez biku szybkie pożyczki bez bik opole panda pozyczki opole pożyczki przez internet getin bank kredyt bank nowe środki pozyczki gryfino pożyczki asper kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko forum szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód pożyczki pozabankowe ze złą historią kredytową kredyty na dowód bez biku kredyt bank ikze kredyt bank konto osobiste opinie bocian pożyczki goleniów kredyty bez bik od 4000 kredyt bank chojnice kredyt bank kasprzaka kontakt kredyt bank dyrekcja pożyczki pozabankowe gostyń kredyt bank lista haseł jednorazowych kredyt bez bik na działalność gospodarczą pożyczki pod zastaw auta gdańsk pożyczki deutsche bank kredyt marza banku kredyt konsolidacyjny 10 lat pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem kredyty chwilówki oszuści optima namysłów pozyczki pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt studencki w banku polskiej spółdzielczości kredyt bez bik rybnik kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik poznań kredyt bank kosciuszki lodz umowa pożyczki z udziałowcem wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny radom pożyczki konsolidacyjne pozabankowe ketrzyn kredyt bank białystok ul warszawska zarejestrowanie umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym jak wziasc kredyt w orange na 5 zl pożyczki internetowe bez przelewu kredyt bank warszawa stara miłosna pożyczki bez bik krd wrocław kredyt bez bik zgorzelec kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki do spełnienia kredyt odnawialny pko kredyt bank kontakt lublin na czym polega kredyt prostoliczony w credit agricole kredyt w vdwoch transzach odluzeniowy kredyt bez bik iz komornikiem szybkie pożyczki bez big pożyczki na dowód głogów radom pożyczki na dowód w jakim banku kredyt konsumencki kredyt bank nowa huta kredyty pozabankowe dla firm bez bik pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard nr telefonu warunki kredytu credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bph kalkulator kredyt bank kody jednorazowe umowa pożyczki dla siostry kredyty chwilówki gorzów kredyt bank focha bydgoszcz kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pko sa pożyczki chwilówki płońsk umowa pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego pożyczki gotówkowe radom kredyt bank w koszalinie pożyczki dla młodych przedsiębiorców kredyt bank zwycięstwa białystok pożyczki bankowe kalkulator kredyt bank warszawa ochota kredyty chwilówki kraków librowszczyzna 1 kredyty bez bik w kaliszu pożyczki kraków kalwaryjska pożyczki na rente socjalną teleklient pożyczki kredyt bank swift iban pożyczki konsolidacyjne z komornikiem ogłoszenia pożyczki prywatne pożyczki pko bp kredyt gotówkowy alior bank forum pko bp kredyt studencki legitymacja kredyt bank aktywacja listy haseł kredyt konsumpcyjny w getin banku kredyt bank zyrardow oświadczenie spłaty pożyczki bocian pożyczki wałbrzych kredyt mieszkaniowy na singla te pożyczki podatek od pożyczki formularz pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik łódź kredyt bez bik wbk wzór umowy pożyczki podporządkowanej kredyt bank w lubartowie jak dostac kredyt w banku w uk szybkie pożyczki bez prowizji opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki od osoby fizycznej ak group pożyczki pożyczka na dowód osobisty kredyt konsolidacyjny najmniejsze oprocentowanie kredyt bez bik polkowice kredyt prywatny bez bik krd pleszew pilne kredyt bank uk kredyt bank wojska polskiego szczecin kredyt konsolidacyjny online umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem pcc odsetki od pożyczki otrzymanej od udziałowca pożyczki 5000 wzór umowy pożyczki od siostry kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pożyczki między firmami pcc okres przedawnienia pożyczki bankowej pozyczkipod zastaw auta minsk maz kredyt bank w żywcu kredyt bankowy na wykup mieszkania z komornikiem pożyczki gotówkowe udzielane w domu pożyczki na dowód katowice pożyczki dla pracowników tesco czy umowa pożyczki musi być zawarta na piśmie pożyczki w domu klienta w warszawie alior bank kredyt samochodowy dla firm kredyty bez biku i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny i dodatkowa gotówka udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę wspólnikowi deutsche bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt prowizja banku kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki uk szybki kredyt konsolidacyjny przez internet kredyty chwilówki tvn pożyczki bankowe dla zadłużonych pożyczki z komornikiem bydgoszcz kredyt bank sa w warszawie kredyty bez baz cechy pożyczki jako czynności prawnej kredyty udzielane w domu skarabeusz pożyczki czestochowa pożyczki prywatne głogów kredyt bank lokaty maj 2013 kredyt bank w bolesławcu alior bank kredyt 10000 pożyczki gotówkowe bph kredyt pod zastaw domu bez bik kredyt bank polski pożyczki bez bik środa wlkp umowa pożyczki odsetki umowne spłata pożyczki po niemiecku umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pcc kredyt bank łomża ul dworna kredyt mieszkaniowy szybsza spłata kredyt bank aukcje kredyty mieszkaniowe łódź warunki kredytu w eurobanku kredyt bank białystok dubois godziny otwarcia w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na dom pożyczki prywatne pod weksel wrocław kredyt bank żagiel adres kredyt pozabankowy na dowód umorzenie pożyczki w nds odsetki od pożyczki obliczanie kredyt bez sprawdzenia w bik pożyczki chwilówki 18 lat umowa pożyczki prawo cywilne aport pożyczki kredyty bez biku wrocław pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik online bank brodnicki kredyt forum cechy pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank w zakopanem trudne pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank piotrków telefon pożyczki pod zastaw sulejówek pożyczki społecznościowe jak inwestować pożyczki pozabankowe gostyń pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych lublin pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez big kredyty bez biku dąbrowa górnicza kredyt bank wielicka 181 pożyczki bez bik lubelskie potrącanie pożyczki z zasiłku kredyty dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych oprocentowanie kredyty chwilówki tarnów bema umowa pożyczki spółce przez wspólnika wzór pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód poznań raiffeisen bank kredyt samochodowy wzór umowy kredyt ranking banków kredyt bank rezygnacja z karty kredytowej czy trudno dostać kredyt w getin banku kredyt bank komisji edukacji narodowej dobranie pożyczki w skok prywatne pożyczki bez sprawdzania pożyczki udzielone przez jst ewidencja umorzenia pożyczki pożyczki pod weksel śląsk pożyczki świnoujście kredyt bank w nysie pożyczki z urzędów pracy kredyt studencki na jakich warunkach kredyt konsolidacyjny get in bank bank pko sa kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank drawsko pomorskie iwona wayne pożyczki kredyt studencki warunki spłaty pożyczki euro providus kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kalkulator kredyt bank myszków przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank druk pożyczka zdunska wola bez bik do 6000 wysokie pożyczki pozabankowe gdzie można uzyskać kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank wielun kontakt pożyczki bez konta bankowego kredyty firmowe bez biku umowa pożyczki rzeczy kredyt bank wadowice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wojska polskiego szczecin kredyty na dowod radomsko szukam pożyczki warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe w wałbrzychu kredyt refinansowy w alior banku w jakim banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt samochodowy eurocash pożyczki lublin kredyt bank wrocław siedziba kredyt bank kraków długa godziny otwarcia getin bank kredyt na start oprocentowanie w jakim banku brac kredyt na mieszkanie krecik pożyczki kontakt kredyty bez bik na raty kalkulator pożyczki pko bp kto udziela pozyczki w domu klienta walbrzych kredyt bank w warszawa pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa kredyt bank lodz kosciuszki pożyczki bankowe na oświadczenie getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowe na dowud bez biku unilinkpożyczka toruń pożyczki bocian kartuzy kredyt bank 1 oddział gdańsk pożyczki online bez wpłaty bocian pożyczki zachodniopomorskie kredyt bank polna warszawa pozyczki walbrzych z bik krd i komornikiem pożyczki w ostrołęce pcf pożyczki kredyt w banku śmierć dłużnika pożyczki ratalne pożyczki żyrardów kredyty w meritum bank pożyczki chwilówki bez oprocentowania gdzie szukac pożyczki pozabankowej w starachowice odsetki od pożyczki kto płaci podatek optima pożyczki na konto centrala kredyt banku warszawa kredyt pozabankowy kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp marża kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych olsztyn kredyt bez bik i krd płock kredyt bank w kwidzynie kredyty chwilówki warunki kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki wkład własny pożyczki społecznościowe na dowód kredyty konsolidacyjne pozabankowe wrocław kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaswiadczen windykacja pożyczki prywatnej bocian pozyczki bez biku oświecim pożyczki bez sprawdzania rejestrów kredyty mieszkaniowe na 100 wartości nieruchomości kredyty samochodowe bez sprawdzania w biku charakter prawny pożyczki umowa pożyczki a vat umowa pożyczki raty wzór pożyczki na dowód do 5000 kredyt bank akcje forum kredyt bank lwowska chełm konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy wzór kredyt odnawialny w mbanku dla studenta kredyt bank lokata rentierska kredyt bank wyzwolenia szczecin kredyt bank 1 oddział wrocław getin bank kredyt jakie oprocentowanie kredyty konsolidacyjne porownanie kredyty bez bik zawiercie pożyczki na procent radom pożyczki żuromin toruń pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki społecznościowe kraków kody do orange na kredyt umowy pożyczki wzór pożyczki od rodziny 2013 windykacja w bik a kredyt pożyczki na dowód siedlce kredyty bankowe dlugoterminowe kredyt bez bik 5000 online oprocentowanie w bankach pożyczki pekao bp kredyt bank zana kredyty bez bik w legnicy pożyczki prywatne pod weksel śląsk pożyczki takto kredyt bank matejki szczecin kredyt gotówkowy bank bph pożyczki gotówkowe opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyty pozabankowe bez bik warszawa kredyty bez biku zabrze global pożyczki świdnica pożyczki od ręki kredyty pożyczki z zfśs w bilansie szybkie pożyczki przez internet pozabankowe kredyt bank prabuty godziny otwarcia pozyczki prywatne z dojazdem do domu szamotuly kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander bank kredyt bank godziny otwarcia kielce pożyczki prywatne racibórz idea bank kredyt obrotowy forum pożyczki pozabankowe pruszków czy w paribas kredyt jest bez bik pożyczki kartuzy udzielane w domu pożyczki chwilówki zabrze umowa pożyczki ang pożyczki w domu klienta radom kredyty bez bik w lesznie koszt przelewu kredyt bank konsekwencje niespłacenia pożyczki money now pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki wady konwersja pożyczki na dopłaty do kapitału kredyt bank kostrzyn nad odrą kredyt bez bik 20000 kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście kredyt bank olsztyn kredyt na dowód alior bank kredyty i pożyczki w uk umowa pożyczki przedawnienie pożyczki bez bik dobra pożyczka kredyt bez biku zielona gora kredyty chwilówki lubliniec szybkie pożyczki dla zadłużonych pożyczki jednostek samorządu terytorialnego pożyczki dla przedsiębiorczych kredyt bank rezygnacja z ubezpieczenia pożyczki zamiast dotacji pozyczki na umowe zlecenie pruszcz gdanski w jakim banku najlepiej brac kredyt mieszkaniowy prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy millenium forum oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego getin bank pożyczki od 18 lat przez internet pozyczki do 15000 anglia pożyczki bez biku świdnica pożyczki chwilówki żagań kredyt studencki zmiana banku banki udzielajace kredytu wspolnotom prywatne pozyczki chwilowki warszawa kredyt bank sa kasprzaka kredyt konsolidacyjny kb auta na kredyt bez biku kredyty chwilówki bez zaświadczeń firma optima pożyczki pożyczki prywatne dolnośląskie gdzie najłatwiej dostać kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt na rok kredyt bank grunwaldzka 345 gdańsk umowa pożyczki pracownik pożyczki pozabankowe dzierżoniów kredyt konsolidacyjny który bank pożyczki prywatne zawiercie pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i zaświadczeń santander kredyt samochodowy prowizja kredyt na start firmy bez bik kredyt bank kostrzyn nad odrą czy trudno o kredyt konsolidacyjny w bnp bsribas opinie kredyt bez bik forum dyskusyjne pożyczki dla zadłużonych umowa pożyczki potwierdzona notarialnie kredyt bank sosnowiec godziny otwarcia przedmiot umowy pożyczki prowizja pożyczki pożyczki bez krd pożyczki z anglii kredyt bank podstawowe informacje pożyczki bez bik i dochodów kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior banku pożyczki chwilówki bez bik nowy sącz pożyczki prywatne dolny śląsk pożyczki mennica jelenia góra pożyczki społecznościowe strategie inwestycyjne druki wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp pożyczki pod zastaw świdnik ckg pożyczki kredyt bank różana godziny otwarcia bank spółdzielczy kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt konsolidacyjny przez internet kredyt bez bik krd kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bank plewiska pożyczki z nigerii kredyt bank łuków kontakt kredyt bank noskowskiego getin bank kredyt kontakt banki dające kredyt bez bik kredyty bankowe rodzaje kredyty mieszkaniowe dla mlodych malzenstw podatek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki pajęczno kredyt bank niepodległości warszawa kredyt chwilówka roznoszenie ulotek centrala kredyt banku lublin wzór oświadczenia pożyczki pieniędzy pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw cesja umowy pożyczki pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny 20 lat pozyczka na dowod bex biku zary telefon druki pożyczki kredyt bank jachowicza płock cele pożyczki kredyt 3000 bez biku provident pożyczki online kredyt studencki w banku wbk pożyczki na dowód choszczno pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd online kredyt bank zlecenie stałe kredyt bank v oddział w warszawie

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad