pożyczki bank pocztowy średnia wartość pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty chwilówki chrzanów kredyty bez bik i krd walbrzych pożyczki bez rejestrów kod na kredyt w orange mix pożyczki bez biku i komornika kredyty bez bik włocławek zdolność kredytowa pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank dąbie szczecin kredyt bank lublin oferty pracy pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu poznań pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem szczecin szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe pozabankowe kredyty chwilówki brzeg kredyt na start w idea bank forum kredyt samochodowy dla nowych firm kalkulator pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik poznań kredyt bank gdańsk godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku pekao pożyczki świdnica pożyczki duże kwoty pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu opole kredyt w alior bank konsolidacyjny pożyczki chwilówki online nowe pożyczki gotówkowe bankowe kredyt chwilówka dla studenta pożyczki bocian rzeszów pożyczki na weksel szczecin kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim ang pożyczki kredyty chwilowki klobuck kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i krd kredyt z banku pod zastaw lokaty alior bank kredyt oddłużeniowy umowa pożyczki provident wzór pożyczki bez bik zduńska wola kredyt bank dom maklerski pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu łódź pożyczki oddłużeniowe łódź kredyt bank w kwidzynie kredyt pozabankowy z zajęciem komorniczym kredyt bank w piasecznie kredyty chwilówki dział marketingu pożyczki w bankach bez bik optima pożyczki słupsk pożyczka na dowód bocian wroclaw kredyt bank kłobuck kredyt konsolidacyjny w polbanku opinie kredyt bank lokata junior kredyty konsolidacyjne zielona góra kredyty konsolidacyjne forum kredyt bank m1 kraków kontakt pożyczki unijne rzeszów kredyt bank zduńska wola godziny otwarcia kredyty skok stefczyka kredyt pozabankowy bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank sokółka godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe 2012 forum pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach online alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie kredyty chwilówki końskie podatek pcc od pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca umowa pożyczki bank oprocentowanie pożyczki dla firm wyłudzali pożyczki optima pożyczki do domu forum kredyt bank warszawska 14 białystok pożyczki z providenta pro domo pozyczki kolobrzeg numer tel kredyt chwilówka zarobki szybki kredyt bez sprawdzania bik windykacja w bik a kredyt kredyt bank międzyzdroje tel pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów nieruchomości umowa pożyczki dla spółki jawnej wzór pozyczki na procent pożyczki od ręki bez zaświadczeń kredyt w orange na karte kod gros kapitał pożyczki opinie kredyt bez bik brzeg kredyt bez bik wielkopolska umowa pożyczki dla pozoru rejestracja umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym gdzie wziac kredyt bez biku kredyt bankowy na dowód kredyty chwilówki blog pożyczki chwilówki zary pożyczki bez bik katowice kredyt eurobank na dowód kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych w uk kredyt na mieszkanie w jakim banku forum pożyczki bez bik tarnów pożyczki cent umowa pożyczki skutki podatkowe pożyczki na weksel kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na zastępstwo pożyczki do 50000 kredyt bank demo kb24 pożyczki bez bik sanok kredyty banku pko sa kredyt na start firmy idea bank opinie koszt pożyczki pozabankowej kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego 14 kredyt bank w łomiankach pożyczki na dowód świdnica kredyt bank ostrołęka godziny pracy kredyt bank rachunek kredyt bank sa chełm pożyczka z żyrantem bkie pozyczki domowe kraków pro domo pozyczki ile trzeba oddac pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard nr telefonu pożyczki na dowód katowice pożyczki bez bik big krd kredyty chwilówki wałcz kredyt bez bik prywatny pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt samochodowy w mbank opinie kredyt bez bik opolskie jaki jest kod na wzięcie kredytu w orange pożyczki klon pożyczki chwilówki łódź plac wolności kredyt bank okulickiego szczecin godziny otwarcia wyciągi w kredyt banku kredyt bank w ostrowie wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao bp odsetki od pożyczki tłumaczenie kredyt bank błonie kredyty dla nowych firm bez biku kredyt w eurobanku bez bik kredyty pozabankowe świętochłowice przekształcenie pożyczki w darowiznę kredyt bank legnica mickiewicza ewidencja umowy pożyczki pożyczki kępno szybki kredyt sms bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe rynek wtórny oprocentowanie w bankach pożyczki pekao bp umorzenie pożyczki pismo wniosek o kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank ekstra pożyczki optima pożyczki reklama pożyczki bezpośrednie kredyt konsolidacyjny rybnik kredyty chwilówki nowe kredyt dla firm bez bik zus us kredyt w banku śmierć dłużnika wycena udzielonej pożyczki na dzień bilansowy ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych luty 2013 pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt bank pytania pozyczka w 15min piekary slaskie kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator alior bank banki kredyty bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez bik na samochód pożyczki bez dochodów i bik opodatkowanie pożyczki od rodziny 2011 pożyczki ratunkowe opole kredyt bank sztabowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki creditpol kredyt bez bik głogów getin bank kredyt gotówkowy online bocian pożyczki przedstawiciel żyrafa pożyczki odmowa w ktorym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank giżycko kontakt kredyt bank platnosc karta za granica kredyt w banku co potrzebne internetowe pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego kredyty bez bik kołobrzeg w ktorym banku najlatwiej o kredyt mieszkaniowy pozyczki poznan umowa zlecenie pożyczki bezzwrotne na działalność gospodarczą provident warunki pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe pko bp partner pożyczki warszawa opłata za przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku kredyt bez bik 2013 pożyczki na podjęcie działalności gospodarczej kredyt w banku millennium forum kredyt bank departament administracji pko bank polski kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator vivus wysokość pożyczki została zmniejszona kredyt w uk jak dostac kredyt bank bankomaty za granicą kredyt bank praktyki opinie kredyt bank gorlice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank poznań krauthofera umowa zwrot pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki przez bank pożyczki bez bik i krd sosnowiec aig bank polska sa kredyt kredyt gotówkowy mieszkaniowy pozyczki raz dwa trzy bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń opinie kredyt bank przez internet kredyt samochodowy pozabankowy kredyty bez bik oswiecim kredyt w godzine uk pożyczki domowe bocian ubezpieczenie pożyczki od utraty pracy kredyt bank wieluń godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik opole pożyczki dla każdego na dowód kredyt studencki mbank kredyty gotówkowe bez bik kredyt bank brian tracy kredyty bankowe literatura look pozyczki i podobne oprocentowanie pożyczki w skok stefczyka kredyt bank międzyzdroje praca przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku kredyt bank w zielonej górze jak dostac kredyt w banku w uk kredyt bank lokata warta kredyty mieszkaniowe 2013 ranking przeterminowane pożyczki pożyczki w jeden dzień pożyczki bez bik krd katowice umowa pożyczki od rodzica pożyczki w czechach pożyczki na dowód od zaraz pozyczki na dowod konin pożyczki długoterminowe online szybki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank email kredyt bez biku bez zaswiadczen millenium bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank warsaw opodatkowanie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca kredyt bank polaczenie pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej legnica pożyczki aasa kredyt bank blawatna kredyt na mieszkanie w getin banku kredyt 3000 bez biku kredyty na dowod 18lat olsztyn kredyt bank międzyrzecz kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku szybki kredyt bez sprawdzania biku pożyczki podatek od czynności cywilnoprawnych pożyczki żagiel opinie kredyty bez bik ostrowiec sw kredyt bank karty bankomatowe szybkie pożyczki przez internet od 19 lat kredyt bez bik kościan gwarant pożyczki bochnia kredyt konsumencki prawo bankowe kredyt bank żytnia warszawa godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki online nowe tanie kredyty bez bik kędzierzyn koźle kredyt bank w krasnymstawie umowa pożyczki pod warunkiem najkorzystniejszy kredyt w banku oprocentowanie kredytu na start fm bank w jakim banku wziasc kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa pożyczki między osobami prawnymi przedawnienie pożyczki z zakładu pracy kredyt bank warszawa chełmska 9 kwota pożyczki brutto kredyt w banku bez poreczycieli wloclawek kredyt bank raszyn telefon kredyt na mieszkanie w uk forum pożyczki urząd skarbowy kredyt bank aktualne lokaty pozyczki ratalne online pozabankowe kredyt bankowy wikipedia warunki kredytu w credit agricole kredyt studencki zasady udzielania kredyt bank niepodległości 54 fundusz mikro – pożyczki dla małych firm pożyczki social lending wycena bilansowa udzielonej pożyczki pożyczki okay gdzie po kredyt bez bik kredyt bez bik slask pożyczki medyczne kredyty jelenia góra pożyczki lubartów kredyt bank dworna łomża kredyt na samochód a umowa na czas określony kredyt bank warszawa ul ostrobramska 101 w jakim banku w swarzędzu dostane pozyczke z pit pożyczki od osób prywatnych bydgoszcz druk pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank w lublinie windykacja kredyt konsolidacyjny kto spłaca kredyt bank lokata rentierska pożyczki bez biku zielona góra kredyty chwilówki płońsk kredyty bez bik podkarpacie pożyczki na realizację programów naprawczych jst kredyt bank radom telefon pożyczki gotówkowe online bez bik korzyści pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki chwilówki pierwsza za darmo kredyt mieszkaniowy dofinansowany kredyt bank rodzina na swoim pożyczki publiczne kredyt bank home banking pożyczki bez bik warszawa kredyt bank cinema city pożyczki pod zastaw krosno pożyczki udzielane w domu udzielenie pożyczki a podatek pcc pożyczki 5000 pożyczki bez poręczyciela kredyt bank w jakich bankomatach szybki kredyt bez bik z komornikiem pożyczki na weksel śląskie pożyczki czeladź kredyt studencki oprocentowanie 2013 pozyczki poznan umowa zlecenie pożyczki chwilówki starachowice pożyczki dla emerytów i rencistów kredyty dla firm bez bik oprocentowanie kredytu w fm bank pożyczki na dowód w bydgoszczy pozyczka bez zdolnosci kredytowej karencja w spłacie pożyczki linia kredytowa w kredyt banku kredyt samochodowy bez bik ka kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na zastępstwo pozyczki w domu garwolin kredyty konsolidacyjne wrocław kredyt bank otwarcie konta pożyczki prywatne pomorskie odsetki od pożyczki w deklaracji vat pożyczki chwilówki przez internet pozabankowe jakie dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp pożyczki bocian chełmno pożyczki koszalin getin bank kredyt na pit oprocentowanie szukam pożyczki kredytu kredyt bez bik w kielcach kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach forum dyskusyjne umorzenie pożyczki zfśs a podatek kredyty chwilówki tychy dmowskiego kredyt bez bik bielsko biala kredyt konsolidacyjny w chwilówkach opinie optima pożyczki oleśnica kontakt podatek od pożyczki udzielonej firmie kredyty bez bik radom kredyt bank wieluń kredyt bank owf pozyczki optima wloclawek numer telefonu kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych w uk koszty uzyskania przychodu odsetki od pożyczki pożyczki online w 15 minut kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko pożyczki społecznościowe wrocław banki w uk udzielające pożyczki emigrantom pożyczki chwilówki ostrołęka kredyt bank biała podlaska kredyt gotówkowy bank pocztowy opinie kredyt bank altus katowice chwilówki szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki bez bik sieradz bank pko kredyty mieszkaniowe bocian pożyczki windykacja deutsche bank kredyt bez zatrudnienia umowa pożyczki pieniędzy znajomemu kredyt bank katowice godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lwowska chełm kredyt konsolidacyjny w bgż forum kody orange kredyt udziele pozyczki w bydgoszczy kredyt bank warszawa ursynów godziny otwarcia wzór aneksu do umowy pożyczki z zfśs advice financial pożyczki sezam pożyczki krotoszyn kredyt bank polan poznań kredyty chwilówka jelenia góra kredyt studencki pko bp termin kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank oprocentowanie pożyczki bank w jakim banku wziąć kredyt pożyczki podatek od czynności cywilnoprawnych pekao sa kredyty studenckie kredyt 4000 bez bik online skarabeusz pożyczki wniosek pożyczka pod hipoteke w białogardzie w banku kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób po 50 konwersja pożyczki na kapitał księgowanie pożyczki pozabankowe żywiec kredyt konsolidacyjny w bnp paribas kredyt bank lokata impet kredyty bez bik zielona góra kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 wartości nieruchomości warunki otrzymania pożyczki w pko eden finance pożyczki optima kredyty lubin pożyczki na dowód warszawa kredyt bank w wbk kredyty chwilówki w poznaniu pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kielce udzielę pożyczki prywatnej ekspresowe pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta kredyt bank łódź kościuszki godziny otwarcia kredyt bankowy po rozwodzie pożyczki chwilówki gniezno kredyt bank warszawa sobota kalkulator odsetkowy pożyczki pożyczki bez bik bydgoszcz kredyt bank suwałki telefon pożyczki skok piast kredyt samochodowy mbank opinie pozyczki prywatne wrocław kredyty chwilówki impreza firmowa 2013 kredyty bez bik szczecinek przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki wonga wzór umowy pożyczki bankowej kredyt na dowod krapkowice obliczanie procentu pożyczki bank pko bp kredyt studencki kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złą historią kredytową opodatkowanie pożyczek typu kokos forum założenie konta w kredyt banku pożyczki prywatne będzin czy umowa pożyczki podlega opodatkowaniu bocian pożyczki nowa sól kredyty chwilowki laziska gorne kredyty chwilówki warszawa kredyt bank sanok chopina jak splacic komornika jaki bank udziela kredytu kredyty konsolidacyjne gotówkowe porównanie pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim umowa pożyczki skutki podatkowe kredyty chwilówki krzeszowice pożyczki bez pcc admin pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt w banku z bik pożyczki oprocentowanie szybkie pożyczki z zajęciem komorniczym czy ustna umowa pożyczki jest ważna pożyczki bez historii kredytowej ducato pożyczki kredyty bez bik grudziadz pro domo pożyczki kredyt cetelem bank odsetki od pożyczki wibor kredyty chwilówki tychy kontakt kredyt bank 11 listopada bielsko pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości w sandomierzu pożyczki z zadłużeniem komorniczym jaki jest kod na kredyt w orange one kredyt konsolidacyjny gdańsk kredyt bank prabuty aig kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki lichwiarskie warszawa bocian walbrzych kredyt kredyt bank 11 listopada bielsko szybkie pożyczki do 2000 pożyczki z funduszu europejskiego kredyt bank warszawa abrahama kredyt konsolidacyjny skok wielkopolska kredyty chwilówki na telefon warunki pożyczki w banku pożyczki dla firm online pożyczki państwowe pożyczki nidzica kredyt bank śliska prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki gotówkowe kraków kredyt bank gdynia skwer godziny otwarcia przelicznik pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku zachodnim wbk pkobp kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki bankowe na oświadczenie pożyczki dla nauczycieli wałbrzych kredyt bez biku 10 tys boleslawiec tanie pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki online bez wpłaty podatek od pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty chwilówki zawiercie kredyt w banku spółdzielczym opinie kredyt bank ostrów maz kredyt na dom pozabankowy pożyczki bez bik z obsługą w domu szybkie pożyczki warszawa meritum bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank profil aktywny umowa pożyczki chwilówka kredyt bank zlecenie stałe kredyt na samochód bez bik kredyt bank polen pożyczki provident oprocentowanie chwilowki pozyczki w domu bytom oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego w deutsche bank pożyczki bez bik internetowe pożyczki bytów ekspresowe pożyczki gotówkowe udziele szybkiej pozyczki na procent kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank kredyt samochodowy w fiat bank pożyczki na dowód do 5000 niespłacony kredyt konsolidacyjny

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad