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bez bik w 15 minut kredyt dla policjantow promocja 2014 optima pożyczki szczecinek odsetki od pożyczki bilansowo pożyczki w amber gold opinie pożyczki pożyczka dla rencistów kredyt bank zabrze pożyczki działdowo pożyczki dla nastolatków pożyczki wodzisław śląski optima pożyczki oleśnica kontakt pożyczki z komornikiem bydgoszcz kredyt bank lubliniec najtańsze pożyczki online odsetki od pożyczki wzór via sms przedłużenie pożyczki kredyt bank zdolność kredytowa pożyczki gotówkowe dla młodych kredyt bank filie pożyczki od osób prywatnych kraków pożyczka w domu warszawa i okolice optima pożyczki praca opinie kredyt bank leszno ewidencja księgowa umowy pożyczki kalkulator odsetkowy pożyczek miszkaniowych z zfŚs pożyczki podatek od czynności cywilnoprawnych kredyt bankowy po angielsku pożyczki bez bik i krd sosnowiec udzielę pożyczki prywatnej śląsk najkorzystniejsza pozyczka bez krd pożyczki kokos kontakt kredyt bank chojnice kościuszki wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy od brata umowa o kredyt 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kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż forum pożyczki na dowód wejherowo kredyt pozabankowy radom pożyczki na spłatę komornika pożyczki chwilówki janosik pozyczki na dowod dzierzoniow kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka kontakt kredyt bank wiatraczna godziny otwarcia okres przedawnienia pożyczki bankowej alior bank i kredyt konsolidacyjny potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki wzór kredyt bez bik forum dyskusyjne pszczółka pożyczki kredyt w banku dla zadluzonych pozyczki do domu podkarpacie umowa pożyczki dla firm kredyty chwilówki ząbkowice śląskie pożyczki nasielsk pożyczki w chf getin bank wniosek kredytowy online pożyczki na dowód białystok pożyczki bocian wągrowiec kredyt bank poznań niepodległości godziny otwarcia kredyt bank białystok lipowa godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny w kruk wniosek o kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór pożyczki pomiędzy członkami rodziny pożyczki prywatne online idea bank kredyt online bank millenium kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyty parobankowe udzielajacy miesieczne raty kredyt rodzina na swoim a umowa na czas określony kredyty chwilówki dęblin kredyt konsolidacyjny uk bank pko sa kredyt konsumpcyjny pożyczki agroreg kredyt konsolidacyjny rodzaje pożyczki ekspresowe na dowód alior bank forum kredyt konsolidacyjny praca w kredyty chwilówki zarobki kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka 2 udzielam pozyczek do reki kontakt slask kredyty bez bik bialystok opinie pożyczki pozabankowe szczecin,kredyt konsolidacyjny pozabankowo kredyt banki grudziądz kredyt na start dla nowych firm bez bik kredyty chwilówki zielona góra umowa pożyczki pcc zwolnienia kredyt bank faktoring pożyczki gotówkowe bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt mieszkaniowy bez wkładu własnego forum czy umowa pożyczki musi być zawarta na piśmie kredyt optima kontakt pożyczki bez bik do 25000 kiedy przedawnia się niespłacony kredyt bankowy kredyt bank sa iii oddział w gdańsku umorzenie pożyczki a darowizna plus kasa pożyczki kredyt 160 tyś bez biku kredyt eurobank opinie kredyt bank bielsk podlaski godziny otwarcia dobry kredyt bez bik kredyt bank garibaldiego fundusz pracy pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki dla udziałowca praca pożyczki łódź ing bank kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki pozabankowe w krakowie kredyty chwilówki dział kadr pożyczki prywatne ostrołęka kredyty online bez bik pożyczki na uruchomienie firmy jaki kredyt konsolidacyjny wybrać pożyczki gotówkowe lukas bank pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt pozabankowy do 50 tys pożyczki z sektora pozabankowego pożyczki jeremie forum kredyt bank grudziądzka toruń kredyt bank online 24 umowa pożyczki druk kredyt getin bank samochodowy kredyty bank santander umowa pożyczki między pracodawcą a pracownikiem pożyczki na dowód numer telefonu kredyt pod zastaw bez bik pozyczki bydgoszcz 24 kredyt konsolidacyjny do 100 wartości nieruchomości pożyczki jeremie szczecin przeniesienie pożyczki szybki kredyt bez bik gdańsk kredyt studencki pko bp wniosek kredyt bank sa centrala umowa pożyczki w i grupie podatkowej odsetki od pożyczki przychód oprocentowanie pożyczki w bankach kredyt konsolidacyjny lublin kredyt studencki pko 2013 pożyczki graniczna lublin pożyczki bez krd i big kredyt bank w piotrkowie trybunalskim pozyczki bez big retencja pożyczki mikropożyczki z unii europejskiej bank pekao sa kredyty kalkulator kredyt chwilówki końskie kredyt bank kursy walut archiwum pożyczki chwilówki oprocentowanie prosta umowa pożyczki wzór kredyty chwilówki grójecka 78 kredyt w multibanku kredyt bank knurów pożyczki wejherowo kredyt studencki pko niezaliczony semestr wypowiedzenie kredytu w eurobanku kredyt mieszkaniowy eurobank kalkulator pożyczki pko sa pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik kraków kredyt bank radom żeromskiego kontakt kredyt bank sa swift umowa pożyczki postępowanie nakazowe kredyt bank wrocłąw pożyczki chwilówki pozabankowe bez bik czy trudno dostać kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bank jelenia góra ogińskiego oddziały kredyt banku w katowicach pozyczki torun tablica oferta pożyczki pko bp kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń reklama kredyt banku mafia oprocentowanie pożyczki w bankach kredyt bank fieldorfa umorzenie pożyczki zfśs księgowanie pożyczki od 18 lat online pożyczki wronki kredyt konsolidacyjny powtórny pożyczka prywatna od zaraz kraków kredyt bank limit przelewu wypowiedzenie kredytu w eurobanku najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny na rynku kredyty w lukas banku pożyczka bez zaświadczeń o dochodach przez internet getin bank symulacja pożyczki kasa polska pożyczki oddziały kredyt banku szczecin kredyt bez bik dla bezrobotnych udziele szybkiej pozyczki na procent pozyczka 3000 gdansk oprocentowanie pożyczki pracowniczej kredyt bank kalisz górnośląska godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki wbk spłata bocian pożyczki dąbrowa górnicza profi credit czy udziela pozyczki bez u mowy o prace umowa pożyczki pieniędzy druk kredyt bank pożyczki nidzica kredyt bank złotów pożyczki gotówkowe santander kredyt na 5 zl orange pożyczki bez baz kraków kredyt bank archiwum kursów walut czy idea bank da kredyt zadluzonym opinie kod na kredyt na orange wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez pożyczkobiorcę kredyt studencki bank polskiej spółdzielczości kredyty bez bik gniezno kredyt bank kraków wielicka pozyczki pozabankowe katowice bez meldunku przeterminowanie umowy pożyczki pożyczki dla urzędników kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie kalkulator kredyt bank natolin kredyt bank okulickiego szczecin kredyt bez bik myszkow pożyczki chwilówki chorzów centrum kredyty mieszkaniowe pko bp sa pomysł na biznes pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski pożyczki gotówkowe bez poręczycieli pożyczki chwilówki bez sprawdzania oświadczenie pożyczki wzór umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyty chwilówki hyip forum kredyt chwilówka starogard gdański pożyczki chwilówki tarnów kredyt w uk przez internet kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorców alior bank kredyt inwestycyjny kredyt bank sa gorzów wlkp kredyt bank walcz cashflow pożyczki alior bank kredyt refinansowy kredyt bank wykaz placówek kredyt bank sa we wrocławiu udzielenie pożyczki udziałowcowi a pcc sprzedaż wierzytelności pożyczki kredyty chwilówki radom kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat alior bank prowizja pożyczki szybkie pożyczki rzeszów umowa pożyczki pod weksel wzór kredyt bez bik do 10000 usługi pożyczki białystok pożyczki gotówkowe szybkie na jaki numer kredyt orange kredyt bank conrada godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe zielona góra pożyczki euroloan kredyty bez bik 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy na zarobki z zagranicy regulamin pożyczki w eurokoncie kredyt bank dzienny limit operacji na rachunku finan pożyczki szczecin kredyt bank w lubinie pożyczki od gangsterów kredyt bank kapelanka pożyczki bez bik firmy pożyczki kętrzyn kredyt konsolidacyjny 60 tys kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt bank łódz limit pożyczki od rodziny kredyt bank luboń godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki kwidzyn kredyt bank piaseczno ing pożyczka samochodowa kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe opłaty kredyty prywatne bez biku kredyt bank łódź kredyt studencki w getin banku pożyczki bez biku tarnów kredyt samochodowy na oświadczenie bez bik oddziały kredyt banku w krakowie pożyczki dla młodych rolników pożyczka w skok stefczyka częstochowa opinie kredyty i gwarancje bankowe pdf pożyczki pozabankowe gorlice kredyt mieszkaniowy w skok opinie kredyty chwilówki konsolidacyjny pożyczki prywatne na weksel gdańsk pożyczki w lombardach meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny w meritum banku pożyczki jeremie kredyt bank filie kredyt chwilówka wrocław jedności narodowej kredyt na mieszkanie getin bank potrącenia pożyczki z wynagrodzenia pożyczki na dowód katowice kredyt prywarny z zabezpieczeniem ubezpieczenia najprostszy kredyt przez internet bez bik auto komis kredyt bez bik auti na kredyt bez bik pomorskie pożyczki na start firmy bez bik kredyty chwilówki poznań głogowska umowa pożyczki wzór 777 pożyczki darowizny pożyczki na telefon 24 pozyczki bepozyczki bez bik naklo nad notecia kredyt bank żagiel bydgoszcz pewny kredyt bez biku kredyty mieszkaniowe z dofinansowaniem kredyty chwilówki jędrzejów pożyczki przez internet oszustwa pożyczki oprocentowanie ogłoszenia pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank awaria systemu kredyt studencki lista banków kredyt bank 3d secure kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank umowa pożyczki angielski kredyt pozabankowy dla bezrobotnych kredyty bez bik raciborz kredyt remontowy bank pekao sa pożyczki na niski dochód

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad