pożyczki unijne rzeszów kredyt bez bik oleśnica kredyt bank wypłata gotówki optima pożyczki katowice pozyczka dla dluznikow warszawa kredyt bank biskupiec kredyt bank koszalin kontakt pożyczki chwilówki bez prowizji rata kredytu pożyczki kredyty pożyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości prywatne cechy pożyczki wikipedia pozyczki u klienta w domu dolny śląsk kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka godziny otwarcia oprocentowanie kredytu obrotowego idea bank umorzenie pożyczki pracowniczej pożyczki w domu wrocław pilne pożyczki bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny niskie oprocentowanie kredyt bank sanok chopina kredyt konsolidacyjny a wydatki na cele mieszkaniowe pożyczki knurów pożyczki bez bik i krd i big pożyczki pod zastaw auta śląsk wypowiedzenie umowy kredytowej credit agricole pożyczki nowe online kredyty mieszkaniowe 2012 kalkulator pożyczki pod zastaw agd kredyt bez bik pod zastaw samochodu umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a podatek dochodowy kredyty zamość bez bik zabezpieczenie pożyczki po angielsku kto udziela pozyczki w domu klienta walbrzych na czym polega umowa pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp forum kredyt w raiffeisen bank opinie umorzenie pożyczki z banku wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bankowy bez krd kredyt studencki pekao wniosek kruk pożyczki najdluzsze kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik szczecin szybki kredyt bez bik kraków kredyt bank olsztyn kontakt kredyt bank rumia godz otwarcia pożyczki nakło nad notecią kredyt na dowod krapkowice kredyt bank wesoła godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód w łodzi kredyt bank w sochaczewie kredyt gotowkowy w getin banku opinie pożyczki na procent gdańsk oblicz oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku pożyczki przez internet 2000 podstawa opodatkowania umowy pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki zary umowa pożyczki kto składa pcc pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bik depozyty w kredyt banku kredyt bank w lubartowie pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe dla osób z komornikiem pożyczki podobne do takto pożyczki chwilówki do domu umowa pożyczki w spółce jawnej pożyczki chwilówki dzierżoniów kredyt bez sprawdzania bik kredyt bank osiedle kazimierzowskie lubań kredyty pod zastaw mieszkania pozyczka pieniezna w dublinie prywatne pożyczki na weksel wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank vii oddział warszawa gdzie kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki chwilówki oprocentowanie kredyt w aig bank polska kredyt bank sa ciechanów pożyczki bez bik w płocku kredyt konsolidacyjny po angielsku pożyczki na weksel łódź optima pożyczki przez internet banki kredyt bez bik bocian pozyczki grojec wniosek o kredyt studencki pko bp pożyczki gros kalisz kredyt bank dabrowskiego poznan advice pożyczki opinie umowa pozyczki pomiedzy matka a corka kredyt bank białystok lipowa kod na kredyt w sieci orange pożyczki na dowód bank pocztowy gwarantowana pożyczka bez bik niezgłoszenie umowy pożyczki pożyczki kc umowy pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu pożyczki w bolesławcu pożyczki na rok czasu kredyty bez biku jelenia góra pożyczki prywatne piotrków trybunalski pożyczki tanie pożyczki bez bik lubin kredyt bank gdańsk kołobrzeska 12 bocian pożyczki kontakt bocian pożyczki kwidzyn natychmiastowe pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy poznań kredyty dla firm bez bik kredyt bank facebook kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp sa umowa pożyczki dla syna pozyczki poznan umowa zlecenie pożyczki pod zastaw opole reklama kredyt banku mafia kredyt konsolidacyjny teoria kredyt studencki jakie jest oprocentowanie kredyt bank sa lubin pożyczki pod zastaw wieliczka kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli warunki kredyt bank krdbplpw kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator eurobank pożyczki gotówkowe skok stefczyka pożyczki osoba prywatna kredyt konsolidacyjny jak to działa pożyczki start up kredyty w aktywach banku pożyczki gotówkowe dla osób z komornikiem umowa pożyczki po angielsku wzór pożyczki umowy pożyczki chwilówki bez bik lublin druki wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp kredyt bank kapelanka kontakt szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe online pożyczki doorfin szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe grudziądz kredyt bank fundusz papierów dłużnych bankomaty kredyt banku w lublinie kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator credit agricole kredyty konsolidacyjne na 10 lat pożyczki od osób prywatnych poznań kredyt samochodowy getin bank warunki szybki kredyt bez bik kalisz kredyty chwilówki małopolska kredyty chwilówki umowa kredyty bankowe bez prowizji kredyt bank drezdenko kredyt gotówkowy bez bik katowice kredyt konsolidacyjny jst kredyt bank sa tel kredyt na budowe domu w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank grójecka 45 pożyczka w kredyt banku opinie pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy radom pożyczki wronki gdzie kredyt z krd mińsk mazowiecki kredyt refinansowy w banku pocztowym sprzedaż wierzytelności pożyczki umorzenie pożyczki podatek dochodowy od osób prawnych kredyt bank mickiewicz białystok boś bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt dla młodych małżeństw forum lisiak przemysław pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne porownanie ofert zwolnienia w kredyt banku 2012 kredyt bez biku dla firm bank ing czynny udzielanie kredytu kredyt w banku a umowa na czas określony pożyczki dla studentów rzeszów pożyczki poznań prominent pożyczki lublin udziele pożyczki prywatnie wrocław pożyczki prywatne stalowa wola pożyczki prywatne w krakowie pożyczki do 12 miesięcy pożyczki społecznościowe 2012 kredyty samochodowe bez bik i krd kredyt bank sprzedaż nieruchomości pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz dłużników pożyczki przez internet bez przelewania grosza kredyt bank karta concerto kredyt bank csv pożyczki gotówkowe promocje w jakim banku macie kredyt kredyt bank trzebinia pożyczki 10000 kredyt bez biku rzeszów szybki kredyt bez bik forum kredyt bank sa bankowość elektroniczna pożyczki katowice 3 maja kredyty bez bik gorzow księgowanie pożyczki od wspólnika skarabeusz pożyczki ruda śląska kredyty pozabankowe kraków kredyt mieszkaniowy bgż opinie 2012 kredyt studencki pko wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki bez sprawdzania rejestrów kredyt bank skoczów kontakt kredyt bank otwock praca pożyczki konsolidacyjne pko pożyczki chwilówki nowości kredyt bank kamienna góra godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pieniężnej wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki ekspresowej pko sa kredyt bank w tomaszowie mazowieckim kredyt bank gdańsk słowackiego pożyczka na procent brodnica kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko sa wzór pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki bez dochodów kielce prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław kredyt bank warszawa kosiarzy kredyty konsolidacyjne 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny ipko kredyt konsolidacyjny w alior banku forum pożyczka na dowód bogatynia kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń pomorskie kredyt bank toruń fosa staromiejska pożyczki chorzów parabanki pozyczki prywatne wrocław bocian pożyczki zabrze,gliwice bocian pożyczki wrocław orange pop kredyt kod bocian pożyczki zielona góra pożyczki prywatne opinie pożyczki prywatne pod nieruchomość kredyt bank susz godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki bz wbk pozyczka z bociana dla kogo kredyty i chwilówki pożyczki dla bezrobotnych w zgierzu jakie banki w poznaniu udzielaja kredytow kredyty budowlano mieszkaniowe kredyt bank w przeworsku godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe do 10000 pozyczki torun tablica w jakim banku kredyt konsolidacyjny forum pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd warszawa gdzie w bydgoszczy dostane pozyczke na dowod pożyczki dla firm warszawa kredyt bank wołomin telefon pożyczki gotówkowe zagiel kredyt dla firm bez bik zielona góra pożyczki puławy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez prowizji pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem umowa pożyczki pieniędzy bez odsetek umowa pożyczki wzór za darmo szybki kredyt bez bik dla firm umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami wzór kredyty bez bik łódź pożyczki bez prowizji kredyt konsolidacyjny przy najniższej krajowej umowa pożyczki opis pożyczki prywatne na weksel kalkulator kredytowy kredyt mieszkaniowy optima kredyty lubin kredyty bez bik swidnica kredyt w uk kalkulator kredyt bank lublin windykacja kredyt bank warszawa ul żeromskiego pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości warszawa kredyt pozabankowy na pit kredyty bez bik sanok kredyt bank kondratowicza 35 pożyczki między firmami kredyt samochodowy bez bik szczecin kredyt w bos banku opinie kredyt bez bik świebodzin kredyt w allianz bank kredyt bank sieradz pożyczki 5 tys w jakim banku dostane kredyt na dowód pożyczki dla zadłużonych bezrobotnych kredyt bank adres mailowy pozyczki pozabankowe atiz krotoszyn bocian pożyczki toruń kontakt kredyty bez bik bydgoszcz kredyt bank w międzyzdrojach pożyczki gotówkowe dla rolników warszawa pożyczki chwilówki na dowód kredyt ge money bank godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w ostrołęce pożyczki jaworzno pożyczki prywatne elbląg w jakim banku kredyt gotowkowy opinie pożyczki skok wołomin pożyczki kieszonkowe pożyczki od inwestorów prywatnych pożyczki pod zastaw piła kredyt samochodowy w banku bgż odsetki od pożyczki cit kredyty chwilówki nowa sól kredyt konsolidacyjny na oswiadczenie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek 2014 kredyt bankowy prawo bankowe pożyczki na działalnośc gospodarczą kredyty chwilówki żywiec pożyczki bez umowy o prace łodz pcc od pożyczki akcjonariusza umowa pożyczki i poręczenia pożyczki prywatne bielsko biała kredyty pozabankowe do 5000 kredyt studencki w banku bph kredyt bankowy książka wycena pożyczki od udziałowca na dzień bilansowy kredyty chwilówka rybnik umowa o udzielenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyty chwilowki jelenia gora oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank bph umowa pożyczki wzór zabezpieczenie alior bank kredyty online pożyczka bez zaświadczeń o dochodach przez internet pożyczki chwilówki na dowód warszawa kredyty konsolidacyjne radom kredyt chwilówka starogard gdański pożyczki bez formalności kredyt gotówkowy w meritum banku kredyty pozabankowe w toruniu atiz pożyczki opinie pożyczki pod zastaw nidzica w jakim banku wziasc kredyt na mieszkanie umowa nieodpłatnej pożyczki alior bank kredyt z ubezpieczeniem kredyt bez historii bik kredyt bank lukow godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe chełmno kredyt studencki alior bank kredyt w jakim banku 2013 kredyt pozabankowy z zajęciem komorniczym kredyty pozabankowe ciechanów gdzie można otrzymać kredyt bez bik umowa pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki cywilnej pożyczki udzielone przez polske pożyczki pro domo płock kredyt bank niepodległości poznań pożyczki bez bik 0 kredyt bez bik opinie pekao pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy porównanie pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik łódź kredyt bank warszawa jana pawła kredyt w meritum banku opinie odpis aktualizujący pożyczki pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik u kredyt bank ruda śląska mieszkaniowe kredyty preferencyjne kredyt bank sa ruda slaska kredyt pozabankowy pod zastaw pożyczki wrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp symulacja kredyt bez bik sms kredyt bank gdansk chalubinskiego kredyt bez biku gdynia pożyczki bez bik i zdolności kredytowej http pożyczki pozabankowe cba umowa pożyczki jakie odsetki kredyty bez bik przez internet kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego pko bp bocian pożyczki dla kogo pożyczki chwilówki wronki pożyczki prywatne opolskie kredyt studencki bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pocztowy opinie pożyczka z obsługą w domu warszawa aby wziasc pozyczke w noble banku co potrzeba banki spółdzielcze kredyty bez bik sennik kredyt bankowy kredyt bankowy ciekawostki w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt kredyt studencki bank slaski pozyczku raty tygodniowe pożyczki przez internet ranking umowa pożyczki pieniędzy po angielsku pozyczki do domu podkarpacie pożyczki społecznościowe kredyt w banku wikipedia kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób w biku kredyt studencki pko zaświadczenie z uczelni pożyczki gotówkowe na konto pożyczki bez bik nowy sącz kredyt bank wieliczka kontakt pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik forum pożyczki chwilówki jak to działa opinie o kokos pożyczki kredyt bank malopolska kredyty chwilówki gliwice matejki kredyty bez bik bolesławiec sprzedaż kredyt banku santander 2012 kredyt studencki pko warunki optima pożyczki jakie dokumenty pozyczkipod zastaw auta minsk maz bocian pożyczki gotówkowe poznań kredyt bank oddział częstochowa auta na kredyt bez biku kredyt bank warszawa praga pożyczki radziejów pożyczki dla prawników część pożyczki państwowej puszczona w obieg kredyt bank wrocław plac solny pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej legnica pożyczki z tygodniowa rata aaa pożyczki kredyt bank i oddział warszawa niespłacany kredyt w banku odsetki od pożyczki a koszt uzyskania przychodu kredyt konsolidacyjny nordea opinie udzielę pożyczki pod weksel poznań kredyt bankowy na oświadczenie kredyt bank karta visa kredyt odnawialny w getin banku pożyczki kasy stefczyka umowa pożyczki między pracodawcą a pracownikiem umorzenie pożyczki pkzp skarabeusz pożyczki kredyt bez bik samochodowy kredyt bank 1 oddział poznań pożyczki movum szczecin pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych pożyczki trzebinia kredyt studencki w którym banku pożyczki bocian bielsko biała udzielę pożyczki pod weksel warszawa pozyczka bez wykazywania dochodów kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rolników pożyczki na pit finan pożyczki kontakt poliso lokata w kredyt banku gdzie dostane pozyczke bez sprawdzania w biku latwy kredyt konsolidacyjny placówki kredyt banku w warszawie pożyczki hybrydowe odsetki od pożyczki zfśs wzór kredyt chwilówka co to jest kredyt mieszkaniowy wczesniejsza splata kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator mbank kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp bank pko sa kredyty studenckie kredyty bez bik raciborz umowa pożyczki stawka podatku pozyczki do domu podkarpacie pożyczki online w 15 minut kredyt bank kęty pożyczki notarialne numer telefonu do banku o pożyczkę bez dochodów udzielić pożyczki tłumaczenie kredyt banku infolinia jakie jest oprocentowanie w stefczyku pozyczki kredyt gotówkowy w ing banku śląskim kredyt w eurobanku na dowód pożyczki a urząd skarbowy kredyt bank kasprzaka 2 8 kredyt bank międzyrzecz kredyt bez bik i krd wrocław pożyczki dla zadłużonych skok jaki numer na kredyt w orange kredyt bank ilawa kredyty mieszkaniowe dla osob pracujacych w uk przedmiot umowy pożyczki kredyt bez bik który bank kredyty dla nowo powstalych firm bez bik kredyt bank rakowicka telefon kredyt bank długie ogrody godziny otwarcia kredyt dla firm w idea bank opinie pożyczki optima opinie pożyczki gotówkowe na telefon kredyt bank 25 pożyczki siemianowice śląskie kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim 2013 spółka udziela pożyczki udziałowcowi pcc pożyczki ekspresowe bez bik kredyty bez bik kołobrzeg pożyczki online bez biku pożyczki pozabankowe z niskim oprocentowaniem pozyczki pozabankowe bez bik w powiecie kutnowskim pożyczki na telefon bez bik lublin kredyt bank wniosek o wakacje kredytowe pozyczka bez bik pod zabezpieczenie boleslawiec pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank gdynia chwaszczyńska kredyty w fm banku pożyczki dla firm 2014 pozyczka bez bik kraków nh udzielenie pożyczki a podatek pcc umowa pożyczki pieniędzy urząd skarbowy alior bank kredyt dla studenta kredyt samochodowy bez bik warszawa eurocent pożyczki chwilówki kredyty konsolidacyjne gdzie dłużnik nie oddaje pożyczki umowa pożyczki między rodzicami a dziećmi pożyczki do 15000 bez bik kredyt bank niepołomice kredyt bank piekary śl pożyczki bankowe przez internet przelewy w kredyt banku godziny optima pożyczki program partnerski kredyt bank wzór zaświadczenia kredyt bank krosno godz otwarcia kredyt bez bik dla nowych firm kredyt bank w brzegu

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad