pożyczki bez pracy tanie kredyty bez biku koszalin kredyt bank w dabrowie tarnowskiej kredyt na dowód jaki bank kredyt bank kraków godz otwarcia kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki money pożyczki gotówkowe dla nauczycieli kredyt bank lokata 6 miesięcy pozyczki siódemka ząbkowice pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw koszalin pozyczki dla emerytow legnica oprocentowanie kredytu w banku santander kredyt bank i oddział w warszawie alior bank kredyt na pit z zajęciem kredytowym kredyt bank plac solny wrocław godziny otwarcia kredyt bank tomaszów mazowiecki telefon pozyczki pod zastaw samochodu trojmiasto pozyczki pozabankowe przez internet legnica kredyt bank blz pożyczki pozabankowe olsztyn kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator eurobank umowa pożyczki cywilno prawna bank pko sa kredyt odnawialny kredyt samochodowy w vw bank opinie meritum pozyczka na dowod i wyciag z konta pożyczki trzebinia finan pożyczki opinie kredyt bank zielona góra niepodległości kredyt bez biku w skoku pożyczki bogatynia faktura na odsetki od pożyczki wzór pożyczki mennica jelenia góra kredyt na start bez bik i krd kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochody kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko sa szybki kredyt 10000 mińsk mazowiecki parabanki pozyczki prywatne wrocław zamortyzowany koszt pożyczki kredyty bankowe szyguła bankowe kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt chwilówki kluczbork kredyt studencki bankier kredyt bank warszawa ul chełmska 9 pożyczki w policji kredyt bank w piotrkowie trybunalskim pożyczki prywatne ostrów wlkp kredyt bez bik na już kredyt bank w dabrowie tarnowskiej kredyt bank w końskich pożyczki kodeks cywilny marlena nowakowska pożyczki opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce kalkulator kwoty pożyczki zwolnione od podatku darmowe anonse pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe co to jest kredyt bank żytnia kredyt bank pekao sa umowa pożyczki wzór przelew pożyczki w tesco kredyty konsolidacyjne forum kredyt bank tczew kontakt kredyt bank legionowo kontakt kredyt bez bik i krd pożyczki picasso radom kredyt bank bonifacego kredyt z dofinansowaniem unijnym idea bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy bph kredyt bank warszawa ursynów kredyt bank piłsudskiego wrocław kredyty bez biku opole kredyt bank w chrzanowie pożyczki w 24 godziny najniżej oprocentowane pożyczki pozyczka pozabankowa 20000 kredyt bank założyciele kredyty chwilówki puławska 71 kredyty konsolidacyjne gotówkowe porównanie kredyt samochodowy santander kalkulator kredyt orange pod nr kredyt w banku dla zadłużonych sprzedaż kredyt banku luty 2012 prywatne udziele pożyczki w kościanie eu2 pożyczki zawieszenie kredytu bank pko sa kredyty chwilówki garwolin umowa pożyczki wzór aktywny pożyczki gotówkowe do 7000 jaka kwota pożyczki jest zwolniona od podatku szybkie pożyczki bez bik białystok ujęcie pożyczki w bilansie kredyt samochodowy bez banku zarobki kredyt bank 2012 wycofanie poręczenia pożyczki bank spółdzielczy kredyt mieszkaniowy forum kredyt odnawialny bank pekao sa kredyt bank warszawa al wilanowska kaska pożyczki opinie kredyt studencki pko bank polski szybki kredyt bez bik tychy kredyt bank depozyt kredyt w alior bank konsolidacyjny kredyt w pko bp opinie 2013 kredyt bank targowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki jelenia góra kredyt bank poland address umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej wzór pożyczki chwilówki żyrafa pożyczki bocian rzeszów pożyczki na dowód numer telefonu kredyt bank w chrzanowie kredyt samochodowy w toyota bank opinie kredyt z komornikiem w łodzi kredyt bank mobile kredyt bank licytacje kredyt bank lokata internetowa przelewy walutowe w kredyt banku kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób niepełnosprawnych trudny kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator wierzytelności kredytu pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw domu grudziadz parkmar pozyczki umowa pozyczki z poreczeniem kredyt bank ilawa pożyczki pod zastaw kęty kredyt bank sprzedaż pożyczki myszków kredyt konsolidacyjny 8 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny zagiel kredyt bez bik i krd dla firm czy można wziąć pożyczkę na prawo jazdy getin bank online kredyty kredyt w banku bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank hajnówka pożyczki dla każdego bez bik kredyt studencki pko bp 2014 kredyt w banku pocztowym bez bik gross capital pożyczki pozyczki raz dwa trzy bez bik i krd pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy wcześniejsza spłata kalkulator kredytu samochodowego idea bank kredyt bez bik kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny santander kalkulator pożyczka bez bik i krd z komornikiem kredyt w banku wbk kredyt bank łączy się z wbk obliczanie pożyczki kredyty chwilówki kraków wielopole kredyt samochodowy dla policjantów kredyt bank lublin zana kontakt pożyczki bez bik żary kredyt samochodowy bez sprawdzania w bik bocian pozyczki kwidzyn pożyczki oddłużeniowe placówki kredyt banku gdańsk kredyt bank lukow godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki między osobami prywatnymi wzór kredyt bank włocławek wolności najtańsze pożyczki online kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku zachodnim kredyt bank lokaty terminowe oprocentowanie kredyt bank nowy targ kontakt kredyt bez bik ostrołęka kredyty mieszkaniowe statystyka kredyt bez bik zgierz meritum pożyczki bez bik kredyt bez bik gdzie można dostać pomóżcie potrzebuję pilnej pożyczki 2014 alior bank kredyt konsolidacja domowa pożyczka bocian kredyt studencki pko 2012 kredyty bez bik na samochód kredyty chwilówki pabianice kredyt bank brzesko bocian pożyczki trzebiatów kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego kredyt z banku zagranicznego eurobank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt gotówkowy w bos bank kredyt bank chorzów godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zgierz kontakt umowa pożyczki spółce przez wspólnika wzór pożyczki prywatne podkarpacie promocyjne pożyczki pożyczki bez bik zakopane umowa pożyczki referat kredyt w jakim banku forum kredyt bez bik gostyn kredyt bank nowy sącz jagiellońska eurobank kredyt gotówkowy z bikiem szukam kredytu bez biku i zaświatczeń koko pożyczki kredyty chwilówki małopolska kredyt bez bik na telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny 2014 bocian pożyczki śrem praca pożyczki dla firm pod zastaw umowa pożyczki dla rodziny wzór kredyty bez biku katowice pozyczki na oswiadczenia jak dzialja kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małżeństw pożyczki od osób prywatnych wałbrzych kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank opinie kredyt bank nip kredyt bank kontakt lublin kredyt w polskim banku praca za granica kredyty od 18lat na sam dowod ostrowiec sw kredyt bank gorlice godziny dwie pozyczki w takto flisak pożyczki opinie umowy pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu getin noble bank kredyt inwestycyjny pożyczki bez zaświadczeń provident kredyt bank conrada warszawa godziny otwarcia chwilówki i pożyczki gotówkowe firmy eurocent kredyt dla firm w credit agricole dpg pożyczki kredyt bank pomorskie udzielone pożyczki w bilansie kredyt bez bik szybko kredyt bank dietla godziny otwarcia prestige pozyczki czestochowa kredyt bank chrobrego kredyty chwilówki tarnów krakowska kredyt w ing bank śląski forum pcc od pożyczki akcjonariusza kredyty bez bik grudziadz bank pko bp warunki kredytu w jakim banku kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt w eurobank opinie chwilowki pozyczki w domu klienta slask kredyt bankowy książki chomikuj kredyt samochodowy dla firm kalkulator kredyty mieszkaniowe bez biku kredyt bank wolomin potrzebuję pożyczki pod zastaw kredyty bez biku lublin pożyczka dla zadłużonych na dowód kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim a rozwód pożyczka w uk dla każdego kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibanku pożyczki na dowód krosno eurobank kredyt na dowód kredyty chwilówki kraków teatralne ipko kredyt na oswiadczenie pożyczki bez bik z obsługą w domu spłata pożyczki przychód umowa pożyczki pieniężnej z zabezpieczeniem optima pożyczki gniezno kredyt bank warszawa pożyczki chwilówki bez bik online kredyt bank zmiana danych podatek dochodowy od nieoprocentowanej pożyczki pożyczki typu provident warszawa umowa pożyczki niedozwolone klauzule kwota pożyczki a pcc kredyt bank łódź godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny wymogi kredyt bank sa częstochowa pożyczki gotówkowe długoterminowe kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla singli pożyczki dla studentów rzeszów kredyty pozabankowe gniezno santander bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego zus pożyczki gotówkowe płock kredyt bank przemyśl dworskiego kredyt bez bik oswiecim pożyczki bez biku sieradz kredyt bank leszno regon kredyty mieszkaniowe wkład własny pożyczki prywatne grudziądz kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe koszt kredyt studencki forum prawne kredyty mieszkaniowe symulacje mikropożyczki kapitał ludzki kredyty chwilówki gdańsk umorzenie pożyczki z nfośigw umowa pożyczki od udziałowców odsetki od pożyczki różnice kursowe getin noble bank kredyt dla firm dobre pożyczki bez bik forum w jakim banku wziasc kredyt na mieszkanie umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie kredyt bank w leborku kredyt bank kantor kredyt w ge money bank opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy 130 kredyt bank garibaldiego kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank kredyt bez bik mielec kredyt bez bik na firme pożyczka bez bik przez internet w 15 minut forum kredyt studencki bz wbk 2013 kredyt bank czeladź bgk kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyty bez bik i krd online kredyt konsolidacyjny bankier udzielę pożyczki prywatnej na procent koszty udzielenia pożyczki udzielanie pożyczki przez gminę kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik białystok kredyty chwilówki nowa sól prado pożyczki katowice pożyczki dla zadłużonych w erif pożyczki gotówkowe pekao sa pożyczki dla odrzuconych przez bank kredyty mieszkaniowe w credit agricole pożyczki na dowód zakopane pozyczki na dowód osobisty oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko bp pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet forum kredyt bank decyzja kredytowa kredyt bank krasnystaw kontakt kredyt bank placowki w gdansku pożyczki chwilówki sokołów podlaski kredyt bank w mielcu mikropożyczki w polsce kredyt bank opłata za prowadzenie konta kredyt pozabankowy olsztyn kredyt bez bik śląsk kredyt bez bik pod zastaw nieruchomości jaki jest kod na kredyt z orange kredyt bank włocławek kościuszki kredyty bank pko bp sa kredyty chwilowki windykatorzy kredyt bez bik do 30 tys kredyt bez bik inowrocław wzór umowy pożyczki wraz z ustanowieniem zastawu kredyt studencki czy warto forum pożyczki hajnówka kredyt bank lukow telefon kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz kredyt pozabankowy lodz pożyczki na dowód bank kredyt bank konskie kredyt bank elblag kontakt dpg pożyczki pożyczki pajęczno lukas bank kredyt przez internet jak odmówić pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki w białymstoku pożyczki dla nowo otwartych firm kredyt mieszkaniowy bez marży pożyczki bez bik płock pożyczki bez bik pod zastaw kredyty bez bik poznań głogowska umowa pożyczki przedawnienie roszczeń kredyt bank wołomin godziny otwarcia kredyt bank wesoła telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny opóźnienia w bik żyrafa pożyczki logowanie opodatkowanie pożyczki wspólnika dla spółki pożyczki pod zastaw siemianowice śląskie umowa pożyczki i poręczenia pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez zdolności szybkie pożyczki z zajęciem komorniczym kredyt bank chf kurs aig bank polska sa kredyt pożyczki unijne na rozwój firmy pozyczki z komornikiem w mielcu pożyczki bez erif pożyczki na dowód gdynia kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe oprocentowanie pożyczki a pcc pożyczki lichwiarskie wrocław kredyt bank gdzie wyplacac bez prowizji pożyczka na procent przeniesienie pożyczki kredyt bank sa bielsk podlaski kalkulator pożyczki pko bp kredyt bez bik pod zastaw nieruchomości obligacje pożyczki dolarowej kredyt bank kondratowicza warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy w uk forum kto da pożyczkę lub kredyt z zajęciem komorniczym kredyt bank kolegialna 22 szybki kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń rejestracja pożyczki cechy pozyczki bocian pożyczki leszno wzór umowy pożyczki do pobrania pożyczki chwilówki chrzanów umowa pożyczki na czas nieoznaczony kredyty mieszkaniowe w bph kod orange na pozyczenie pieniedzy na konto pożyczki pod zastaw biała podlaska kredyty prawo bankowe pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank pożyczki umowy kredyt bank żeromskiego pożyczki w domu klienta białystok pko bp zawieszenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego kredyt 4000 bez bik online activia 500 pozyczki czy sa w raciborzu pożyczki bocian międzyrzecz pożyczka prywatna bez sprawdzania baz kraków pożyczki bez krd przez internet kredyt bank lokaty oszczędnościowe kredyty chwilówki łódź kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki do domu bocian kredyt bank www pozyczki lubin kredyty mieszkaniowe warunki przyznania mikropożyczki unijne cesja pożyczki a pcc pożyczki bez bik pszczyna łatwy kredyt w banku duże pożyczki bez bik asper pożyczki toruń pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na raty korzyści z pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyty bez bik wikipedia kredyt w db bank opinie pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód bez bik kredyt bank w lublinie kontakt pożyczki chwilówki pomorskie druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp kredyt bez biku w skoku pożyczki prywatne zamość kredyt na mieszkanie w credit agricole wzór umowy pożyczki wraz z ustanowieniem zastawu kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko biz pożyczki kredyt bankowy na samochód kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla 2013 kredyt bank pocztowy kalkulator najtańsze pożyczki bankowe kredyty konsolidacyjne porownanie ofert kredyt w bank of ireland forum pożyczki do domu kraków getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu pożyczka 25000 kokos kredyt bez bik big krd bez zabezpieczeń w godzine obliczanie raty pożyczki ing kredyt bank śląskie kredyt konsolidacyjny w raiffeisen bank pożyczki kruk kredyt bank program razem kredyt bank gorzów wlkp kredyty chwilowki wroclaw kredyty studenckie wbk nowość pożyczki do domu kredyty chwilowki glogow cechy pozyczki kredyt bankowy na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt bank w goleniowie pko bp rzeszów kredyt studencki adresy kredyt banku warszawa pozyczki w swiebodzinie bez sprawdzania biku pożyczki w getin banku kredyt w banku pko bp pożyczki dla firm ranking pożyczki internet kredyt bank 24 token umowa pożyczki na zakup mieszkania kredyt bank zielonka godz otwarcia kredyty chwilówki ligota pożyczki pozabankowe typu provident pożyczki chwilówki płońsk lukas bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym opinie kredyt bank trzcianka godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń wrocław pozyczki chwilowki konkret lomza pożyczki alior bank opinie kredyt bank swinoujscie godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku skok kredyt odnawialny bank pko jak dziala provident warunki pożyczki bocian pożyczki żary abis pożyczki kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe szybkie kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw maszyn budowlanych uzasadnienie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank w żarach proste pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty chwilówki konsolidacyjny pożyczki na dowód przasnysz pożyczki gotówkowe dla bezrobotnych kredyt pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniędzy u notariusza pożyczki bocian gryfice kredyt ratalny credit agricole kalkulator kredyt w banku bez zaświadczeń kredyt bez biku zielona góra kredyt bank mieszkanie dla młodych pro domo pożyczki gdańsk kredyt bank krosno praca lukas bank kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego pożyczki jeremie kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie forum pożyczki w domu płock konwersja pożyczki na kapitał podatek u źródła tani kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kredyty bez bik dabrowa gornicza pożyczki kontakt kredyt bankowy pdf chomikuj

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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.

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funny sayings

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad