pożyczki gotówkowe toruń kredyt w banku polskim kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw działki pko bank polski kredyt rodzina na swoim pożyczki udzielane w domu kredyt bank warszawa v oddział kredyty bez bik do 50000 pożyczki pozabankowe chodzież getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczeń getin bank kredyty samochodowe tel bocian pożyczki opinie forum pożyczki chwilówki przemyśl alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyty mieszkaniowe maciej molewski przewalutowanie pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik ciechanow przedmiotem umowy pożyczki mogą być pożyczki bez bik bogatynia pożyczki gdańska 69 bydgoszcz kara za niezgłoszenie pożyczki do us bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2012 kredyty bez bik i zdolności bocian pożyczki tomaszów maz gdzie można otrzymać kredyt bez bik kredyty chwilówki odsetki prodomo co to za pozyczki tanie pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank lublin ul zana 39a umowa pożyczki odsetki podatek pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych lublin umowa pożyczki z budżetu gminy pożyczki bez bik katowice w domu klijenta pko bp rzeszów kredyt studencki pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej przez internet pożyczki drawsko pomorskie pożyczki udzielone i należności własne przykłady pożyczki internet bocian pożyczki czarnków kredyt bank krdbplpw pozyczka bez wykazywania dochodów kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym opinie bocian pożyczki szczecin opinie pożyczki gotówkowe na telefon łukasz fornela pozyczki kredyt w banku bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach pożyczki karty kredytowe cesja umowy pożyczki wzór kredyt na firmę bez bik kasa stefczyka warunki pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny ulga odsetkowa kredyty mieszkaniowe porównanie ofert banków kredyty chwilówki dębica oddziały kredyt banku w lublinie kredyt konsolidacyjny w euro kredyt bez biku łódź przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank druk pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik gorzów gdzie wziąć kredyt bez bik pożyczki pszczółka kredyt gotówkowy przez internet bez bik pożyczki w 24h przez internet bez zaświadczeń kredyt studencki pko regulamin kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie kalkulator pożyczki bez zaświadczeń toruń bocian pożyczki jarocin kredyty pozabankowe zabrze kredyt bank wypłata gotówki za granicą umowa pożyczki odsetki za zwłokę kronos pożyczki tychy kontakt pożyczki dla osób bez dochodu zarejestrowanie umowy pożyczki w urzędzie skarbowym kredyt bankowy plan pracy getin bank kredyt gotowkowy na 120 miesiecy pożyczki gotówkowe bankowe kredyt studencki warunki umowa pożyczki z poręczeniem wzór marka paslek pozyczki pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kredyt gotówkowy w którym banku najlepiej kredyt bank lokata strukturyzowana pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe zfśs pożyczki online w 15 minut kredyt bank gdansk wrzeszcz pożyczki prywatne bez zaswiadczen kontakt warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny w londynie w jakim banku wziąć kredyt 10000 pożyczki licytacja formularz do pożyczki żyrafa pożyczki pl www pl a pożyczki ekstra kasa getin bank oprocentowanie kredytów gotówkowych kredyt w mbanku forum getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki na dowód częstochowa wycena pożyczki w walucie obcej na dzień bilansowy umowa pożyczki pod zastaw prawo pożyczki 30 tys kredyty online bez biku kredyt na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania pozabankowy pożyczki bez krd i big kredyt bez big krakow pożyczki chwilówki płock kredyt bez bik września meritum bank kredyt firmowy opinie kredyt bank bankomaty inowrocław kalkulator pożyczki gofin skarabeusz pożyczki oddziały pieniądze do domu pożyczki kredyty bez bik i krd online łukasz formela pożyczki pożyczki studenckie w anglii kredyt bank uk kredyt w banku uk pożyczki prywatne nowy targ pożyczki bez zaświadczeń dla bezrobotnych pożyczki bez weryfikacji wniosku pożyczki prywatne wypelnij wniosek kredyty chwilówki czebotar pożyczki prywatne koszalin warunki pożyczki w skoku banki udzielajace kredyt na pit krakow kredyty bez bik i krd kalisz pożyczki konsolidacyjne pozabankowe pko bank polski kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyty pozabankowe żary kredyt bank numer kontaktowy pożyczki prywatne z ue pożyczki w pko bank polski pożyczki opole kredyty bez bik i krd walbrzych pożyczki na dowód lubań pożyczki na dowód na raty kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń na 10 lat umowa pożyczki w jednoosobowej spółce kredyt bank conrada godziny otwarcia niedzielne pożyczki prywatne kredyt bez bik gdzie dostane kredyt konsolidacyjny bez poręczycieli wong pożyczki pożyczki na dowód opole kredyt bank lomza godziny otwarcia pożyczki wikipedia udziele szybkiej pozyczki prywatnej zywiec gdzie kredyt gotówkowy bez bik pożyczki chwilówki bez bik online kredyt bank ukraine kredyt bankowy kodeks cywilny pożyczki chwilówki na dowód kalkulator pożyczki provident pożyczki kórnik szybkie pożyczki od 19 lat pozyczki prywatne na wysoki procent szybki kredyt bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe anglia kredyt bank sa iii oddział w warszawie kredyt bank kłobuck ing bank pozyczki na zalozenie firmy skarabeusz pożyczki częstochowa kredyt bank biała kredyt konsolidacyjny na 25 lat kredyty bez bik jastrzebie kredyt bank wyniki finansowe kredyty bez biku lodz getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego kredyt bank toruń fosa bartek pozyczki kredyt w santander consumer bank opinie kredyt samochodowy w banku pekao sa nobilon gdansk pozyczki kredyt samochodowy dla firm ing kredyty i pożyczki w uk pożyczki w domu klienta opole transfery w kredyt banku pożyczki bankowe bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibank pożyczki na firme bez bik kredyt bank gliwice dworcowa 24 pożyczki bez bik żnin kredyty bez bik slaskie umowa pożyczki zwolnienie z pcc kredyt idea bank oprocentowanie kredyt w banku getin bank kredyt samochodowy mbank forum pożyczki lubelskie alior bank kredyt kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza kredyt bank ile idzie przelew pożyczki na dowód bez zdolności kredytowej alior bank kredyty kalkulator kredyt bank garwolin godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki odzyskanie pieniędzy kredyt konsolidacyjny nordea bocian pożyczki wagrowiec pożyczki pod zastaw sosnowiec kredyt bank gdańsk ul noskowskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki z parp pożyczki giełdowe umowa pożyczki w pierwszej grupie podatkowej kredyt pozabankowy na zakup mieszkania cetelem bank kredyt przez internet szybkie pożyczki lubin mikropożyczki dla absolwentów pożyczki do domu piła kredyt bank wałbrzych piaskowa góra kod na kredyt do orange kredyt bank przelewy wychodzące godziny kredyt bank profil aktywny kredyt bank warszawa ul ostrobramska 101 pożyczki w bedzinie getin bank kredyt opinie klientów kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko sa w jakim banku wziąć kredyt 10000 kredyt bank kalkulator flisak pożyczki opinie pożyczki chwilówki łask pożyczki bez zaświadczeń płock pożyczki społecznościowe finansowo pożyczki pozabankowe lubelskie wzór aneksu do umowy pożyczki z zfśs kredyty bez bik w olsztynie kredyt mieszkaniowy w ktorym banku maksymalne koszty pożyczki kredyty w banku pko bp konwersja pożyczki na kapitał podatek u źródła kredyt konsolidacyjny w kredyt bank pozyczki w domu slimak i inne bydgoszcz pożyczki bez bik kutno pożyczki fora kredyt bank lukow kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie 2013 kredyt w paribas bank opinie pożyczki na dowód przez internet pożyczki bez bik skok pożyczki pod zastaw wrocław kredyt bank sa siedziba główna szybkie pożyczki bez bik włocławek kredyt prostoliczony lukas bank kalkulator umowa pożyczki dla spolki pozyczki prodomo wejherowo pożyczki pozabankowe częstochowa preferencyjny kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim bocian pożyczki olsztyn telefon kredyty w banku santander kredyt chwilówki bez bik pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kredyt bank radzymińska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank matejki gorzów kredyt bank pilsudskiego lodz umowa pożyczki a odsetki pożyczka pod zastaw auta zdunska wola kredyty pozabankowe bez bik pożyczki bez weryfikacji konta bankowego bank w rzeszowie ktury udziela pozyczek bez biku kredyt bank zmiana hasła bank pko kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pożyczki miechów bocian pożyczki z komornikiem amber gold pożyczki opinie 2012 kredyt bank bielsko godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki toruń kredyt bez bik oprocentowanie pożyczka prywatna od zaraz kraków bocian pożyczki kutno pożyczki gotówkowe online odroczenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego w pko kredyty chwilówki radom prażmowskiego pożyczki na dowód oleśnica pko bp lublin kredyt studencki kredyt w koncie credit agricole kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli kredyt inwestycyjny w getin banku linia kredytowa santander bank dla firm kredyt bank zmiana pinu kredyt bez bik i krd online warunki pożyczki w banku odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem kredyt w dombanku pożyczki partner wzór umowy pożyczki od znajomych pożyczki bez dochodów forum wzór wyliczenia odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki chwilówki na dowód poznań pożyczki chwilówki w ciechanowie kredyt bank w koninie kredyt studencki ing bank pożyczki na chwilę ekspres kasa pożyczki kredyt bank środa śląska telefon odroczenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko bp pożyczki w domu klienta radom kredyt bankowy podsumowanie udzielę prywatnej pożyczki bez opłat wstępnych pozyczka w lukas swiebodzin pożyczki chwilówki łask pko bp kamień pomorski kredyt odnawialny pożyczki na oświadczenie bez bik kredyt bank chałubińskiego gdańsk pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach i bik kredyt bez biku rybnik kredyt bank wawa pożyczki łódź pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach i bik pożyczki na dowód staszów mennica pożyczki z jakimi bankami jest powiązana bank pko bp kredyt firmowy pożyczki prometeusz kredyt bank sa lokaty deutsche bank kredyt na dowod online kredyt bank owf kredyt samochodowy porównanie banków kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko kredyt samochodowy 2013 forum kredyt bank karta zbliżeniowa szukam pożyczki katowice pożyczki bez bik kraków kredyt samochodowy bez bik kalkulator pozyczki prywatne cywilno prawne na 30000 olesnica pod jaki numer wziasc kredyt w orange kredyt bank przelew ekspresowy kredyt bank międzyzdroje w którym banku najtańszy kredyt pożyczki lubliniec kredyt pozabankowy zielona góra optima s a kredyty pożyczki db kredyt deutsche bank pbc sa kredyt bank żytnia kredyty chwilówki nowy bytom elblag pozyczki w domu bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank w bogatyni dobranie pożyczki w skok kredyt bez bik łódź kredyt bank kasprzaka 2 8 ekspresowe pożyczki wrocław bez big bik i krd obliczenie raty pożyczki gotówkowej czy od pożyczki trzeba zapłacić podatek kredyt bez big krakow kredyt bank zagiel pożyczki pozabankowe tuchola kredyty pozabankowe bez wychodzenia z domu ostrow wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny czym jest pożyczki pod zastaw rtv warszawa alior bank kredyt inwestycyjny oprocentowanie usługi pożyczki lublin kredyt studencki pko przedluzenie kredyt bank elbląg godz otwarcia odsetki od pożyczki ceny transferowe kredyt bez bik strzelin kredyt bez bik i krd wrocław wysokie pożyczki bez bik termin przedawnienia roszczeń z tytułu pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw działki budowlanej kredyt w getin noble bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredytowy kredyt na dowód bank spółdzielczy pożyczki biłgoraj pożyczki mława alior bank kredyt z ubezpieczeniem kredyt bank w częstochowie godziny otwarcia kredyt w postbanku pożyczki wronki pożyczki pożyczka pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt konsolidacyjny paribas pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń kredyty mieszkaniowe bph umowa pożyczki dla stowarzyszenia pożyczki w skoku chmielewskiego kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki pożyczki bez bik oława kredyt bank w ełku kredyt bank giżycko praca kredyt bank gwarancje kredyty chwilówki radom malczewskiego kredyt bank olsztyn żołnierska godziny otwarcia eurocent pożyczki opinie kredyt bank warszawa wolska pozyczka bez big i krs pożyczki gostynin kredyty chwilówki warszawa pożyczki pomiędzy podmiotami powiązanymi umowa w sprawie pożyczki z zfśs bank udzielajacy pozyczki z dochodami z zagranicy kredyt bank toruń grudziądzka udzielone pożyczki długoterminowe bilans gold pożyczki opinie pożyczki prywatne opodatkowanie pożyczki pod zastaw radom kredyt bank wypłaty z bankomatów bez prowizji kredyt bank rzecznik prasowy odsetki od pożyczki nota czy faktura kredyt konsolidacyjny nie w banku optima pożyczki słupsk kredyty konsolidacyjne z opóźnieniami w bik pożyczki chwilówki bez bik krd kredyt samochodowy alior bank kalkulator udzielone pożyczki po angielsku szybki kredyt bez przelewu dobry kredyt pozabankowy forum kredyty dla firm bez bik i krd kredyt bank żagiel numer telefonu kredyty chwilówki toruń jamontta kredyt bank pożyczka na dowód pożyczki na dowód szczecinek druk umowa pożyczki kredyt bank hasła sms optima pożyczki oddziały pożyczki na dowód nysa kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko sa pozyczki prudnik kredyt bank kto go kupi pożyczki finansowe kredyt orange jaki numer bankomaty kredyt banku w gdańsku kredyt w bank pocztowy opinie flisak chełmno pożyczki kredyt bank lokaty opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp kalkulator umowa pożyczki z przechowaniem zastawu kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe concerto pożyczki chwilówki bez bik krd umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs wzór getin noble bank kredyt ratalny pożyczki 24h na dobę umowa pożyczki między rodziną wzór kredyt bank legionowo tel pożyczki dla udziałowców bankomaty kredyt banku bez prowizji kredyt z komornikiem kamienna gora umowa użyczenia pożyczki kredyt bank mława godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe dlugoterminowe kredyt bank przetargi pożyczki bez bik ostrowiec św pożyczki bez bik łomża kredyt bank zgubienie karty druk pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne wrocław skarabeusz pożyczki praca kredyty bankowe ksiazka lukas bank kredyt bez biku banknot pożyczki opinie odsetki ustawowe od pożyczki 2012 kredyt bank wniosek o zamknięcie konta el global pożyczki pożyczki prywatne bielsko biała kredyt samochodowy w ing bank śląski kredyt bez biku poznan pożyczki prywatne dla nowych firm kredyty chwilowki lodz plac wolnosci dobra pożyczka mazowieckie pożyczki gotówkowe pozyczki bez konta kredyt na dowód w domu szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd poznań kredyt w bank pko bp pożyczki dla pracowników banków pro group pożyczki oświadczenie o udzieleniu pożyczki kredyt bank powstańców śląskich warszawa bocian pożyczki tarnów kredyty chwilówki praca warszawa spłata kredytu studenckiego w pko bp getin bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum kredyt gotówkowy w ing banku śląskim kredyty hipoteczne dla zadluzonych w bik lodz szybki kredyt bez bik tychy szybką pożyczka do domu klienta kredyt studencki pekao wniosek podatek od pożyczki kto płaci wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki w pracy kredyt w bilansie banku kredyty bez bik czechowice dziedzice kredyt gotówkowy getin bank kalkulator pożyczki money now umowa odnowienia pożyczki pożyczki praca wniosek o restrukturyzację pożyczki tanie pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank warszawa franciszkańska abis pożyczki telefon umorzenie pożyczki powodziowej pożyczki przez internet darmowe skarabeusz pożyczki podkarpacie kredyt dla nestora w banku pocztowym kredyt bankowy i jego rodzaje pożyczki na pierwszy biznes pożyczka bez bik abis kredyt w polskim banku dla obcokrajowca kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki 2000 kredyt bank 3 maja kredyt bank w dębicy pożyczki gotówkowe kielce kredyt bank adekwatność kapitałowa kredyt bank zmiana tokena kredyty poza bankowe lublin adresy i nr tel elementy umowy kredytowej wg prawa bankowego pozyczki żary bez zaswiadczenia pożyczki prywatne gorzów pożyczki prywatne prawo pożyczki sl pożyczki do domu dolnośląskie

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad