koszty notarialne umowy pożyczki rzeczywisty koszt pożyczki przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku kredyt bank warszawa chełmska 9 pozyczki lubin mikropożyczki dla małych firm kredyty bez bik wloclawek kredyty chwilówki debica oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego deutsche bank przetarg na kredyt bankowy 2012 pożyczki w bilansie pcc od pożyczki od firmy kredyt studencki na mieszkanie lukas bank pozyczki na procent plock czy kredyty chwilówki są ubezpieczone kredyt konsolidacyjny korzyści paulina dabrowska pozyczki kredyt chwilówka praca forum umowa pożyczki cywilna getin bank oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego umowa pożyczki przykłady kredyt bez bik 40000 kredyt bank polna 11 pożyczki portal kredyt bez bik plock kredyt na start w idea bank opinie pożyczki pozabankowe duze kwoty pożyczki do domu płock pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie w jakim banku wziąć kredyt opinie kredyt bank warszawa aleja krakowska godziny otwarcia optima pożyczki do domu pozyczki prywatne online w debicy jakie 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przasnysz pożyczki pod zastaw olkusz getin bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum kredyt dla policjantow promocja 2014 bank brodnicki kredyt forum kredyt bank w lublinie windykacja umorzenie pożyczki dla pracownika optima pożyczki online pożyczki między firmami pcc najtańszy kredyt w banku skarabeusz pozyczki pozabankowe dolnyslsask kredyt bez bik pomorskie sprzedaż kredyt banku santander 2012 pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bank dworcowa gliwice oprocentowanie kredytu w banku millennium optima pozyczki kredyty grudziadz pożyczki bez bik w olsztynie kredyt bocian pożyczki bez bik program partnerski kredyt chwilówki zabrze pożyczki gotówkowe od reki kredyt bank legionowo kredyty bez bik w szczecinie monetto pożyczki kredyt chwilówka jaworzno firma uzyskała kredyt w banku kredyt bank różana godziny otwarcia wałbrzych pożyczki bez bik kredyty chwilówki 24 kredyt bank gdansk godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik 5000 bocian pożyczki gotówkowe forum kredyt konsolidacyjny angielski 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dotycząca pożyczki pieniędzy alior bank kredyt opinie pożyczki lider zwrot pożyczki english czy umowa pożyczki podlega pcc kredyt bank rozmowa kwalifikacyjna pożyczki online bez dochodów kredyty chwilówki definicja kredyt bez bik credit agricole umowa pożyczki pieniędzy między firmami wzór szybka pożyczka bez erif kredyt gotówkowy chwilówki pożyczki katowice bez bik kredyt w banku pko bp opinie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń włocławek pożyczki w domu klienta pokwitowanie zwrotu pożyczki kwota nominalna pożyczki wycena pożyczki na koniec roku kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt bank warszawa okęcie pożyczki chwilówki sosnowiec kredyt bank pelplin kontakt kredyt bank lokaty lipiec 2013 kredyt bank opis kredyty konsolidacyjne na 10 lat getin bank szybkie pożyczki tarnów pożyczki kredito udzielenie pożyczki spółce cywilnej przez wspólnika prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw forum kredyt studencki pko oprocentowanie kredyt bank goldenline novum pozyczki oddział gdańsk kredyt bank iban swift udzielam uczciwych prywatnych pozyczek pożyczki w jakim banku bankowy kredyt samochodowy szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik i zaświadczeń kalkulator mega pożyczki ing bankowy kredyt samochodowy kredyty bez bik i dochodów pożyczki chwilówki białystok bez bik kredyty chwilówki prokuratura kredyt mieszkaniowy bez małżeństwa kredyt bank maestro kredyt konsolidacyjny na poczcie pożyczki pozabankowe ełk pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw koszalin umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziny kredyty mieszkaniowe dla samotnych matek 2013 kredyt bank w łowiczu idea bank kredyty online bocian pozyczki garwolin kredyt bank jana pawła gdańsk pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i zaświadczeń wniosek o kredyt studencki pko sa pożyczki od brata w jakim banku wziąć kredyt kredyt bank 15 oddział gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny bez poreczycieli kredyt w banku pekao s a umowa pożyczki pieniędzy na procent czy kredyt bank ma problemy wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki społecznościowe podatek santander kupił 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kredyt bank ul kasprzaka pożyczki janosik jak obliczyć nominalne oprocentowanie pożyczki pożyczki advice pożyczki dla nowej firmy kredyt bankowy książka mg finance pożyczki pozyczka uk w 15 min szybkie pożyczki kalisz umowa pożyczki od udziałowca a pcc kredyt bez biku do 50000 kredyt online bez bik krd bocian pożyczki wagrowiec pożyczki pod zastaw 24h lombard jagiellońska 11 pożyczki domówki grudziądz kredyt bank targowa godziny otwarcia getin noble bank ubezpieczenie kredytu pożyczki gotówkowe sezam sp z oo helikon pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank kalkulator pozyczki n dowod elblag bez krd i bik szybkie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik finan pożyczki pozyczki chwilowki konkret lomza pozyczki niebankowe podobne do providenta szamotuly pozyczki prywatne szybkie pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki prywatne opole który bank daje pożyczki bez bik pozyczki inwestor prywatne dyrektor kredytbank zamość kredyt bank rekrutacja kredyt bank otwock panda pożyczki opinie kredyt bank katowice uniwersytecka godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik w płocku pożyczki oddłużeniowe na dowód pożyczki w jakim banku kredyt bez bik wadowice w jakim banku wziąć kredyt obrotowy pożyczki pod zastaw dębica kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu tablica pl pożyczka na sam dowód mińsk maz kredyt konsolidacyjny multibank kalkulator kredyt chwilówka warunki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli 2012 kredyt pozabankowy na oswiadczenie firmy beata burzyńska pożyczki kredyt bankowy zalety i wady pozyczki bez bik i krd przez internet pozabankowe kredyty na mieszkanie kredyt w pko bp dla firm kredyt bank zagiel kontakt firmy kredytowe w szamotulach kredyty chwilówki swiebodzin pożyczki bez biku gdańsk pożyczki prywatne gniezno pożyczki chwilówki w poznaniu kredyt mieszkaniowy 2014 kalkulator pozyczki na oświadczenie w ostrów mazowiecka umowa ubezpieczenia pożyczki kredyty chwilówki boguszowice kredyt bank łódź bednarska godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki przyznawalność kredyt bez historii bik pożyczki bez krd przez internet kredyt bank szczecin okulickiego godziny otwarcia kredyt pod zastaw samochodu bez biku umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z wekslem kredyt samochodowy mbank regulamin kredyt studencki oprocentowanie 2014 pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych wałbrzych pożyczki prywatne na weksel cała polska pożyczki gotówkowe od zaraz kredyt bank kepno kredyt bez bik pszczyna kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób po 50 pożyczki na dowód kutno najtańsze pożyczki online kredyt bank bankomat euronet kredyt bank żagiel bydgoszcz depozyty w kredyt banku kredyt bankowy bez krd ewidencja pożyczki z zfśs idea bank kredyt dla nowych firm opinie pożyczki łódź chwilówki kredyt w banku getin bank pożyczki współpraca kredyt bank warszawa radość idea bank kredyt online opinie kredyt studencki jakie odsetki przeksięgowanie pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pożyczki ze środków unijnych pcc od pożyczki formularz pożyczki prywatne jelenia góra kredyt bank konto internetowe kredyt bank sa opole kredyt gotówkowy w banku pko sa pożyczki prywatne żory pozyczka getin bank w 5 minut kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku bgz tanie pożyczki bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny z zabezpieczeniem pożyczki udzielone kredyty chwilowki poznan glogowska kredyt bez bik w płocku kredyt bank żytnia godziny otwarcia pożyczka prywatna od zaraz kraków pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw poznań pozyczki uk 24 h na dobe pożyczki na telefon bez bik lublin kalkulator pożyczki w pko bp alior bank kredyt firmowy kredyty chwilówki szczecin opinie kredyt dla nowych firm bez biku kredyt bank zmienia właściciela kredyt konsolidacyjny najmniejsze oprocentowanie pożyczki pod zastaw dąbrowa górnicza kredyt bank poznań winogrady pożyczki kokos kontakt abis szybkie pozyczki gotowkowe numer kontaktowy kredyty bez biku toruń kredyt bez bik konsolidacja kredyt studencki pko potrzebne dokumenty pożyczki na dowód braniewo kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pekao sa pożyczki prywatne grudziądz tani kredyt samochodowy dla firm kredyt bankowy chomikuj kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń i bez biku kredyty chwilówki dęblin kredyt bank pelplin godz otwarcia pożyczki na dowód wągrowiec kredyt bank warszawa ul abrahama marża banku kredyt kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 186 pożyczki pozabankowe ostrowiec pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości dla zadłużonych kredyt bank pocztowy wasze opinie kredyt bank sosnowiec kontakt pożyczki społecznościowe online kredyt bank email pożyczki online z bikiem gdzie kredyty bez biku wroclaw z komornikiem kredyty chwilówki oferty pożyczki do 100 zł kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik szczecin kredyt bez bik pod zastaw mieszkania kredyty bez biku wroclaw pożyczki chwilówki iława pożyczki chwilówki żywiec cesja pożyczki podatek dochodowy kredyty bez biku malbork pożyczki przez internet bez wychodzenia z domu pożyczki prywatne nowy targ okres przedawnienia pożyczki bankowej idea bank kredyt na start firmy opinie umowa pożyczki okres przedawnienia bank bph kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyty w idea banku schemat księgowania pożyczki kredyt bank wrocławska warszawa pożyczki dębica udzielić pożyczki ang kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen o dochodach kredyt bank rozmowa kwalifikacyjna pożyczki dla firm poznań kredyty chwilówki na czym polegają udzielę pożyczki prywatnej szybko i bez sprawdzania kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla singli pożyczki chwilówki bielsko pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości warszawa pożyczki na dowód kołobrzeg kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki ogłoszenia potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki wzór kredyt bank włocławek promienna godziny szablon umowy pożyczki chwilówki my banq pożyczki alior bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt gotówkowy bez biku i zaświadczeń pożyczki chwilówki przez internet od 18 lat kredyt mieszkaniowy najtańszy forum pożyczki z funduszu europejskiego placówka kredyt banku warszawa w jakim banku najtanszy kredyt gotowkowy pożyczki pod zastaw racibórz kredyt w banku skok wziecie pozyczki od mafi pożyczki prywatne dolnośląskie kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy kredyt bank ostrów wielkopolski pożyczki bocian w ostrowcu godz pracy pożyczki chwilówki ostrowiec umowa pożyczki może być zawarta w dowolnej formie kredyt bank raszyn kontakt bocian pożyczki milicz

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad