kredyt bank lokaty rentierskie kredyt konsolidacyjny dla samorządów dokumentowanie zwrotu pożyczki pożyczki credit agricole bocian pożyczki trzebiatów reklama pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe częstochowa pożyczki pozabankowe pomorskie kredyt bank lublin windykacja adres kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych bydgoszcz pożyczki chwilówki pierwsza za darmo konsolidacja kredytów w mbanku kredyt bez bik na mieszkanie kredyt bez bik i krd katowice pożyczki gotówkowe piła pt wygodne pożyczki kredyt bank w oleśnicy pożyczki bez bik w kielcach pożyczki gotówkowe dla emerytów pożyczki bezzwrotne z unii kredyt m1 kredyt pozabankowy rzeszów pożyczki bez zaświadczeń toruń kredyt bank sa regon nip pożyczki dla pracowników ze środków obrotowych pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz załatwie kredyt w banku umowa pożyczki ze środków obrotowych kredyt bank 3 maja lublin pożyczki bez bik i krd bialystok pożyczki na dowód dąbrowa górnicza pożyczki preferencyjne dla gmin pożyczki na weksel kraków kredyty chwilówki gorlice deklaracja pożyczki kredyty pożyczki cała polska kredyt pozabankowy wrocław umowa pożyczki osoba fizyczna wzór kredyt chwilówka oleśnica pożyczki chwilówki siedlce pro group pożyczki pożyczka w domu warszawa i okolice kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik wrocław kredyt bank program dla wybranych firm kredyt preferencyjny alior bank najnowsza pożyczka bez bik umowa pożyczki podatek zwolnienie adres kredyt bank warszawa pożyczki na start firmy bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli w pko kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i krd kredyt bank ilość placówek osoby prywatne udzielające pożyczki kredyty chwilówki żywiec pokwitowanie pożyczki kredyty bez bik i zus kredyt bank oplata za przelew umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a zus kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i zdolności kredytowej bocian pożyczki szczecin oświadczenie oddania pożyczki pożyczki bez biku legnica pożyczki pozabankowe polkowice udzielone pożyczki aktywa kredyt bank święty marcin król pożyczki kredyt bank fundusz jumper kredyt bank pszczyna telefon jaki procent kredytu w vivus pożyczki wspólpraca prywatne pożyczki rybnik pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt dla zadłużonych opole, brzeg pozyczki na wysoki procent od ludzi prywatnych pożyczki prywatne w płocku pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank wniosek w jakim banku daja kredyt na dowód kredyt konsolidacyjny na pit 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank oprocentowanie pożyczki prywatne na weksel gdańsk kredyt studencki pko transze pożyczki pod zastaw umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pdf pożyczki pozabankowe do 50000 kredyt konsolidacyjny w sygma banku kredyt mieszkaniowy na 30 lat pożyczki prywatne ciechocinek santander kredyt samochodowy wcześniejsza spłata szybka pozyczka gorzow wlkp vivus uk pożyczki kredyty bankowe praca licencjacka kredyty konsolidacyjny dla firm poszukuję pożyczki kredyt bez bik zywiec kredyt bank grójecka 45 godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe z obsługą w domu kredyty bez bik i krs pożyczki ze złą historią w bik kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku pko pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania warszawa umowa pożyczki faktura pcc od pożyczki między firmami kredyt bank kierownik czy kredyty chwilowki sprawdzaja bik i krd adresy kredyt banku warszawa umowa pożyczki między firmami pożyczki prywatne w gorzowie wlkp koszty pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank infolinia żagiel pożyczki pozabankowe pod nieruchomość kredyty samochodiwe uk kredyty pozabankowe krakow bez posrednikow kredyt mieszkaniowy dla bezrobotnych pożyczki oddłużeniowe z komornikiem oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy kredyt bank ekstrabiznes kredyt bank pocztowy forum kredyt do reki warszawa pozyczka jak provident bez big kredyty chwilówki tychy tel prywatne pozyczki do domu w ten sam dzien chodziez kredyt bank warszawa ken w jakim banku wziąć kredyt studencki kredyty pozabankowe rybnik kredyt bank w legnicy kredyt bank iban swift pożyczki od ręki gdańsk kredyty bankowe ksiegowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny euro umowa pożyczki druk aktywny złota rybka pożyczki opinie kredyt bank w zawierciu kredyt bank radom kontakt kredyt bank bankomaty olsztyn konwersja pożyczki na kapitał a różnice kursowe kredyt w banku zagiel pożyczki gotówkowe od ręki kredyt bank romera szybkie pożyczki chwilowki w krakowie pożyczki elbląg kredyt 1000 wzór weksla pożyczki kredyt bez bik rawicz kredyt bank x oddział w warszawie pożyczki udzielone przez polskę kredyt w banku brodnickim kredyt bank praca opinie kredyt bank lublin głęboka godziny otwarcia kredyty pod zastaw mieszkania bez biku idea bank kredyt ze wsparciem unijnym forum pożyczki pl umowa pożyczki bez zgody małżonka kredyty chwilówki przyznawalność kredyty pozabankowe skierniewice kredyt bank warszawa tel promax pożyczki kara za niezgłoszenie pożyczki kredyty chwilówki zarabianie kredyt bank lubuskie pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet bartek pozyczki szybkie pożyczki piaseczno getin bank kredyt samochodowy na oświadczenie getin noble bank kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa pożyczki przelewem kredyt bank człuchów kredyt w banku za granicą kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator pożyczki na dowód wonga giżycko kredyt mieszkaniowy abc kredyt studencki w ktorym banku kredyt konsolidacyjny bez wychodzenia z domu nowość pożyczki do domu credit agricole pożyczki pożyczki na pit zielona góra kredyt chwilówka windykator pozyczki w domu klienta provident warunki pożyczki kredyt dla studenta bzwbk pożyczki domowe gdynia pożyczki od udziałowców księgowanie pozyczki dla zadluzonych w bik i krs pożyczki sezam całą polska kredyty bez bik malbork kredyty chwilówki nobiles kredyt bank świętojańska gdynia kredyt chwilówki końskie kredyt bank zagiel kontakt kredyt bez bik świdnica pozyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki provident kredyt bank bankomaty piła pozyczka dla zadluzonych w biku przedawnienie pożyczki ustnej firma uzyskała kredyt w banku 12 pożyczki prywatne w warszawie umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem pcc kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kalkulator kredyt w banku millenium bank pocztowy kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bankowy encyklopedia zarządzania kredyty chwilówki 0 gdzie daja kredyt bez bik szybki kredyt bez bik krd kredyty nordea bank kredyt bez bik grudziadz kredyt bank w nowym targu kredyt bank bednarska łódź wycena pożyczki wg skorygowanej ceny nabycia kredyt bank wroclawska warunki pracy w kredyt banku kredyt bank pruszków kredyt bank lublin windykacja kredyt konsolidacyjny credit kredyty mieszkaniowe w bph pożyczki chwilówki bielsko biała kredyt samochodowy oprocentowanie forum szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń kredyty chwilówki warszawa grójecka kredyty santander pożyczki dla zadłużonych pozabankowe kredyty bankowe sciaga kredyty pozabankowe zgorzelec kredyt studencki warunki 2013 pozyczka zabezpieczona aneksem komorniczym kredyt bank i oddział w warszawie lubin pozyczki bocian pożyczki racibórz kredyt bank chełmska godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne białystok odsetki od pożyczki nkup kredyt bez bik skok stefczyka pożyczki gotówkowe getin bank pożyczki pod zastaw olkusz szukam pożyczki dla firmy pożyczki na dowód tylko księgowanie pożyczki otrzymanej kredyt w alior banku opinie pożyczka bez bik bez zaświadczeń puck kredyt bez bik słupsk kredyt idea bank forum kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg 40 tys pożyczki gotówkowe 5000 alior bank kredyt warunki kredyt novum bez bik kredyt w credit agricole kalkulator kredyt bank biała podlaska godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki z rodziną wniosek o kredyt studencki pko sa kredyt bank cesja kredyty mieszkaniowe w 2014 roku kredyty bez bik kielce cechy pozyczki axcess financial pożyczki getin bank kredyty bez biku kredyt bez bik iz komornikiem kredyt studencki jakie jest oprocentowanie przekształcenie pożyczki w darowiznę pożyczki wieloratalne bez bik postbank kredyt samochodowy pożyczki przez internet nowe bartuś pożyczki rumia kredyt bank sa główna siedziba pożyczki gotówkowe pekao sa kredyty chwilówki wymagania kredyt bank gliniana kredyt bez bik starachowice przedawnienie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet bez bik kredyt w alior banku forum pożyczki bez big i bik najkorzystniejsza pozyczka bez krd potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia podatek od pożyczki od rodziny umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a podatek dochodowy w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotowkowy banki które daja kredyt bez bik pozyczka na dowod 18 lat online pszczyna pożyczki prywatne rybnik jak uzasadnic pozyczke na remont pokoju kredyt bank dla firm feniks pozyczki pożyczki bez bik forum pożyczki chwilówki gdynia pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta pozyczki dla polakow w londynie bez bik i umowy o prace pożyczki providus śląsk kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pko bp gros pożyczki kwidzyn pozyczki od zaraz bez big i krd przez internet pożyczki prywatne bełchatów pożyczki bez biku w bydgoszczy umowa pożyczki 500 zł kredyt bank lokata przez internet pożyczki na dowód zduńska wola opodatkowanie pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt bank glowna siedziba kredyty bez bik ełk profi kredit czy otrzymam kredyt bez bik kredyt bank augustów kredyt bank gold profit kredyt konsolidacyjny bph opinie kredyt bank opole alior bank kredyt forum kredyt stargard szczecinski pożyczki takie jak w provident kredyt bank w hrubieszowie kredyt konsolidacyjny 70000 kredyt bank gpw wzór umowy pożyczki zfron kredyt w credit agricole opinie pożyczki kolno pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód warszawa kredyt bankowy w rachunku bieżącym kredyt konsolidacyjny nie w banku credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki pszczółka pożyczki podobne do bocian kredyt konsolidacyjny forum udzielenie pożyczki a podatek vat kredyt bank w zduńskiej woli kredyt bez bik big pożyczki bez bik turek pożyczki pod zastaw gruntów rolnych jak obliczyć kredyt w banku kredyty chwilówki września umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kapitałowymi kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób w bik kredyt bank olecko pożyczki od osób prywatnych opinie tanie pożyczki na dowód umowa pożyczki pieniędzy u notariusza kredyty mieszkaniowe symulator pożyczki pod zastaw lombardy włocławek oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku jak liczyć umowa pożyczki odnawialnej wzór kredyty bez bik szamotuły kredyt bank popularna skarabeusz pożyczki rawicz umowa pożyczki stawka pcc kredyt bez biku jakie oprocentowanie kredyty chwilówki zawiercie kredyt dla firm bez bik zus us nowość pożyczki do domu pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kto daje bocian pożyczki bytom pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach wroclaw pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic zmiany w kredyt banku drugi kredyt w tym samym banku forum pozyczki chojnice pożyczki tak to pożyczki prywatne weksel kredyt mieszkaniowy harmonogram spłat udzielę pożyczki prywatnej 2013 pożyczki pozabankowe głogów kredyt bank foksal umowa pożyczki akcji kredyt bez bik do 30000 pożyczki chwilówki wąbrzeźno szybkie kredyty bez bik udzielenie nieoprocentowanej pożyczki kredyt bank piaseczno tel pożyczki optima opinie kredyt w millenium bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator zdolności kredyty pozabankowe jaworzno kredyty konsolidacyjne dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji kredyt obrotowy w idea banku kredyty bankowe i pozabankowe kalwaryjska krakow kredyt samochodowy nordea bank umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a zus bocian pożyczki mail umowa poręczenia pożyczki umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne pożyczki kaktus kredyt bank lokaty 3 miesieczne kredyt bank wrocławska tani kredyt samochodowy ranking w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na dom pożyczki ślimak poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny millenium bank opinie pożyczki od osób prywatnych bydgoszcz kredyt bank leżajsk kontakt pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości katowice credit agricole pożyczki gotówkowe umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs gofin kredyt bank przelicznik szybki kredyt przez internet bez bik prodomo pożyczki nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez krd najtańsze pożyczki chwilówki kredyt mieszkaniowy na 100 tys kredyty chwilowki godz otwarcia kredyt w deutsche bank mikropożyczki wiki kredyt w banku na dowod pożyczki z fgśp kredyty bez bik malbork kredyt bankowy dla msp infolinia firmy slimak kredyty kredyt bank wyliczenie raty kredyty chwilowki czestochowa umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs pożyczki gotówkowe ing kredyt bank chorzów wolności korona pozyczki konin opodatkowanie umorzonej pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa gumtree vivus pożyczki rejestracja umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi podatek pożyczki na które trzeba uważać pożyczki w domu klienta lublin kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego tel pozyczki pozabankowe katowice bez meldunku pożyczki w języku polskim kredyt bez bik w 15 minut kredyt bank toruń telefon everest finanse pożyczki kredyt bank plac powstańców warszawy godziny otwarcia kredyt samochodowy bez bik dla nowych firm kredyt bank jutrzenki lublin pożyczki dla bezrobotnych 2014 pożyczki bez bik pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki wągrowiec kredyt bank giełda notowania potrzebuję pożyczki bez bik kompensata odsetek od pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń gliwice kredyt mdm banki kredyt studencki pko niedostarczenie zaświadczenia jaki jest nr na kredyt orange kredyty chwilówki windykacja kredyt bank marcinkowskiego godziny otwarcia odsetki od pożyczki jako koszt uzyskania przychodu kredyt bank goleniów kontakt kredyt bank racibórz telefon pożyczki prywatne lublin umowa pożyczki między rodziną umowa pożyczki warunki kredyt bez bik credit agricole pozyczka bocian bytom kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób z bik udzielenie pożyczki proz pożyczki bez bik kołobrzeg pożyczki katowice ei global pożyczki pozyczki publiczne zalety nieoprocentowane pożyczki z zfśs odroczenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyt bez bik do 30 tys kredyt studencki spłata forum kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli kalkulator kredyty chwilówki praca bytom ranking kredytów w bankach czym uzasadnic pozyczke na remont łączny koszt pożyczki waloryzacja pozyczki kredyty chwilówki jasło pożyczki prywatne chorzów pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych online kredyt bank sandomierz umowa pożyczki od udziałowca wzór kredyt bank olesno kredyt chwilówka telefon kto płaci podatek od umowy pożyczki kredyty chwilówki bez big kredyty chwilówka żywiec jak uzyskać kredyt bez bik kredyt bank w minsku maz pcc od pożyczki kosztem uzyskania przychodu kredyt konsolidacyjny rybnik kredyt bank stargard godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki wspólników pożyczki gotówkowe typu provident umowa pożyczki orzecznictwo kredyt samochodowy mbanku umorzenie pożyczki a przychód podatkowy pożyczki prywatne zamość pożyczki gotówkowe lubin kredyt bank spółka akcyjna warszawa bocian pozyczki windykator terenowy kredyt konsumpcyjny prawo bankowe pożyczki od ręki łódź ewidencja księgowa pożyczki dla pracownika pozyczki bez bik tel umowa pożyczki oprocentowanej umorzenie pożyczki bankowej gdzie mozna uzyskac kredyt bez bik w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy umowa pożyczki pieniędzy koledze wzór opinie o pszczułce kredyty kredyt bank zamość godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe olsztyn bocian pożyczki forum banki spółdzielcze kredyty bez bik kredyt bankowy ranking szukam pożyczki prywatnej forum pożyczki bez biku włocławek

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad