który bank udziela kredytu bez bik kredyt dla zadluzonych milleniumbank kredyt bank bic pożyczki lendon kredyt bank pulawy kredyt bank leszno regon w jakim banku wziąć najlepiej kredyt bocian pozyczki walbrzych kredyty chwilowki slupsk alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank wąwozowa kredyt bank giżycko kontakt pożyczki miechów księgowanie wpłat w kredyt banku irr pożyczki kredyt bank lokaty rentierskie pozyczki na dowód bez dochodów alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla bez wkładu pożyczki do domu piła kredyt bank świecie pożyczki kalisz forest pożyczki pko bp kredyt studencki zaświadczenie kredyt mieszkaniowy na firmę kredyty bez bik bankowe kredyt bank zagiel kredyty internetowe bez bik kredyt bank franciszkanska warszawa kredyt bank cennik opłat kredyt konsolidacyjny w kredyt bank kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp opinie 2011 kredyt bank za granicą bocian pożyczki lubin pożyczki forta pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank kłodzko telefon kredyt bank warszawa sadyba pożyczka chwilówka prywatna wrocław pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorców pożyczki na projekty unijne wzór umowy pożyczki od rodziny pożyczki pyrzyce umowa pożyczki nieoprocentowanej kredyt bez biku w stalowej woli pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel toruń pożyczki bez krd na dowód umowa pożyczki z pracodawcą pozyczki od osob prywatnych poznan pozyczyki atiz kredyt konsolidacyjny angielski kredyt samochodowy ranking czerwiec 2012 umowa poręczenia pożyczki alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt samochodowy na oświadczenie bez bik pożyczki konsolidacyjne pożyczki panda opole kredyt bank sa wikipedia pożyczki brodnica kredyt bank rumia kontakt szybkie kredyty bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny na dokończenie budowy domu kalkulator pożyczki kredytowej kredyt samochodowy deutsche bank kredyty chwilówki katowice giszowiec windykacja kredyt ok pożyczki dla rencistów przez internet kredyt bank we włocławku kredyty chwilówki katowice warszawska żyrafa pożyczki forum banki udzielające pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank karta zbliżeniowa darowizny pożyczki pożyczka w raciborzu poręczenie kredytu studenckiego pko bp nowosc pozyczki do donu umowy pożyczki wzory bank pekao sa kalkulator kredytu pcc od umowy pożyczki między firmami pożyczki bocian starogard gdański kredyt bez bik na telefon nie oddaje pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe w kwidzynie kredyt bez bik bytom na jaki nr wziąć kredyt w orange pozyczki na dowod wroclaw od 18 roku zycia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach przez internet kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim forum getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy pożyczki bez bik łomża kredyt bank strzelce opolskie godziny otwarcia bank millenium kredyt na mieszkanie preferencyjne pożyczki ue kredyt bank eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny w bs kielce udzielę pożyczki na procent kraków kredyt bank s a kontakt pożyczki bez bik zgierz kredyty konsolidacyjne warszawa kredyt bank franciszkańska godziny otwarcia kredyt studencki pekao bp pożyczki legnica kredyty bez bik lubin szybki kredyt bez bik z komornikiem kredyt prywatny świdnica lisiak przemysław pożyczki activa 500 pożyczki od ręki kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea bank kredyt tarnobrzeg kredyt w getin banku pożyczki chwilówki na umowe zlecenie kredyt bank światowida pożyczki kościerzyna kalkulator odsetkowy pożyczek miszkaniowych z zfŚs pożyczki od osób prywatnych lublin pożyczki udzielane w domu klienta pożyczki prywatne łódź jakie jest opracowanie dla pożyczki pod konto w pko charakter prawny umowy pożyczki kredyty chwilówki tychy ul fabryczna 12 pożyczki typu wonga pożyczki świecie pożyczki przez internet bez wychodzenia z domu dobre pożyczki forum kredyty chwilówki dla firm marek woch pożyczki kredyt bank władze pożyczki pozabankowe legionowo pcc od pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu pozyczki dla zadluzonych bez dochodu kredyt w banku internetowym pożyczki pozabankowe z komornikiem kredyt mieszkaniowy ing bank kalkulator pko bp kamień pomorski kredyt odnawialny pożyczki podporządkowane kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku spółdzielczym warszawa pożyczki prywatne kredyty bez bik czestochowa oprocentowanie pożyczki od udziałowca 2012 wyłudzenie pożyczki kk istota pożyczki bank żubr gliwice pożyczka pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości lodz pożyczki na weksel pożyczki udzielane przez jst pozyczki prywatne cywilno prawne na 30000 olesnica kredyt bank bialystok zwyciestwa wzór pokwitowania spłaty pożyczki pożyczki i kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt w euro banki kredyt bank bfg kredyt konsolidacyjny forum opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy na mieszkanie w kamienicy pożyczki bez dochodów opinie kredyty poza bankowe lublin adresy i nr tel kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego alior bank kod do orange kredyt pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt gotowkowy w deutsche bank pożyczki wrocław pożyczki bez bik świnoujście umowa pożyczki w języku angielskim kiedy umowa pożyczki jest nieważna pożyczki katowice kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki chwilówki w uk pozyczki bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny santander consumer bank czy bank stanfader udziela kredytow bez bik kredyty chwilówki biznes kredyt bank bz kredyt pozabankowy na raty pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej opinie pożyczki provident kredyty mieszkaniowe oblicz ratę kredyt w banku santander kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacje podatek od pożyczki od najbliższej rodziny kredyt na dowod w niemczech kredyty konsolidacyjne na umowe zlecenie szybkie pożyczki krotoszyn pożyczki chwilówki opole pozyczki na dowód nysa pożyczki bez bik dzierżoniów kredyt inwestycyjny w idea bank kredyt bankowy księgowania ostatni przelew w kredyt banku wonga pożyczki reklama umowa pożyczki definicja kredyt na dowod w niemczech getin noble bank kredyt obrotowy odsetki od pożyczki otrzymanej od udziałowca kredyt konsolidacyjny ge money bank kalkulator kredyty pozabankowe chorzów kredyt bank parkiet forum oprocentowanie pożyczki dla udziałowca pozyczki pieniezne z dojazdem kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie warunki pożyczki 100 przyznawalności kredyt 4 tys na dowód prowident pożyczki prywatne pilnie jak dostać kredyt bez bik kredyt bank lokaty strukturyzowane konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy księgowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny w pbs kredyt bank kościuszki łódź kredyt bank białystok warszawska kredyt mieszkaniowy dla lekarza pożyczki 24h na dobę bank pocztowy pozyczka pod zastaw podatek od pożyczki nieoprocentowanej kredyt konsolidacyjny żagiel pożyczki z ebi kredyt konsolidacyjny poczta polska kredyt bank wrocław plac legionów godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez dochodu łódź pożyczki prywatne sandomierz kredyt bank lodź pożyczki gotówkowe z obsługą w domu pozyczka od 18 lat częstochowa kredyt bank filia nr 4 gdynia kredyty bez bik włocławek oprocentowanie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank zumi kredyt bez bik do 30 tys meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyty chwilówki elbląg kredyt bank wyzwolenia szczecin kredyty chwilówki firma pożyczki prywatne śrem pożyczki chwilówki elbląg numer telefonukredyt chwiluwka w słupsk kredyty chwilówki złotów kredyty chwilówki jędrzejów definicja kredytu wg prawa bankowego w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt samochodowy paribas bank opinie kredyt bank oddział w dębicy szybki kredyt bankowy bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny dla gmin kredyty bez bik wejherowo kredyt ratalny lukas bank kalkulator kredyt pozabankowy dla firm kredyt bez biku w banku pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej forum duże pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw bochnia pro domo pozyczki kolobrzeg bocian pożyczkisanokkontakt pożyczki dla podmiotów ekonomii społecznej kredyt bank filia w piasecznie ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych marzec 2012 pozyczki bez umowy o prace pożyczki bez bik elk kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli kredyt gotówkowy bez bik wrocław pożyczki o kwocie 8700 pożyczki dla firm pod zastaw kredyt bank olsztyn pieniężnego 14 pożyczki pszczołka oława dobranie pożyczki w ing kredyt bank czarne złoto kredyt bank międzyzdroje praca kasa stefczyka pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki provident pozyczki scarabeusz praca biala podl pożyczki 2000 zł kod na kredyt w orange go pozyczki na dowod gubin umowa pożyczki pod zastaw złota pieniążek pożyczki wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki ekspresowej pko sa kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pko pożyczki pozabankowe koszalin kredyt bank zapomniałem hasła pokl pożyczki kredyt bank mława kontakt pożyczki all money opinie kredyt bankowy a leasing różnice kredyty chwilówki przez internet bez bik kredyt bank wołomin pożyczki bankowe włocławek kredyt studencki pko kiedy spłata pozyczki od ręki mława kredyt bez bik z poręczycielem kredyt samochodowy w toyota bank kredyt samochodowy ranking wrzesień 2013 pożyczki aasa opinie pozyczki w domu garwolin pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik do 10000 kredyty bez bik us zus kredyt bank opłata za kartę kredyt bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank czynny warszawa pozyczki dla osob w biku we wroclawiu kredyt studencki w banku bgż mariusz patrowicz pożyczki hasła reklamowe pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowej zabezpieczonej aktywami płynnymi kredyty chwilówki praca katowice spłata pożyczki osobie fizycznej umorzenie pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca pożyczki od ręki warszawa pożyczka bez bik na dowód kredyt samochodowy w raiffeisen bank wysokie pożyczki bez bik umowa w sprawie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyty pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę komornika kredyty chwilówki pruszków wojska polskiego kredyt dla zadłużonych bez bik pożyczki tax care pożyczki dla każdego lombard mikołów kredyty chwilówki szkolenie szybki kredyt 10000 mińsk mazowiecki umowa pożyczki od brata wzór kredyt bank nowa dęba spłata pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego parabanki pożyczki pożyczki najkorzystniejsze kredyt bez bik bocian pożyczki infolinia pozyczkipod zastaw auta minsk maz aureus pozyczki kredyt bank sa częstochowa pożyczki krotoszyn kredyt bank marki piłsudskiego kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim warunki umowa pożyczki koszt notariusza szybkie pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank ukraine pożyczki w banku bgż kredyt bez bik jastrzebie zdroj kredyt bank owf kredyt eurobank online kredyt bank i oddział w warszawie kredyt bez biku torun pozyczki w bankach pod zastaw bez zarobkow gdzie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kredyt bank złoto kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche bank opinie jakie oprocentowanie pożyczki od wspólnika kredyt bank górczewska 200 godziny otwarcia pożyczki i kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik skok kujawiak oferty pozyczki 2014 pożyczki prywatne starachowice umorzenie pożyczki ewidencja bocian pożyczki logo kredyt bez sprawdzania bik i krd pożyczki dla firm pko szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń przez internet pożyczki celowe pożyczki pozabankowe w ciechanowie pożyczki pozabankowe z bikiem kredyty w pko sa forum kredyt samochodowy dla marynarzy kredyt bank wypłata gotówki za granicą kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator zdolności konto pożyczki długoterminowe pożyczki z tygodniową spłatą kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pocztowy kredyt bank warszawa radość czy umowa pożyczki wymaga formy pisemnej kredyt bank emerytura cech pożyczki kredyt bank adres do przelewu kredyt bank wzór zaświadczenia kredyt bank sa opole łatwe kredyty poznan umowa pożyczki zwolniona z podatku pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulator umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami a pcc czy istnieją pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank węgry pożyczka konsolidacyjna w domu klienta kredyt bank lublin tomasza zana 39 prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe kraków mariusz tierling pożyczki pożyczki mieszkaniowe agh kredyt mieszkaniowy w ktorym banku najkorzystniej udzielanie pożyczki przez firmę kredyt bank kondratowicza jan nowak pożyczki kredyt bank lukow telefon pożyczki chwilówki olkusz auto kredyt bez bik forum zawieszenie kredytu studenckiego pko bp jak obliczyć oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku kredyt bankowy pod zastaw kredyty bez bik pszczyna kredyty chwilówki w katowicach kredyt bank godziny księgowania pożyczki prywatne zasady alior bank karta kredytowa na dowod pożyczki nordea kronos pozyczki przyznawalnosc blog pożyczki prywatne prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości warszawa nobilon gdansk pozyczki umowa pożyczki pracowniczej pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez zdolności umowa pożyczki kodeks kredyt bank chwilówka extra kasa pożyczki kredyt w banku w uk kredyt bank debet na koncie kredyty bez bik jaslo kredyt bez bik do 7000 tylko dobre kredyty bez biku pożyczki przez internet alior bank bes bik żyrafa pożyczki chwilówki kredyt balonowy santander bank 50 50 pozyczki chwilowki pod weksel w jaworznie alior bank pozyczka jaki procent getin bank wniosek o kredyt online pożyczki na pit 37 kredyt konsolidacyjny multibank kalkulator kredyt w fm banku opinie lokata strukturyzowana kredyt bank opinie kredyt bank przemyśl ul dworskiego kredyt gotówkowy bez bik lublin kredyty bez umowy przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał zakładowy pozyczka pozabankowa na dluzszy okres kredytowania kredyty pozabankowe kredyt bank lokaty wrzesien 2013 pozyczki u klienta eurobank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator pożyczki ślimak poznań pożyczki tygodniowki elbląg kredyt bank 245 pożyczki okey kredyty bankowe bibliografia udziele pożyczki prywatnie wrocław pożyczki na dowód toruń przelew internetowy krecik pożyczki kontakt asper pożyczki inowrocław kredyt chwilówka pyskowice umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a pcc ksawer pożyczki pożyczka na dowód do 10000 w banku pozyczki dla bezrobotnych bialystok kredyty chwilówki przez telefon kredyt bank rzeszow rejtana kredyt bank sesje bankowe pożyczki prywatne mielec pro domo pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy uk forum kredyty bez biku kalisz pożyczki bez zaświadczeń gdańsk getin bank kredyt na pit kalkulator szybkie pożyczki chwilówki online pożyczki gotówkowe chwilówka kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen o dochodach ewidencja pożyczki długoterminowej pożyczki internetowe pierwsza za darmo przedmiot umowy pożyczki i kredytu umowa zawarcia pożyczki kredyty chwilówki skarżysko kamienna kredyt bank popularna godziny otwarcia ekspresowe pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta kredyt pozabankowy kielce kredyt konsolidacyjny praca w uk kredyt studencki pko aneks kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank oprocentowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny kiedy pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych na dowód ogłoszenia pożyczki chwilówki alfa pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe bez prowizji kredyty pozabankowe bielsko biala kredyt bankowy co to jest pożyczki prywatne kto udzieli kredyt bank lomża oddziały kredyt banku pożyczki dla studentów i absolwentów kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec blachnickiego kredyt w eurobanku przez internet kredyt w banku na dowód kredyt bank powstańców wrocław kredyt bank lokaty terminowe oprocentowanie kredyt bank kto kupił pko bp kredyt studencki zaświadczenie pożyczki koszalin prywatne pożyczki na weksel kraków jak udzielić pożyczki pożyczki na weksel poznań najnowsze pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank piotrków pożyczki będzin mbank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi prawo pożyczki gdynia pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości prywatne umowa pożyczki bez procentu w jakim banku dostane kredyt na dowód pożyczki bez bik w zduńskiej woli lukas plus pożyczka pozabankowa bez bik kredyt bank wypowiedzenie ubezpieczenia kredyty bez bik dla zadłuzonych

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad