kredyt bank warszawa bemowo kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko kredyt bank krotoszyn zwolnienia grupowe w kredyt banku 2012 przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki ekspres kasa expres pozyczki infolinia kredyty chwilówki facebook pożyczki dla zadłużonych rolników kredyt konsolidacyjny przy niskich zarobkach pożyczki dla dużych firm kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander consumer bank kredyty mieszkaniowe irlandia kredyty chwilówki program partner kredyt studencki w banku bph kredyt bank w rankingach pożyczki prywatne słupsk wpłatomat kredyt banku warszawa pożyczki raz dwa kredyt bank lokaty opinie pożyczki chwilówki dąbrowa górnicza kredyty chwilówki bez bik białystok kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking lipiec 2012 kredyt bank niemcy pożyczki pit pożyczki na kopalni umorzenie pożyczki spółce powiązanej kredyt bank cennik opłat pożyczki bez biku wałbrzych kredyt bez biku koszalin pożyczki długoterminowe bez zaświadczeń kredyty chwilówki w łukowie pożyczki leasingowe provident pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet bez bik kredyt bank międzyzdroje praca szybki kredytyt gotwkowe przez internet bez bik profi kredit czy otrzymam kredyt bez bik umowa kredytu bankowego kodeks cywilny pożyczki bez wychodzenia z domu bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny w boś kredyt bez bik zus us global pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt bank iphone pożyczki preferencyjne dla przedsiębiorców kredyt inwestycyjny w idea bank kredyt bank sa świnoujście kredyt dla firm bez bik krd pożyczki bez bik i krd białystok prywatny inwestor udzieli pożyczki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń zus us pożyczki chwilówki na konto pożyczki akcent prywatne pożyczki w białymstoku umowa pożyczki ustna umowa pozyczki ze wsteczna data kredyt bank dąbrowa górnicza skarabeusz pożyczki dąbrowa górnicza umowa pożyczki forma kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik bydgoszcz pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach kredyt konsolidacyjny wbk opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez poreczycieli i zadluzonych w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank ostrów maz kredyty chwilówki uokik kredyt bez bik 3 tyś kredyt bank sa ostrołęka auti na kredyt bez bik pomorskie kredyt bank komornik kredyt mieszkaniowy w idea bank kredyt bank investor relations godziny pracy kredyt banku w warszawie kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zamość pożyczka dla skok kredyt bez bik online 10 lat szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń poznań kredyt w orange 5 zł szybki kredyt bez bik kalisz kredyt bank wydruk potwierdzenia umowa pożyczki pieniędzy word kredyt bank v oddział warszawa kredyty chwilowki godz otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny bank kredyt bank myślibórz kredyt bank grójecka 45 godziny otwarcia pokwitowanie pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt gotówkowy eurobank opinie pożyczki pod zastaw swarzędz kredyt bank sa adres siedziby pożyczki everest kredyt studencki pekao sa opinie udzielenie pożyczki spółce komandytowej kredyt na dowód bez bik zaświadczeń kredyt w banku pko kalkulator kredyty chwilówki toruń jamontta podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank błonie kredyt bank kantor internetowy pożyczki gotówkowe tarnów pożyczki chwilówki sieradz kredyty pozabankowe sieradz kredyty pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik pożyczki gotówkowe bank pekao sa kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bank zachodni kredyt bank konstancińska przedmiotem pożyczki mogą być kredyt bank druk zaświadczenia kredyt bank 24 swift kredyt ratalny eurobank kredyt bez bik na umowe zlecenie pożyczki nidzica kredyt bez bik na rok pcc od umowy pożyczki między firmami umowa poręczenia pożyczki kredyt bank noskowskiego 1 kredyty chwilówki opinie pożyczki dla małych firm na start kredyt bez bik do 10000 zł gdzie dostac kredyt samochodowy bez bik kredyt w alior banku jakie dokumenty kredyt studencki pko bp legitymacja pożyczki pomostowe gdzie kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki starogard gdański alior bank kredyt dla seniora kredyt bank jawor kredyt mieszkaniowy a firma na ryczalcie kredyt bank łódź zgierska 42a kredyt bank giżycko kredyt bank w jarosławiu kredyt bank wroclaw plac solny pożyczki w bankach bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny przykład pożyczki gotówkowe w domu pożyczki na dowód bez bik i krd udzielenie pożyczki osobie fizycznej przez spółkę pożyczki od osób prywatnych toruń prawo cywilne wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe krasnystaw pożyczki głubczyce bank pko pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pko sa auto kredyt bez bik ciechanów prywatne pożyczki na weksel pożyczki prywatne z dostawą do domu kredyt optima kontakt czy kredyt w banku ulega przedawnieniu kredyt konsolidacyjny kielce kredyt mieszkaniowy dla prowadzących działalność okam pożyczki kredyt samochodowy w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank kryzys pożyczki prywatne wyszków skarabeusz pozyczki pozabankowe lubin alior bank kredyt z komornikiem siódemka pożyczki kredyt bez bik i big kredyt samochodowy volkswagen bank polska pożyczka dla firm bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki między rodzicami a dziećmi bocian pożyczki sms skarabeusz pożyczki krotoszyn pożyczki gotówkowe szczecin kredyt na start idea bank forum umowa pożyczki od ojca pożyczki gotówkowe bz wbk kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik katowice kredyt bez bik chojnice umowa pożyczki w firmie parkmar pożyczki pożyczka od 18 lat na dowód umowa pożyczki a skutki podatkowe udzielone pożyczki długoterminowe w bilansie pożyczki prywatne łódź kredyt bank olsztyn kontakt opodatkowanie udzielenia pożyczki pożyczki uk bocian pozyczki grojec przedstawiciel pozyczki bocian gmina slonsk pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem gliwice pożyczki chwilówki nowy tomyśl oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku jak liczyć pożyczki w skok stefczyka podatek od pożyczki darowizny pożyczki gotówkowe ranking pożyczki nysa kredyt konsolidacyjny pozabankowy potwierdzenie zapłaty pożyczki trudne pożyczki bez bik pozyczki w domu klienta kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorstw kredyt na dowód alior bank kredyt bank tychy kredyty chwilówki kołłątaja wrocław kredyt dla firm w getin banku potwierdzenie spłaty pożyczki wzór dyskretne pożyczki pożyczki prywatne bielsko biała pożyczki z najmniejszym oprocentowaniem kredyt w noble bank kredyty mieszkaniowe 2008 kredyt konsolidacyjny oplaca sie pożyczki bez bik legnica kredyt w banku meritum kredyt bank godziny otwarcia wrocław pożyczki typu mezzanine bocian kredyt wloclawek kredyt bank lokaty 2012 kredyty chwilówki boguszowice kalkulator pożyczki w alior banku pożyczki arsen pożyczki pod zastaw gołdap kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank kalkulator kredyt bez biku gliwice kredyty chwilówki legionowo daily finance pożyczki skarabeusz pozyczki najnowsze pożyczki chwilówki bezpłatne konto w kredyt banku umowa ubezpieczenia pożyczki kredyt bez biku gdynia kredyty chwilówki forum pracowników kredyty chwilówki w skok co potrzeba zeby wziasc pozyczke z oakam kredyt pozabankowy gdzie kredyt bank wroclaw godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne bez baz kraków kredyt bank dział windykacji lublin pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów lublin fundacja kredyt banku kontakt jakie zarobki w kredyt banku pewny kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty mieszkaniowe we frankach kalkulator kredyt w idea bank na start forum kredyt w bank zachodni wbk opinie bocian pożyczki nidzica kredyt mieszkaniowy w alior banku opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobanku forum umowa pożyczki w kc bezpieczny kredyt kredyt bez bik opinie podatek od pożyczki formularz umowa pożyczki pod zastaw pdf windykacja pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki prywatne bez bik poznań pożyczki bez bik i dochodu prominent pożyczki lublin pożyczki kaśka kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach bez bik żyrafa pożyczki opinie kredyt bank z jakich bankomatów kredyt bank skawina godz otwarcia kredyt bank zarząd umowa pożyczki podatek kredyt bank w m1 kredyt bank kutno kredyty chwilówki wejherowo prosper pożyczki pożyczki od osób prywatnych częstochowa kredyt bank 50 za 500 kredyt gotówkowy bank bph kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank oprocentowanie kredyt bank sosnowiec godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez biku w koninie udzielę pożyczki prywatnej szybko i bez sprawdzania kredyt konsolidacyjny pko kredyt w uk przez internet kiedy umowa pożyczki jest zwolniona z pcc oblicz rate kredytu w banku pko bp kredyt na otwarcie firmy bez bik podatek od pożyczki od rodziny kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank pożyczki bociana pożyczki całkowicie przez internet kredyt na dowód getin bank pożyczki na umowę cywilno prawną warszawa pożyczki chwilówki gniezno kredyty chwilowki zary pożyczka 25000 kokos kredyt bank morawskiego kredyty skok stefczyka umorzenie spłaty pożyczki wałbrzych pożyczki prywatne abis pożyczki kontakt pozyczki pod zastaw auta w minsku maz kredyt bez biku na auto kredyt bank premia kredyt gotówkowy w millenium bank pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik bydgoszcz kredyt bank warszawa jana pawła ii premium pozyczki opinie umowa pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi bez odsetek pożyczki gotówkowe gdzie najlepiej pożyczki gotówkowe w pko wzór podania o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki doorfin umowa pożyczki 2013 pozyczka bez biku na dowod zary kredyt bank mikołów godziny otwarcia pekao sa kredyty studenckie pożyczki bezzwrotne dla małych firm prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw zielona góra pozyczki w domu klienta kredyt bank warszawa nowy świat kredyt mieszkaniowy w uk forum wyludzenie pozyczki ekspresowej odsetki od pożyczki udziałowców preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko opinie kredyt na mieszkanie bank pekao provident zwrot pożyczki w ciągu 28 dni umowa pożyczki dla spółki jawnej kredyt bank warszawa patriotów pożyczki bez bik bartoszyce kredyt na dom w uk forum kredyt samochodowy w mbanku kredyt bank w ostródzie księgowanie pożyczki otrzymanej kredyt bank lubaczów pozyczki ratalne online pozabankowe bank pko bp oprocentowanie kredytów kredyty chwilówki strzegom pcc od umowy pożyczki od wspólnika kredyty bez biku gdańsk kredyt bank kod banku kredyt konsolidacyjny zdolność umowa pożyczki spółki powiązane kredyt konsolidacyjny w bgż forum kredyt bank oddziały warszawa mokotów pożyczki pod zastaw sprzętu rtv łódź kredyt bank żagiel adres pożyczki 5000 bez bik kredyt preferencyjny dla rolników banki pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu poznań kredyty pozabankowe 10000 fgp pożyczki pcc od umowy pożyczki dla pracownika szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank bialystok radzyminska kredyt bank żory kredyt bez biku radom pożyczki na rente kredyty chwilowki kety pożyczki od ręki bez bik bocian pożyczki i podobne pożyczki dla pracowników biedronki kredyt z orange na jaki numer pożyczki bez bik zaświadczeń warrus pożyczki kontakt pożyczki bez bik siedlce retencja pożyczki beata burzyńska pożyczki udzielenie pożyczki osobie fizycznej pożyczki bez bik konin pożyczki bez bik i krd włocławek pożyczki z amber gold bocian pożyczki wałbrzych cesja umowy pożyczki a pcc pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank i santander niski kredyt na dowód pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz kredyt konsolidacyjny do jakiej kwoty umowa pożyczki może być zawarta w dowolnej formie kredyt bez biku kontakt placówki kredyt banku w rzeszowie kredyt bank praga północ kredyt bank w świdnicy pożyczki podobne jak provident kredyt bank pruszków prosell pożyczki optima pożyczki gdańsk kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa na czas określony pożyczki państwowe pożyczki dla małych firm pożyczki bez bik świdnica kredyt konsolidacyjny bez nieruchomości wniosek o przyznanie pożyczki z zakładu pracy umowa pożyczki w spółce akcyjnej umowa pożyczki dla obcokrajowca fundusz inwestycyjny pożyczki pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku opinie kredyt bank abrahama telefon warunki ubezpieczenia kredytu w getin bank umowa pożyczki pod zabezpieczenie pożyczki gotówkowe dla emerytów kredyt mieszkaniowy prowizja banku kredyty chwilówki net kredyty pozabankowe bez biku sosnowiec kredyt bank zaloguj kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw 2013 wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pod zastaw cash pożyczki kredyt studencki pko do kiedy legitymacja pożyczki prabuty kredyt konsolidacyjny dla emeryta kredyt w banku komercyjnym umowa pożyczki rozwiązanie pożyczki chwilówki ryzyko kredyt bank warszawa wilanów kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych w uk pko kredyt studencki kiedy wypłata kredyt bank zaswiadczenia kredyt bank przeniesienie konta kredyt bank kraków rakowicka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank za granicą kredyt bank toruń fosa staromiejska pożyczki chwilówki artykuł pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla pracowników kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bank polski udzielać pożyczki english optima pożyczki ełk kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złym bikiem pożyczki bez bik z zajęciem komorniczym pożyczki przez internet bez bik pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt bank bialystok ul radzyminska kalkulator raty pożyczki kredyt bank nowa karta numer telefonukredyt chwiluwka w słupsk kredyt studencki pekao sa opinie oszuści pożyczki prywatne kredyt konsolidacyjny olsztyn wanluks pożyczki alior bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa płock potrącanie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia kredyt w banku gdzie najlepiej kredyt studencki na mieszkanie opinie pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz dłużników lendon pożyczka bez bik warszawa pożyczki ultimo pożyczki prywatne tarnowskie góry pożyczki drawsko pomorskie kredyty pozabankowe bez bik krd kredyt bez bik i big kredyt bank zytnia warszawa pożyczki kruk sa pożyczki poznań przelewy zagraniczne w kredyt banku pożyczki oddłużeniowe bez bik prodomo pożyczki toruń kredyt konsolidacyjny płock potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie do us pożyczki współpraca kredyt konsolidacyjny raiffeisen pożyczki dla firm z unii kredyt bank warszawa romera pożyczki dla bezrobotnych pup pożyczki w domu klienta elbląg potrzebuję pożyczki 2012 kredyt samochodowy czy gotówkowy forum kredyty mieszkaniowe białystok kredyt bank fundusze kredyt preferencyjny bank spółdzielczy kredyty i pozyczki bez biku pożyczki na dowód zamość kredyty bez bik ostrowiec sw kredyt bank lodz wolczanska kredyty chwilówki poznań głogowska pożyczki bez zaświadczenia o zatrudnieniu mikropożyczki dla małych firm żyrafa pożyczki forum kredyt bank sulechów kontakt kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking 2012 kredyt prywatny świdnica forum kredyt bank warszawska białystok pożyczki bez bik dla rolników kredyty chwilówki częstochowa pożyczki kieszonkowe pożyczki polskiej pożyczki online ranking pozyczka bez bik na splate komornika pożyczki bocian gniezno pożyczki błyskawiczne kredyt bank platnosc karta za granica wycena pożyczki na koniec roku kredyt w banku dla zadłużonych ile kosztuje umowa notarialna pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez baz kredyt bez bik wrocław pożyczki pozabankowe oferty kredyt bank przejęty kredyt bank sosnowiec modrzejowska godziny otwarcia kredyt pozabankowy 10 tys kredyty samochodowe bez bik i krd pożyczki dla firm poznań meritum bank kredyt online opinie kredyty chwilowki piekary sl kredyt na pit w getin banku forum pożyczki chwilówki zawiercie sesje przelewów w kredyt bank wydanie przedmiotu pożyczki pożyczki na dowód bez umowy o prace szybkie pożyczki bez bik lublin pożyczki z funduszu świadczeń socjalnych wzór umowy pożyczki w ratach

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad