kredyt bank kalwaryjska kraków godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rozwodnika pożyczki do domu poznań pożyczki chwilówki od 18 lat pozyczki na dowód osobisty kredyt bank pocztowy wasze opinie oprocentowanie kredytu w idea banku kredyty chwilówki 24h kredyt 3x33 w santander consumer bank zwolnienia w kredyt banku 2012 pożyczki na które trzeba uważać pożyczki bez sprawdzania krd i bik spółka udziela pożyczki udziałowcowi pożyczki chwilówki na dowód bez zdolności kredytowe bank pko kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt konsolidacyjny i dodatkowa gotówka pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw koszalin ile kosztuje kredyt w banku kredyt bank w sandomierzu kredyt odnawialny bank pekao sa kredyt studencki pko 2013 bank millenium kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki 5000 bez bik kredyt bank program systematycznego oszczędzania pożyczki chwilówki ostrów wlkp kredyt bank ii oddział szczecin wzór umowy pożyczki raty kredyt bank giełda kredyt samochodowy bank pko sa kredyt w anglii forum pożyczki na dowód od 19 lat pożyczki z funduszu pracy dla bezrobotnych pozyczki w domu klienta pożyczki pozabankowe w pabianicach pozyczka pko 5000 zl kredyt konsolidacyjny tesco kredyt bank liczba pracowników kredyt konsolidacyjny ge money bank kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt studencki bank pko sa kredyt pozabankowy bytom kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche banku opinie pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wejherowo kredyt w pekao sa forum pożyczki pozabankowe gumtree warszawa kredyt bank łódź godziny otwarcia kredyt bank żory pożyczki gotówkowe niskooprocentowane pożyczki od osób prywatnych 2012 kredyt bank warszawa romera kredyt w koncie bank pocztowy atiz pożyczki gotówkowe ranking kredytów samochodowych lipiec 2013 kredyt bank giżycko kontakt pozyczki bez bik krd koszty pożyczki konwertowanie pożyczki kredyt na orange kod wniosek o przyznanie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt mieszkaniowy karta podatkowa skarabeusz pożyczki krosno pożyczki online bez bik big krd kredyt bank bydgoszcz wpływ pożyczki na rachunek walutowy istota kredytu kredyty pozabankowe żary umowa pożyczki pomiędzy pracownikiem a pracodawcą kredyt bank 24 kredyt a umowa na czas określony pożyczki bocian kłodzko pożyczki chwilówki nowy targ pożyczki społecznościowe spłacalność kredyt bez bik chełm kredyt bank program concerto premium pozyczki opinie umowa pożyczki nieoprocentowanej wzór provident kwota pożyczki pożyczki udzielone i należności własne pozyczki na dowod ketrzyn kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw nieruchomości księgowanie odsetek od pożyczki udziałowca kredyt gotówkowy w postbanku lokata z premią kredyt bank opinie kredyt bank w jakich bankomatach oprocentowanie kredytu w banku pko bp kredyt bez biku kielce alior bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator udziele pożyczki prywatnie wrocław kredyt bank warta pożyczki prywatne sandomierz kredyty gotówkowe bez bik poznań kredyt bank ryki anonse kredyty z komornikiem kredyt bank zamość kontakt pożyczki wśród najbliższych kredyt bank w borku wlkp kredyt konsolidacyjny aig kredyt bank w bialymstoku kredyt bank morcinka kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania w bik parabanki pożyczki pożyczki bez biku wałbrzych kredyt bank rzeszow 3 maja kredyt konsolidacyjny olsztyn kredyt mieszkaniowy porównanie ofert pożyczki chwilówki kaska kraków pożyczki prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw ruda śląska kredyty bez bik wodzisław śl kredyt bank w zielonej górze umowa pożyczki dla spółki jawnej wzór pożyczki wolne od podatku kredyt bank miedzyrzecz wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przed terminem pożyczki pozabankowe częstochowa kronos pozyczki szukam pożyczki prywatnej ogłoszenia 24 kredyt bank lodz pilsudskiego numer tel kontaktowego na pożyczke w chełm alior bank kredyt 10000 kredyt mieszkaniowy dla studenta pko szybka pozyczka z dostawa do domu zywiec kredyt mieszkaniowy kiedy pierwsza rata kredyt na 5 zł orange kredyty chwilówki wieluń umowa pożyczki zwolniona z pcc pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel kredyt bank sa adres kredyt bank w pruszkowie konin kredyty bez biku jakie odsetki od pożyczki udziałowca pożyczki w domu klienta bez przelewu za groszbydgoszcz kredyt bank łomża ul dworna kredyt bank w ostrolece kredyty chwilówki czy sprawdzają bik pożyczki mieszkaniowe ranking kredyt konsolidacyjny oblicz rate kredyt hipoteczny dla rolników bez zaświadczeń idea bank kredyt opinie kredyt pozabankowy bielsko spłata pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bankowy bez krd kredyt bankowy ksiegowanie kredyt bank lodz ketlinga pożyczki w domu kraków jak wziasc kredyt telefonicznie w wbk kredyt bez bik ruda śląska kredyt mieszkaniowy na firmę cash pożyczki torun chwilowki legnica jak wziasc kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator lukas bank pożyczki warszawa bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank w walbrzychu kredyt bank 3 maja lublin pożyczki pewne pożyczki w all money pożyczki na dowód do ręki kredyt studencki bzwbk 2013 kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w kruk pod jaki numer kredyt do orange kredyt bank pozyczka na dowod kredyty bez bik jarosław kredyt konsolidacyjny bez krd kredyt bank wloclawek godziny otwarcia wyłudzenie pożyczki provident wzór umowa pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty firmowe bez bik pożyczki spłacane tygodniowo częstochowa pożyczki prywatne suwałki kredyty dla firm bez bik i krd kredyt bank myślibórz kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking lipiec 2012 pożyczki łapy kredyty i pożyczki ściąga kredyt bank lubin korzystne pożyczki bankowe pożyczki na dowód kielce kredyt na już bez bik kredyty chwilówki w bełchatowie kredyt bank akredytywa umorzone odsetki od pożyczki przychód podatkowy kredyt bank oddział lublin kredyty bez bik wroclaw spłata pożyczki przychód kredyt w banku spółdzielczym w łańcucie kredyt bank ranking udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę innej spółce kredyt bank pin do karty kredyt bez bik big krd komornik pożyczki pomiędzy podmiotami powiązanymi kredyt bank godziny otwarcia gdańsk kredyt bank wrocław plac legionów godziny otwarcia banki udzielające kredytów bez zdolności pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik kredyty bez bik kęty bocian pożyczki druga pożyczka kredyt bank bialystok ul warszawska pożyczki typu provident księgowania przelewów w kredyt banku kredyt bank w krynicy zdroju kredyt w aib bank kredyt samochodowy dla 20 latka bocian pożyczki prudnik kredyt inwestycyjny eurobank kredyt bank elbląg godz otwarcia kredyty preferencyjne dla rolników banki zaświadczenie o dochodach pko bp kredyt studencki postbank kredyt samochodowy pożyczki prywatne chrzanów kredyt bank niemodlin wzór umowy pożyczki doc pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs oprocentowanie kredyty mieszkaniowe luty 2013 umorzenie pożyczki a darowizna kredyt w banku bph pożyczki z obsługą w domu klienta inwestor pozyczki z zagranicy umowa pożyczki podmioty powiązane kredyt konsolidacyjny czas oczekiwania pożyczki chwilówki jak otworzyć kredyt bank drezdenko praca kredyty chwilówki płock www wbkpożyczki srem sprzedaż kredyt banku luty 2012 pożyczki chwilówki braniewo kredyt bank puławy godziny otwarcia kredyt bank placówki warszawa godziny otwarcia pozyczki bez bik tel kredyty chwilówki racibórz bartek pożyczki dobra pożyczka mazowieckie pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty chwilówki tychy windykacja kredyty bez biku i zaswiadczen umowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank sa bankowość elektroniczna kalkulator kredytu samochodowego w mbanku kredyt konsolidacyjny pułapki kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pocztowym opinie pożyczki dla firm bez bik zus i us kredyty chwilówki gdynia pożyczki przez internet bez przelewu żyrafa pożyczki pl www pl a kredyty chwilowki lowicz umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie wzór facebook pożyczki firma uzyskała kredyt w banku na 12 procent kredyty konsolidacyjne warunki wzór pokwitowania zwrotu pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt konsolidacyjny zagiel kredyt mieszkaniowy bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank chorzów wolności pożyczki na umowę cywilno prawną warszawa pożyczki dla małych firm chojnice kredyt konsolidacyjny przetarg umowa pożyczki chomikuj bezzwrotne pożyczki dla policjantów prywatne pożyczki na dowód odpracowanie pożyczki kredyty na dowod radomsko oświadczenie o zwrocie pożyczki wzór kredyty pozabankowe lubin kredyt bank jutrzenki lublin kredyty bez bik chełm udziele pożyczki prywatnie 2013 klasyfikacja pożyczki kredyt bank kościuszki kielce sync bank kredyt na dowod kredyt bank ruda śląska godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank oprocentowanie kredyt bank gdynia skwer godziny otwarcia darowizna zamiast pożyczki kredyty chwilówki rekrutacja pożyczki bez bik i krd szczecin alior bank kredyt z komornikiem capital pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny ca pożyczki bez krd na dowód getin bank oferta pożyczki kredyt bank 3 oddział poznań bocian pożyczki kutno kredyt bank poleska godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe bezrobotnych optima pożyczki numer telefonu pozyczki inne niz prowident kredyt bank kiedy dojdzie przelew karencja w spłacie pożyczki kredyty chwilówki siedziba kredyt w polskim banku dla obcokrajowca umowa pożyczki wzajemna kredyt oddłużeniowy w banku kredyty samochodowe bez sprawdzania w bik kredyty chwilówki jasło pożyczki lombardowe kredyt bank sieradz godziny otwarcia jednorazowe udzielenie pożyczki a vat kredyt konsolidacyjny oferta banków kredyty chwilówki nowy targ kredyt samochodowy alior bank kalkulator jak zaksięgować umowę pożyczki między spółkami który bank daje pożyczki bez bik kredyt na dowód bank spółdzielczy bocian pożyczki reklama banki kredyty z komornikiem kredyt bank łomża piłsudskiego kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego kredyt bank pożyczki bez bik plus bank alior formalnosci do kredytu pozyczki bez rejestrow poznan pożyczki bez bik w starachowicach kredyty w idea banku forum pożyczki społecznościowe zakra kredyt bank grodzisk wlkp kredyty online bez biku odsetki od pożyczki a koszt podatkowy raty pożyczki gotówkowej szybkie pożyczki dla rolników umowa pożyczki dla spółki jawnej wzór kredyt bank w łukowie godziny otwarcia pożyczki na zasadach de minimis pozyczki provident i inne krakow jak wziasc kredyt w orange za 5 zł kredyt bank lomianki godziny otwarcia kalkulator podatku od pożyczki duzy kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki chwilówki przez internet pozabankowe kredyt bank puck w którym banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt gotówkowy najtanńsza sprawdzona pożyczka bez bik kredyt technologiczny banki kredyt banki grudziądz kredyt bank token problem kredyt bank nysa godziny otwarcia ubezpieczenie pożyczki w pekao pożyczki na dowód porównanie pożyczki do 8000 kredyty pożyczki wadowice nowak pożyczki głogówek pożyczka prywatna 15000 bez weryfikacji warszawa kredyt chwilowka szczecinek umowa pożyczki od rodziców wzór kredyty bankowe wzory kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko bp kredyt bank gryfice pozyczka bez bik opolskie pożyczki chwili pożyczki lubin armii krajowej kredyt bank żyrardów szybki kredyt samochodowy bez bik kredyty chwilówki a knf bank bph kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki morskie kredyty bankowe funkcje pożyczki jastrzębie zdrój kredyty chwilówki swiebodzin kredyt studencki warunki 2013 pożyczki dla zadłużonych koszalin kredyt bank przejęty przez wbk umowa pożyczki w formie ustnej umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej wzór pożyczki nieruchomości pożyczki w vivus forum kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp kalkulator kredyt bez bik 10 tys kredyt bank pozyczka księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki z wfośigw pozyczki dla zadłuzonych kredyt bank lipowa 4 kredyt bank warszawa regon kredyt konsolidacyjny w providencie pożyczki lublin kredyt mieszkaniowy 70 tys kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki wkład własny cresco group pożyczki pożyczki płock kredyt bank oświęcim godziny otwarcia oblicz kredyt w credit agricole kredyty chwilówki windykator opinie pożyczki koło pożyczki bez bik kontakt kredyt samochodowy dla nowo powstalej firmy kredyt gotowkowy w ktorym banku kredyt z orange kod kredyt studencki bzwbk 2014 pozyczki do domu radomsko kredyt bank żołnierska olsztyn potrzebuje pożyczki mam komornika pozyczki chwilowki w irlandii kredyt bank marszałkowska kredyt konsolidacyjny 50 tys kredyty chwilówki wiki bocian pożyczki bytom kredyt bank facebook kredyt w banku sgb pożyczki piła kredyt konsolidacyjny jestem w bik pożyczki natychmiastowe bez biku jak obliczyć odsetki od umowy pożyczki kredyt bank oferty pracy warszawa pozyczki poznan umowa zlecenie provident kwota pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank radzymińska hasła reklamowe pożyczki certus pożyczki warszawa wzór umowy pożyczki osobie prywatnej kredyt bez bik widruszow pożyczki w kutnie pożyczki u lichwiarzy kredyt w banku śląskim kredyt bank szuwarowa godz otwarcia w jakim banku najłatwiej o kredyt samochodowy kredyt na mieszkanie w banku pko kredyt współpraca kredyt bez wizyty w banku pożyczki kraków kalwaryjska kredyt bank rydla pożyczki poczta polska podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki alior bank głogowski pożyczki kredyt bank lubin bank pko bp kredyty studenckie kredyty w uk dla polakow pożyczki na rok kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczenia o dochodach kredyt bocian bocian pożyczki złóż wniosek przeniesienie pożyczki do innego banku kredyt bank zagiel adres kredyt bank reklamy kredyt studencki w banku wbk kredyt bank sandomierz kontakt kredyt w dombanku pożyczki w vivus forum pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach kredyt bez bik kościan te pożyczki ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych grudzień 2012 neobank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie cechy pożyczki jako czynności prawnej opodatkowanie odsetek pożyczki getin bank warunki pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk grunwaldzka pożyczki bez infomonitora kredyt bank gdynia bławatna pożyczki bez biki krd proximus pozyczki pożyczki pozabankowe pod weksel bydgoszcz bocian pożyczki o firmie kredyt bank leżajsk godziny otwarcia kredyt bank token kredyty chwilówki trzebinia kredyt bank poznań pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości opinie kredyty chwilówki rydułtowy pożyczki no dowód elblag pożyczki pod zastaw bochnia kredyt bank w łodzi getin noble bank kredyt obrotowy kredyt bank prepaid jaki jest kod na kredyt do orange umowa pożyczki rejestracja w us kredyt bank ror pokwitowanie odbioru pożyczki roszczenia z umowy pożyczki przedawniają się pożyczki na dowód online siwz kredyt bankowy kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku forum odsetki od pożyczki a koszt uzyskania przychodu pozyczki dla zadłuzonych wbanku pko finanse pożyczki bez biku słupsk kredyt bank w borku wlkp umowa przedłużenia pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny 40 000 kredyt bank pl kursy walut szybki kredyt bez bik on line kredyt bez biku szczecin kredyt bank grójecka 45 pfron pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych kredyt gotówkowy banku pocztowym banki udzielające pożyczki małe pożyczki gotówkowe umowy pożyczki wzory kredyt bankowy prezentacja pożyczki społecznościowe finansowo pożyczki na pesel biedronka pożyczki dla pracowników umowa pożyczki pobierz kredyt bank pelplin godziny otwarcia getin bank pożyczki gotówkowe certus pożyczki warszawa bocian pozyczki goleniow pozyczka na umowe o prace z niskim oprocentowaniem kredyt bank warszawa ul popularna prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw forum kredyt bank notowania udzielę pożyczki prywatnej ogłoszenia pozyczki pozabankowe w euro w holandii pomoc publiczna pożyczki

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad