karencja pożyczki kredyty chwilówki on line bocian pożyczki numer tel kredyt bez bik w ing szybkie pozyczki luban bank pekao sa kredyty dla firm pożyczka na dowód przez pocztę kredyt samochodowy sygma bank kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank opinie kredyt bank włocławek regon pożyczki udzielone i należności własne świdwin kredyty wictoria forum kredyt samochodowy nowa firma kredyt bank godziny otwarcia radom pożyczki brzozów kredyt gotówkowy pekao sa kalkulator kredyty gotówkowe dla firm bez bik pro collect pożyczki eurobank kredyt umowa pożyczki od wspólnika spółki z o o pożyczki z providenta pożyczki pozabankowe dla każdego pożyczki gliwice kredyty bez biku jaworzno bankomat kredyt bank sieradz pożyczki od osób prywatnych toruń kredyt bank częstochowa dekabrystów kredyt w banku wbk opinie kredyt na dowód bank pocztowy darmowe pożyczki online pożyczki na dowód bez konta bankowego kredyt bank łódź mikropożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pekao sa kredyt konsolidacyjny kielce pożyczki bez bik w domu klienta kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli bocian pozyczki kwidzyn pozyczka filemon umowa pożyczki 500 zł kredyt bank w sokołowie podlaskim kredyt bank godziny otwarcia gdańsk umorzenie pożyczki z wfośigw księgowanie łódź pożyczki justyna ehmann finanse kredyt bank bogatynia telefon kredyt odnawialny w mbanku dla studenta kredyt bank druki chwilówki płock pożyczki płock chwilówki bielsk pożyczki ogłoszenia warszawa szybkie darmowe pożyczki kredyt bank numer rozliczeniowy skarabeusz pożyczki dąbrowa górnicza oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego getin bank pożyczki chwilówki warszawa kredyt bank jelenia góra kontakt kredyty chwilowki zielona gora kredyt bank nowe miasto lubawskie alior bank kredyt dla emeryta kredyt bank obligacje pożyczki bez krd pożyczki dla firm poznań pożyczki przez internet 2000 pożyczki na weksel poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlatwiej dostac kredyt bez bik i krd szczecin termin przedawnienia odsetek od pożyczki placówki kredyt banku w białymstoku kredyt chwilówka bocian kredyt konsolidacyjny w instytucjach pozabankowych pożyczki na sfinansowanie kosztów szkolenia kredyty chwilówki grójecka 78 pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych z komornikiem pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości opinie kredyt bez bik na auto dobra pożyczki pożyczki uk online pożyczki finansowo pozyczka od 19 lat bezrobotny online optima pożyczki pabianice pożyczki prywatne ełk kredyty chwilówki kraków wielopole kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander bank jak wziasc kredyt w providencie uk szybkie pożyczki na dowód warszawa kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator 2014 kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp sa kredyt bank zlecenie stałe kredyt bank lokaty strukturyzowane kredyty chwilówki swiebodzin kredyt bank sa oddział w skierniewicach kredyt konsumencki banki druk pcc od pożyczki pożyczki do ręki kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie kalkulator lukas bank kredyt bez biku kredyty chwilówki bez bik pożyczki wałbrzych na umowe zlecenie bankomaty kredyt banku kielce cesja zobowiązania z tytułu pożyczki kredyt bank blonie kredyty bez biku i zaswiadczen kredyt bez bik zus i us pozyczki prywatne premium i podobne wronki optima pożyczki dokumenty pożyczki bez bik kontakt telefoniczny udokumentowanie pożyczki kredyt bank powstańców śląskich warszawa kredyt bank wikipedia kredyty chwilówki firmy umowa pożyczki pienięznej kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu kredyt bank wyniki 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie oprocentowanie pożyczki chwilówki rrso kredyt orange 1zl kredyt studencki pko telefon adres pozyczki bocian w chelmie umowa pożyczki z datą wsteczną pożyczki provident gdańsk pożyczki chwilówki meritum pożyczki tanie czy od pożyczki trzeba zapłacić podatek kredyt bank zamość telefon kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód podobne do providenta umowa pożyczki komentarz konin kredyty bez biku pozyczki bez bik i krd na oswiadczenie tanie pożyczki internetowe pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń online kredyt bank zgierz kontakt umowa pożyczki od udziałowca dla spółki pożyczki prometeusz olsztyn pożyczki lichwiarskie wrocław pożyczki na procent warszawa gdzie pożyczki prywatne kredyt bank kołłątaja szczecin pożyczki ze środków unijnych pożyczki chwilówki kredytum regulamin pomocnej pożyczki kredyt na start w idea bank forum kredyt bank strzelce opolskie kontakt pozyczki z komornikiem i windykacja szczecin potrącanie rat pożyczki z zasiłku chorobowego kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw pko kredyty chwilowki wodzislaw sl kredyty pozabankowe radomsko kredyty bankowe pko bp prywatne pożyczki gorzów wlkp kredyt chwilówka 2000 kredyt bank wrocław placówki bgk kredyt mieszkaniowy pozyczki inwestor prywatne pożyczki od rodziny pcc pożyczki pozabankowe konin kredyty bez biku w bydgoszczy ubezpieczenie kredytu w credit agricole umowa pożyczki pomiędzy rodzeństwem kredyty bez weryfikacji w biku jakie sa pozyczki w domu na oswiadczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny w lloyds kredyt studencki bank zachodni fundusz korona pożyczki kredyty bez bik w bydgoszczy w jakim banku kredyt na dom uk rybnik pozyczki do raciborza prywatne pozyczka na rok bez bik dla bezrobotnych kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach forum dyskusyjne pożyczki pozabankowe racibórz pozyczka w bankach na umowe zlecenie w czestochowie pożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowe na konto kredyt bank wejherowo godz otwarcia kredyt bank poznań adres kredyty mieszkaniowe symulator pożyczki chwilówki bez baz kredyt bank nr rozliczeniowy wycena pożyczki w walucie na dzień bilansowy pożyczki pod zastaw podkarpacie pozyczka dla pracujących na czarno bez bik wawa kredyt bank grajewo umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a urząd skarbowy heropolitańska kredyty i gwarancje bankowe pdf pożyczki prywatne prawo pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulatory kredyt konsolidacyjny deutsche bank kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym opinie kredyt bank warszawa ul powstańców śląskich pcc od umowy pożyczki pomiędzy firmami kredyt konsolidacyjny bank zachodni wbk kredyty chwilówki lędziny pożyczki morąg paulina dabrowska pozyczki niespłacone pożyczki marka pożyczki praca pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń skarabeusz pożyczki na które trzeba uważać kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt bank powstańców śląskich warszawa telefon kredyt bank olsztyn wojska polskiego kredyt konsolidacyjny czy gotówkowy kredyt bez bik i poreczycieli pożyczki prywatne tarnów pożyczki w domu łódź umowa pożyczki wzór pdf ile zarabiaja w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki kto płaci podatek pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz kredyt bez bik bielsko biala kredyt bank w siedlcach godziny otwarcia kredyt bank notowania funduszy inwestycyjnych firma uzyskała kredyt w banku 12 pożyczki bez bik opolskie pożyczki bez bik brodnica pożyczki od inwestorów umowa pożyczki prywatnej niespłacanie pożyczki w provident jak dlugo sie czeka na kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank pszów kontakt bocian pożyczki głogów umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmą a osobą fizyczną pożyczki w białymstoku kredyt w eurobanku a utrata pracy kredyt bankowy bez krd kredyt studencki bzwbk 2014 szybkie pożyczki gdynia kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank oława pozyczka bez bik opolskie umowa pożyczki w transzach umowa pożyczki spółce jawnej kredyty bez bik szczecin kredyt online bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczka na uwowa zlecenie czwa szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa konto osobiste w kredyt banku kredyt bez bik dla nowej firmy kredyt bank nowy sącz bankomaty kredyt bank warszawa patriotów kredyt z zajęciem komorniczym obliczanie odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs wzór kredyt bank sa regon kredyt z idea banku opinie meritum bank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bez bik gorzów wlkp kredyt bank w pułtusku kredyt bank bankomaty lublin getin bank oferta pożyczki wypowiedzenie umowy kredytu credit agricole kredyt bank duplikat karty kredyt bank w jarosławiu kredyt bank warecka getin noble bank kredyty samochodowe forum pożyczki bez bik pożyczki trzebiatów umowa pożyczki do spółki pożyczki prywatne forum i opinie kredyt bank sa ii oddział w łodzi pożyczki dla nowej firmy pożyczki niebankowe bydgoszcz pozyczki do domu na alimenty pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank w częstochowie kredyt bank komornik nowe pozyczki w domu przedłużenie kredytu studenckiego pko bp pożyczki gross toruń wzór na wyliczenie odsetek od pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt bank dt kredyty chwilówki sucha beskidzka kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim 2014 umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami a pcc kredyt na samochód bez bik umowa pożyczki w spółce akcyjnej actum pożyczki pożyczki chwilówka kredyty bez dokumentiw i bez bik umowa pożyczki spółki kredyt bank wakacje kredytowe kiedy kredyt bankowy ulega przedawnieniu kredyt w uk dla zadluzonych kredyt bank aktualne lokaty kredyty mieszkaniowe spółdzielcze pożyczki udzielone przez polskę innym krajom umowa pożyczki od rodziny wzór kredyt pozabankowy na start pożyczki na pit 37 pożyczki z zfśs a pcc kiedy umowa pożyczki jest ważna pożyczki bez bik jasło kredyt mieszkaniowy ile do spłaty kredyt bank oferta kont idea bank warunki pożyczki kredyt bank konstancin godziny otwarcia tani kredyt samochodowy ranking kredyt bankowy małe i średnie przedsiębiorstwa zwrot pożyczki udziałowcowi pożyczki dla lekarzy pożyczki z komornikiem wrocław kredyty pozabankowe z bik kredyt w banku łąckim umowa pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki bez bik zakopane rezygnacja z karty kredytowej kredyt bank wzór pożyczki chwilówki soho kredyt bank garbary kredyt bank pelna nazwa pożyczki gotówkowe lodz pożyczka bez bik na dowód pożyczki udzielone przez wspólnika kredyt bank sa adres pożyczki gotówkowe krd fundusze inwestycyjne pożyczki kredyty chwilówki na konto konto pożyczki udzielone najtańsze pożyczki pozabankowe takto pożyczki kontakt kredyt bank regulamin kart kredytowych kredyt bank sa lublin ul zana 39a bank pko kredyt studencki regulamin pożyczki bocian gryfice wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki wzór umorzenie pożyczki koszt podatkowy księgowanie umorzenia pożyczki w jst pożyczki gotówkowe opole kalkulator pożyczki gofin kredyt bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt gotówkowy w nordea bank kredyty chwilówki suwałki pożyczki gierka ślimak pożyczki opinie kredyt chwilówka kwidzyn pożyczki barczewo kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bz wbk kredyt bank biuro operacji i windykacji lublin umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a pcc kredyt bez bik bytom optima pożyczki września essentialia negotii pożyczki pożyczki ząbkowice śląskie kredyty chwilowki wodzislaw sl umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór pdf kredyt gotówkowy bez bik i zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank24 jak zaksięgować umowę pożyczki między spółkami kredyty pożyczki rzeszów bocian pożyczki lublin pożyczki remontowe udzielę pożyczki prywatnej kredyt chwilówka 2000 zł umowa użyczenia pożyczki umowa pożyczki z zastawem rejestrowym kredyt w pko sa forum pożyczki internetowe bez biku pozyczka krakow na weksel nobel za mikropożyczki orange kredyt 5 zł kredyt bankowy i jego cechy oprocentowanie pożyczki w skali roku duze pozyczki pod weksel kredyty chwilówki inwestor opinie opinie pożyczki prywatne pozyczki do reki od 18lat w lesznie kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche bank opinie pożyczki pozabankowe bielsk podlaski pożyczki od udziałowców w bilansie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez wychodzenia z domu pożyczka pod weksel prywatna kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt biznes pożyczki chwilówki nowogard kredyt bank lokata roczna umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a przychód pracownika kredyt bez bik jaki bank pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych kredyt bank oddział marki godziny otwarcia kredyt bank warszawa popularna godziny otwarcia bezpieczny kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki chwilówki jak założyć pozyczki niebankowe podobne do providenta kredyt bank chojnice kontakt w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki od osób prywatnych na procent kredyt w rozumieniu prawa bankowego roszczenia z umowy pożyczki przedawniają się kredyty chwilówki opinie o firmie wzór umowy pożyczki gotówki umowa pożyczki bank kredyt bank bierz co chcesz kredyt studencki na jakich warunkach kredyty bez bik zamość pożyczki ze środków unijnych sprzedaż kredyt banku luty 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny do jakiego wieku kredyt bank łączy się kredyt na kąta w 15 minut bez big krd na dowód szybką pożyczka do domu klienta nfośigw pożyczki kredyt w alior banku pożyczki optima opinie kredyty pod zastaw bez bik kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank czestochowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank w oławie kredyt bez bik jaki bank umowa pożyczki dla spółki a pcc pożyczki na dowód podobne do bociana kredyt marza banku kredyt bez bik 10 000 w bielsku białej kredyt bankowy przedawnienie roszczeń kredyty chwilówki elbląg pożyczki pozabankowe z niskim oprocentowaniem pożyczki z efs kredyt bank kościuszki katowice kredyt bank w łukowie godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki do spółki wzór pożyczki pekao awans pożyczki kredyt bank tomaszów maz godziny otwarcia kredyt 4 tys na dowód prowident umowa pożyczki z zastawem rejestrowym kredyt bank raty infolinia kredyt bank przelewy ekspresowe bocian pożyczki infolinia kredyt bank lublin narutowicza tel kredyt bank konto walutowe opinie pożyczki łódź chwilówki umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmą a osobą fizyczną oddziały kredyt banku w polsce banki kredyty bez zaświadczeń kredyty chwilówki gliwice opinie kredyty chwilówki dział rozliczeń optima pożyczki warszawa regita pożyczki opinie prywatne pożyczki pod weksel kredyt bez bik oferty gdzie otrzymac kredyt bez bik centrum finansowe pożyczki kredyt chwilówka ile procent kredyt bank blz kredyt bank gold metal idea bank warunki pożyczki pozyczki bez bik wloclawek pożyczki społecznościowe kraków podobne pozyczki do vivuss kredyt bez bik na samochód kredyt bank w gorzowie ranking banków kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyty chwilówki fordon pożyczka w domu klienta jelenia góra pozyczki bez sprawdzania w bazach kredyty jelenia góra umorzenie pożyczki pit 8c pożyczka pozabankowa do20tys pożyczki bez bik ruda śląska pożyczki dla firm z ue pan kowalski otrzymał kredyt w banku oprocentowany pożyczki bez bik bocian kredyty chwilówki libiąż kredyt bank modrzewiowa bydgoszcz kredyt pozabankowy słupsk kredyt bank marcinkowskiego alior bank kredyt gotówkowy konsolidacyjny kredyt bank nip regon skarabeusz pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank oszczędnościowe kredyt bank gorzów kontakt pożyczki dla zadłużonych uk podatek od umowy pożyczki w 2012 pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu kredyt w eurobank pro domo kredyty bydgoszcz kredyty i gwarancje bankowe zbigniew dobosiewicz pdf szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik przez internet alior bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyty chwilówki ostrów mazowiecka pozyczki chwilowki w irlandii pożyczki rzeszów kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik dla zadłużonych umowa pożyczki pieniędzy kredyt bank sa łomża pożyczki pozabankowe kętrzyn kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik jaki bank wybrac kredyt ok chwilówka pożyczki z funduszu umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw działki kredyt bank gdynia skwer godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik z zajeciem komorniczym pozyczki konin kredyty na dowod częstochowa pożyczki prywatne pożyczki bez biku białystok pożyczki pod zastaw auta lublin pozyczka bez bik kielce kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim forum odsetki od pożyczki udziałowców kredyty chwilowki plonsk szybkie pożyczki pleszew kredyt bank lokaty lipiec 2013

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad