kredyt studencki pko bp wnioski kredyt bankowy po rozwodzie leasing a kredyt bankowy chomikuj kredyt bank koło tel pozyczki bez dochodow koszalin oddziały kredyt banku w katowicach kredyt bank pbi sa warszawa kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza kredyt bez bik big i krd kredyt mieszkaniowy wypowiedzenie umowy kredyt bank piła telefon bocian pożyczki nidzica umowa pożyczki gotówkowej wzór kredyt bank długa kraków godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki a podatek pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny wady i zalety kredyty chwilówki tarnów bema szybkie kredyty dabrowa tarnowska pożyczki chwilówki bez big pożyczki gryf udzielę pożyczki pod weksel kraków kredyt bez biku wrocław alior bank kredyt oferta kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator banków kredyt na pit bez biku najtańszy kredyt bankowy pożyczki eden konsekwencje kredyt bank biskupiec pożyczki unijne 2014 wielkopolska kredyty mieszkaniowe najniższe oprocentowanie księgowanie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej bank alior formalnosci do kredytu alior bank kredyt samochodowy oprocentowanie kredyt studencki bzwbk 2011 pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bik i krd przekształcenie pożyczki na kapitał umowa pożyczki między najbliższymi lokata w kredyt banku 6 5 pożyczki krajowe kredyt studencki pko zasady umowa pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki na rozwój działalności kredyty chwilówki poznań pożyczki bez bik żywiec kredyt bank w kościanie pożyczki bez procentu kredyt mieszkaniowy opłaty notarialne kredyt bank chełm kontakt umowa pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bank konstancinska pożyczki na weksel szczecin umowa pożyczki spółki ze wspólnikiem pożyczki na dowód bank santander bank kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego kredyt samochodowy dla firm ranking kredyt bank dęblin pko bp kredyt studencki druki kredyt bank w lublinie potrzebuję pożyczki blog 2014 kredyt studencki pko bp umowa kredyt bank opłata za listę haseł bankomat kredyt banku warszawa kredyty bez bik krd erif mariusz patrowicz pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa placówki umowa pożyczki matka córka bocian pożyczki wniosek jaki kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt pozabankowy rzeszów kredyty bez bik jelenia góra kredyty na sam dowód pozabankowe racibórz prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe bydgoszcz w jakim banku wziąć kredyt bez zaświadczenia fundusz pracy pożyczki kredyt bez bik kraków pożyczki chwilówki do domu kredyt bankowy dla małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw pożyczki marka kredyty mieszkaniowe oferty banków pan kowalski otrzymał kredyt w banku kredyt bank mława godziny otwarcia siedziby chwilowki kredyt jaslo ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych kwiecień 2012 kredyt bez bik kolobrzeg kredyt bez bik samochodowy kredyty chwilówki radom prażmowskiego kredyt konsolidacyjny we frankach pożyczki od osób prywatnych toruń bocian pożyczki opinia pożyczki społecznościowe co to pożyczki z bikiem i komornikiem pożyczki pozabankowe rybnik kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2014 użyczę pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki przez internet opinie kredyt bank w warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe praca konwersja pożyczki na kapitał podatek u źródła pożyczki z parabanków korzystny kredyt w banku kredyt w banku łąckim kredyt bank sa ii oddział w poznaniu pożyczka 5000 zl w bankuspółdzielczym wycena pożyczki według skorygowanej ceny nabycia pożyczka pozabankowa bez bik i zabezpieczeń oddziały kredyt banku w krakowie pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet forum pożyczka na procent pod mieszkanie kredyt bank karta junior umowa pożyczki cywilna kredyty bez bik konin umowa pożyczki przedawnia się kredyt konsolidacyjny 2014 ranking kredyt bank zastrzeżenie dokumentów wzór na odsetki od pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki prywatne piaseczno oblicz kredyt w credit agricole dwie pożyczki w provident kredyt bank głęboka lublin kredyty chwilówki kępno pozyczki od osob rywatnych w zorach kredyt mieszkaniowy w credit agricole kredyt bankowy a emisja obligacji kredyt bank hrubieszów tel kredyt bank średni kurs walut pożyczki podobne do bocian kredyt bank spółka akcyjna kredyt bank kraków kalwaryjska wycena pożyczki w euro kredyt bank tczew telefon pożyczki bez bik na telefon kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższa rata kredyty mieszkaniowe na 100 wartości umowa pożyczki dla obcokrajowca szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd przez internet umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs emerytowi kredyty na oświadczenie bez bik praca pożyczki chwilówki jak wziąć kredyt w orange za 5 zł pożyczki pozabankowe lubań kredyty bez bik i krs kredyt bank warszawa konstancińska pozyczki pozaabankowe bez pracy getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczenia kredyt bank tbg kredyty chwilówki akcja znicz kredyty chwilowki gdansk multika rzeszów kredyt bez bik kredyt bank 4 oddział warszawa kredyt bank rachunek depozytowy pożyczki kłodzko kredyt bez bik wejherowo helikon pożyczki opinie pko bp legnica kredyt studencki kredyt konsolidacyjny bnp paribas pożyczki bez zaświadczeń gdańsk kredyt bez biku 10 tys boleslawiec kredyt bank łodź bednarska pożyczki bez bik do 20 tys kredyt bez bik nowy tomyśl pożyczki dla zadluzonych z zajeciem komorniczym pożyczki nauczycielskie ipko kredyt na oswiadczenie pożyczki dla inwalidów pożyczki myślenice opodatkowanie pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami pożyczki z funduszy unijnych kredyt orange na jaki nr kredyt mieszkaniowy sierpień 2012 pożyczki w średniowieczu kredyt bank opole sosnkowskiego godziny otwarcia karta kredyt bank za granica getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy forum pożyczki krótkoterminowe w uk kredyt bez bik zabrze do 30 tys kredyt bank w gnieźnie kredyt bank oddział sopot kościuszki pożyczki kalkulator pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny w kb kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator porównanie kredyt bank rodzina na swoim forum kredyt bank legnica mickiewicza oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior bank pożyczki pod zastaw rzeszów gross capital pożyczki kredyt bank zagiel instrumenty finansowe pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór aktywny kredyty chwilówki zamość partyzantów umowa pożyczki eurobank pożyczki 24 na dobe pożyczki społecznościowe zopa kredyt na zakup ziemi w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank w mikołowie kredyty chwilówki wałbrzych rynek pożyczki bez bik w olsztynie kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku millennium pożyczki bez bik nowy sącz bocian pożyczki łódź pożyczki bez zaświadczeń od 18 lat pożyczki pod zastaw zgierz kredyt bank akcje kredyty bez bik szamotuły umorzenie pożyczki a podatek kredyt bank ożarów tczew pożyczka z bankomatu kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus forum kredyt bank wrocław godziny otwarcia pożyczki pod zastaw kraków umowa pożyczki a umowa kredytu bankowego pcc od umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem kredyt mieszkaniowy millenium forum pożyczki na innowacje kredyt bankowy pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki prywatne pod weksel 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny dla dłużników kredyt konsumpcyjny bank millenium kredyt w rozumieniu prawa bankowego wycena bilansowa pożyczki kredyt bank impreza integracyjna kredyt samochodowy w santander bank kredyt bez biku w rybniku pożyczki bez bik oferty kredyt dla emerytow w banku pocztowym umowa pożyczki pieniężnej bez odsetek kredyt bank nowy dwór mazowiecki pożyczki chwilówki vivus kwota pożyczki została zmniejszona pro domo pożyczki gdańsk kredyt bank w grudziądzu lew pożyczki sprzedaż wierzytelności pożyczki wzór umowy pożyczki do druku kredyt bez bik 30 tys kredyt bank realizacja przelewów podatek od pożyczki od wspólnika wzór umowy pożyczki nieoprocentowanej pożyczki bielsko biała kredyt bank lubuskie pożyczki gotówkowe ciechanów pozyczki bez bik chelmno pożyczki gotówkowe inowrocław czy udzielenie pożyczki podlega vat kredyt bank jastarnia umowa pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs kredyty w uk na benefity kredyt studencki 2013 opinie kredyt bank ostrowiec św pożyczki chwilówki na dowód lublin kredyt bez bik krd dla firm kredyt bank w szczecinku kredyt mieszkaniowy program alior bank oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego pożyczki do domu szczecin pożyczki od 19 lat przez internet kredyt gotówkowy przez internet bez bik kredyt samochodowy dla nowo otwartych firm pożyczki chwilówki gotówkowe optima pożyczki warszawa kredyty bez sprawdzania w bazie bik kredyt bank sa kod swift wzór umowy pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kredyty bez biku gdynia kredyty chwilówki konsolidacja kod na kredyt w sieci orange kredyt samochodowy online do kwoty 20000 pln mbank kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank forum kredyt gotówkowy bez bik na dowód kredyty chwilówki na dowód szczecin pożyczki chwilówki na dowód gdańsk pożyczki tomaszów mazowiecki kredyt bank zaświadczenie o zarobkach pdf kredyty bankowe dlugoterminowe umowa pożyczki wg kodeksu cywilnego kredyty pozabankowe plock kredyt bank otwock praca kredyt bez bik konsolidacja kredyt konsolidacyjny w bgż forum kredyt w orange pod jaki numer kredyt chwilówki żary pozyczka przez internet pod zastaw sam pko kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt na mieszkanie bank pocztowy kredyty chwilówki przez internet bez bik pożyczki bez bik słubice jak zdobyć kredyt bez bik kredyt bank piekary śląskie kod na kredyt do orange przelew zagraniczny do kredyt banku kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej wbk kredyt bank lubin kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń forum wniosek o restrukturyzację pożyczki pożyczki od osób prywatnych warszawa pożyczki pod weksel wrocław kody do orange na kredyt kredyt bank placówki godziny otwarcia kalkulator rat kredytu mieszkaniowego rodzina na swoim getin bank wniosek kredytowy online parkmar pozyczki pożyczki w inowrocławiu kredyt studencki oprocentowanie 2014 kredyt bank w gorlicach pozyczki na procent pila szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd online szybkie pozyczki luban pozyczki chwilowki od osob prywatnych mielec umowa pożyczki od brata wzór pożyczki millenium kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millennium pożyczki natychmiastowe drugi kredyt w tym samym banku forum pożyczki bez bik lubuskie kredyt bank grójecka 45 opole pożyczki prywatne pożyczki bez bik w domu klienta warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny przelicznik udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi a pcc kredyty bez bik chełm kredyt bank konto firmowe oferta pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki lukas kredyty chwilówki zwolnienia pożyczki z obsługą domową pożyczki internetowe pozyczki z dowozem do domu bez zaswiadczen warszawa kredyt bank zgora kredyty chwilówki stalowa wola okulickiego umowa pożyczki dla spółki jawnej prywatne pożyczki gorzów wlkp pożyczki bez dokumentów jaki jest kod do kredytu w orange kredyt bez zaświadczeń pożyczki z unii dla firm kredyt dla zadluzonych bez biku promocja pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny przelicznik jak dostac kredyt w uk kredyt bank firmy kiedy umowa pożyczki nie podlega pcc pożyczki chwilówki za 0 kredyty chwilówki odsetki pożyczki prywatne śląsk kredyt unijny idea bank forum pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat kredyty chwilówki pruszków wojska polskiego pożyczki podobne do provident pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta swidnica przelicznik pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki dla zadłużonych opole idea bank pożyczki dla firm kredyt w getin bank opinie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych warszawa pożyczki dla służb mundurowych kredyt bank zaswiadczenie o zarobkach kredyt bank praktyki opinie bocian pożyczki chełmża pożyczki w domu śląsk pożyczki krótkoterminowe definicja pozyczki pozabankowe na alimenty bydgoszcz kredyt bank warszawa marki kredyt bank lublin kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus pożyczki z pfron 2013 kredyt pozabankowy na auto kredyt w banku kalkulator kredyty bez bik sochaczew kredyt bez bik w rybniku oprocentowanie kredytów mieszkaniowych pko bp kredyt dla nowych firm bez bik najtańszy kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki w skoku bocian pożyczki kalisz szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe lublin kredyty w uk na benefity kredyt bank w lublinie windykacja kredyt konsolidacyjny dla bezrobotnych odsetki od pożyczki podatek u źródła kredyt studencki w banku pekao sa kalkulator podatku od pożyczki pożyczki ekspresowe kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy w uk forum kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator euro firma pożyczki kredyt bank twardzickiego kredyty pożyczki bez sprawdzania w bik czy od pożyczki płaci się pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę kart kredytowych pożyczki socjalne w pracy szybkie pożyczki bez bik płock kredyty chwilówki bochnia oprocentowanie nominalne pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa ken kredyty bez bik slask kredyt w uk barclays pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd warszawa wniosek o udzielenie kredytu studenckiego pekao sa kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kontakt pożyczki na dowód turek kredyty mieszkaniowe belgia kredyt studencki bank slaski kredyt restrukturyzacyjny eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny forum opinie umowa pożyczki wspólnika do spółki udzielę pożyczki bez rejestrów kredyt konsolidacyjny czym jest pozyczki bez krs i bik na oswiadczenie przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank koszt kredyt bez bik 10 000 kredyt chwilowki lodz pozyczki dzialdowo pożyczki bez bik przasnysz kredyt bank warszawa stara miłosna kredyty lub pozyczki bez bik bocian pożyczki adres kredyt bank dusznicki opinie kredyt bank wrocław plac solny kredyt bank filia świebodzice pożyczki panda kredyt bank sa olsztyn pożyczki 5000 kredyt samochodowy w firmie kredyt bank pila pożyczki pod zastaw krosno pożyczki chwilówki na rok pożyczki prywatne wrocław forum pożyczki chwilówki gliwice skok piast kredyt 5000 kredyt bank lokata srebrna alior bank kredyt dla firm pekao sa kredyt studencki dokumenty kredyt w deutsche banku forum orange kod kredyt podporządkowanie spłaty pożyczki kredyt bank ekstrakonto plus forum kredyt bank żuromin wzór na odsetki od pożyczki z zfśs bank pocztowy kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank różana kredyt w banku pko kredyty chwilówki bez bik kredyt bank w uk kiedy umowa pożyczki nie podlega pcc kredyty chwilówki uwaga pożyczki bez żadnych formalności pożyczki kraków skarabeusz pożyczki kredyty chwilowki do 100 000 pożyczki na oświadczenie warszawa kredyt dla firm bez bik forum kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najlepiej 2012 bocian pożyczki stargard szczeciński kredyty bez biku iz komornikiem tarnów pożyczki prywatne pożyczki dla zadłużonych i z komornikiem współpraca pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty chwilówki radom szybko i bez umowy pożyczki odzyskanie pożyczki pożyczki bez bik zakopane pożyczki dla firm bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank notowania pożyczki golden kredyt na pit 11 w getin banku pożyczki prywatne tarnów kredyt bankowy pod zastaw kredyty mieszkaniowe spółdzielcze pożyczki 48h kredyt bank 15 oddział gdańsk pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi rolnej kredyt bank kierownik kredyty pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank kod pocztowy jak wziasc kredyt w orange na 5 zl pożyczka przez telefon na dowód kredyty w deutsche bank opinie pożyczki gold kredyt bez bik ciechanów pozyczka bez bik w pko bp fotum kredyty gotówkowe chwilówka umorzenie pożyczki dla udziałowca kredyty pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie brak zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank zielona góra kredyt bank lokata progres mikropożyczki na otwarcie działalności pożyczki krecik pożyczki chwilówki online forum kredyt bank legnica bankomaty kalkulator pożyczki money kredyt bez bij do 20000 tys pożyczki nie z banku umorzenie pożyczki darowizna chwilówki i pożyczki gotówkowe firmy eurocent pożyczki na dowód oprocentowanie szybkie pożyczki bez bik płock kredyt orange yes kredyty bez bik małopolska kredyt bank wielicka 181 pożyczki chwilówki bez bik bydgoszcz jak wziąć kredyt w banku spółdzielczym

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad