polecane pożyczki pozabankowe pozyczka podobna do pozyczka zyrafa kredyt konsolidacyjny wielka brytania preferencyjny kredyt studencki forum kredyt bank kontakt centrala kredyt bank lokaty wrzesien 2012 kredyty pozabankowe jaworzno credito pożyczki pożyczki kredyty chwilówki optima pożyczki gliwice kredyt bank zaświadczenie o zarobkach kredyt kielce prowizji kredyt bank kraków szuwarowa godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki online pożyczki bez biku na telefon pożyczki pit pożyczki chwilówki od 19 lat czy vivus udziela pożyczek zadluzonym kredyty bez bik bank kredyt w banku santander udzielone pożyczki aktywa kredyt bankowy bibliografia kredyty chwilówki stalowa wola okulickiego prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw zielona góra pozyczki plock alior bank kredyt rodzina na swoim kredyt bank kraków długa 4 godziny otwarcia kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej w pko kredyt bank piekary śląskie godziny otwarcia kredyt bank lokaty listopad 2012 kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bez bik kwidzyn szybkie pożyczki gdansk kredyt w banku spółdzielczym opinie ksiegowanie pozyczki de minimis pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik u oprocentowanie pożyczki wibor 3m szybkie pożyczki bez bik poznań jak obliczyć odsetki od pożyczki w skali roku kredyt bank notowania kredyt bank połączenie udzielenie pożyczki po angielsku kredyt bank uk kredyty bez bik zawiercie kredyt bank wola warszawa kredyt bank infolinia żagiel kredyty pozabankowe kalisz szybkie pozyczki luban kredyty bez bik świdnica kredyt w getin banku kalkulator udzielę pożyczki pod weksel poznań bocian pożyczki lublin camperia pożyczki bez big udzielę prywatnej pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bez bik millenium kredyty chwilówki inwestowanie kredyty santander kredyty bez biku ikrd kredyt bank gdańsk telefon przedawnienie umowy pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy eurobank forum pożyczki z budżetu państwa kredyty bez bik suwałki kredyty bez biku gorzow wlkp poznan glogowska pozyczki bez biku pożyczki pekao opodatkowanie pożyczki od rodziny 2011 jaka kwota pożyczki jest wolna od podatku kredyt bank bez prowizji kredyt dla emerytow w banku pocztowym kredyty mieszkaniowe obliczenie rat warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank plac zbawiciela telefon pożyczki bez bik warszawa banknot pozyczki warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2012 kredyty chwilówki warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najlepiej 2012 pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód bez zaświadczeń pożyczki ii rp pożyczki prywatne ostrołęka kredyt bank online 24 umowa pożyczki przez udziałowca druk umowy pożyczki gotówkowej wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny w bnp paribas pożyczki dla jst lokata jesienna w kredyt banku pożyczki gotówkowe w banku bez bik pożyczka na procent brodnica kredyt bank historia banku pożyczki pko pożyczki skok wesoła jak otrzymac kredyt bez biku santander kredyt w salonie samochodowym ktorym kredyt bank blokowanie karty kredyt samochodowy bez bik na oświadczenie 458 punktów bik kredyt w eurobank kredyt bank 2001 kredyty w fm bank praca w kredyt banku opinie 2011 odsetki od pożyczki cypr skarabeusz pożyczki oddziały umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od ojca pożyczki chwilówki szczecinek pożyczki prywatne ostrowiec kredyt bank fuzja pracownicy kredyt w banku credit agricole cash express pożyczki wzór oświadczenia o zwrocie pożyczki pozyczki bez bik i krd gdansk kredyty pozabankowe dla osob z komornikiem wzór umowy na udzielenie pożyczki kredyt bank gdansk slowackiego pożyczki konsumpcyjne pożyczki chwilówki bez meldunku bocian stargard kredyt mieszkaniowy w 2014 roku kredyt studencki w alior banku pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw samochodu kredyt bank żeromskiego 77 godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne ostrołęka kredyt bank ostrowiec kredyty chwilówki katowice szopienice pożyczki chwilówki bez bik gdańsk kalkulator pożyczki lukas bank kredyt konsolidacyjny podstawa prawna kredyt bez bik lubin umowa pożyczki od udziałowca dla spółki wzór kredyt bank prowizja za przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank jelenia góra kontakt bank pko sa kredyt na samochód niedzielne pożyczki prywatne szybkie pożyczki na konto bez bik dłużnik nie oddaje pożyczki umowy pożyczki pieniędzy wzory plus prowidus pozyczki pożyczki dla górników kredyty mieszkaniowe dla młodych małżeństw 2012 kredyt mieszkaniowy marzec 2012 kredyt w banku bez biku kredyty chwilówki zaświadczenie o zarobkach kredyt bank logowanie do konta kredyt w koncie bank pocztowy kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw forum umowa pożyczki 500 zł kredyt konsolidacyjny ze złą historią pożyczki bez bik chwilówki aconto pożyczki kredyt bank sa lublin narutowicza 55b kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko sa kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy umowa pożyczki miedzy członkami rodziny kredyt bank lezajsk kontakt pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy dokumenty kredyt bank trojmiasto pożyczki prywatne ostrów wlkp kredyty bez bik oferty kredyty w getin banku opinie kredyt bank krolewska krakow mikropożyczki na rentę socjalną najtańszy kredyt samochodowy dla firm kredyty gotówkowe bez bik wrocław boś bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt w getin banku kalkulator pożyczki 2000 zł pożyczki chwilówki 18 lat w jakim banku wziąć kredyt opinie dwie pożyczki w provident dobry kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki podstawowe obowiązki stron pożyczki ala provident provident spłata pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw działki budowlanej pożyczki społecznościowe ryzyko kredyt bank radom żeromskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt na start w idea bank forum kredyty bez bik i zaświadczeń pomorskie kredyt bank warszawska białystok godziny otwarcia udzielę pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank krynica kontakt wniosek o przyznanie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe podatek od pożyczki dla najbliższej rodziny kredyt konsolidacyjny czym jest kredyt mieszkaniowy 3x0 w credit agricole pożyczki i kredyty najkorzystniejsze pożyczki bankowe prezentacja pożyczki w bilansie pozabankowy kredyt na otworzenie dzialalnosci pożyczki na dowód w pko kredyt chwilówka kraków nowa huta kredyty dla nowych firm bez bik pozyczki plock pożyczki pod zastaw bielsko kredyt w deutsche bank opinie kredyt bank waluty kredyt bank włodawa telefon kredyt bank ketlinga kredyty bez bik dla zadluzonych kredyt samochodowy bez bik i krd kredyt bank w piszu umowa pożyczki z bankiem a pcc kredyt bank bialystok ul warszawska monetia pożyczki pozyczki dla zadluzonych przez telefon kredyt w banku lloyds pożyczki żuromin pozyczki pozabankowe bez pracy pożyczki bez bik gostynin umowa pożyczki z pracownikiem wzór rafał konarski pożyczki kredyty bez biku wrocław kredyt bank ul długa kraków godziny otwarcia cechy pożyczki pożyczki bez bik nowa sól pożyczki janosik proximus pozyczki w jakim banku wziąc kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania wrocław maksymalne oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej potwierdzenie spłacenia pożyczki kredyty chwilówki tarnów krakowska mikropożyczki wiki kredyt konsolidacyjny na ryczałcie umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego a podatek kredyt bank zagiel pożyczki bez dochodów od 18 lat optima pozyczki ciechanów pożyczki bez bik kalkulator kredyt bank placówka gdańsk zakładowy fundusz świadczeń socjalnych pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki bez opłat pożyczki chwilówki janosik kredyt bank cz szukam pożyczki pozabankowej prywatnej kredyt inwestycyjny prawo bankowe kredyty bez bik do 50000 ing bank pozyczki na zalozenie firmy pożyczki na które trzeba uważać pozyczka w pko praca zagranica wzory umowy pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bankowy rodzaje odsetki od pożyczki jak wyliczyć kredyt bez bik żary abis pożyczki infolinia kredyt w eurobanku opinie 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wymagania pożyczki pozabankowe pod nieruchomość bocian pożyczki gorzów wlkp szybkie pożyczki bocian kredyt bank plac zbawiciela kredyt mieszkaniowy ile wkladu wlasnego pożyczki bez bik wrocław forum kredyt samochodowy w millenium bank kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku 2013 pożyczki prywatne olkusz kredyt w banku spółdzielczym polecana pozyczka w systemie ratalnym bez bik pożyczki na dowód kontakt kredyt bank piotrków armii krajowej kredyty bez bik włocławek odsetki od pożyczki wht udzielać pożyczki english optima s a kredyty pożyczki kredyt bank obecnie pożyczki najtaniej pożyczki pozabankowe w pabianicach pożyczki gotówkowe bez dochodu pożyczki bez bik optima kredyt bank ken wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki z zfśs kredyt w banku umowa zlecenie presto pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche bank opinie mikropożyczki dla najbiedniejszych decyzja kredytowa w kredyt banku 2012 umowa pożyczki kiedy jest nieważna nowe pozyczki udzielane w domu lublin kredyt bankowy przez internet bip pożyczki zielona góra pożyczki chwilówki zielona góra kredyty bez bik zywiec kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyty chwilówki we wrześni pożyczki pozabankowe ostrów wielkopolski umowa pożyczki odsetki podatek kalkulator kredytowy kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt banki mikołów kredyt bankowy a emisja obligacji kredyt na mieszkanie w skoku z zla chistoria kredytowa kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik i krd żyrafa pożyczki kontakt pko bp kamień pomorski kredyt odnawialny kredyt konsolidacyjny formalności szybkie pożyczki dla firm bez bik pożyczki bez bik internet pożyczki dla urzędników pożyczki bez bik i poręczycieli kredyt bank zyrardow pozyczki bez zaswiadczen chrzanow kredyty plock bocian limit pożyczki od rodziny kredyt samochodowy dla przedsiębiorców kredyt bankowy encyklopedia zarządzania wzór oświadczenia o zwrocie pożyczki kredyt bank likwidacja konta opodatkowanie udzielenia pożyczki trust pożyczki kredyt bank leszno regon pożyczki gotówkowe na 30 lat skarabeusz pożyczki w domu łukta pożyczki pożyczki na niski dochód oprocentowanie pożyczki w alior banku pożyczki białystok wzór umowy pożyczki pienięznej umorzenie pożyczki zakładowej kredyt bank dzienny limit operacji na rachunku kredyt bez bik bez konta bankowego kredyt bank gwarancje skarbu państwa bocian pożyczki katowice pożyczki szczecin na umowę niemiecką kredyt na dowód bank pko w którym banku najtańszy kredyt umowa pożyczki i grupa podatkowa porównanie pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty bankowe historia punkt pozyczek bocian w swiebodzinie kredyt bank warszawa centrala pożyczki gotówkowe praca szybkie pożyczki bez bik online kredyt bank włocławek telefon kredyty chwilówki mielec umorzenie pożyczki a podatek kredyt bank w krynicy kredyt bank rybnik tel tanie pożyczki chwilówki pozyczki bez bik i krd numer tel pożyczki chwilówki iława wrocław pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank szczecin adres udziele pozyczki na umowe katowice kredyt bank warszawa ul żeromskiego kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millennium kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku bph pożyczki pozabankowe przez telefon omnico pożyczki aby wziasc pozyczke w noble banku co potrzeba pożyczki lombardowe pod zastaw samochodu cesja umowy pożyczki pcc lew pożyczki kredyty chwilówki brodnica kredyt bank pszczyna kontakt umowa pożyczki dla nieletnich podatek od pożyczki prywatnej 2012 numer telefonu do banku o pożyczkę bez dochodów auto kredyt bez bik i krd kredyt bank konstancińska godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe plock kredyt konsolidacyjny sgb kredyt bank sa lublin żagiel umowa pożyczki na zabezpieczenie kredyt orange pop pożyczki na dowód w lublinie kredyt bez bik na konto kredyt na dowod gdynia tel pożyczki przez internet pierwsza za darmo bez bik pożyczki cywilne wrocław pożyczki kętrzyn kredyt w uk przez internet kredyt bank ul abrahama kredyt bank nowy targ pożyczki w domu klienta wałbrzych niebezpieczne pożyczki kredyt bank augustów pożyczki bez bik zus i us kredyt konsolidacyjny bz wbk opinie kredyt bank toruń tel pożyczki w cieszynie pożyczki na pół roku kredyt na dom prywatne pożyczki całkowicie przez internet pożyczka online do 60 dni kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku forum kredyt bankowy na oświadczenie umowa pożyczki pomiędzy podmiotami powiązanymi tukan pożyczki akropol pożyczki pożyczki everest pożyczki pozabankowe z komornikiem warszawa pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bank jastrzębia góra adres kredyt bank warszawa umowa pożyczki opłata notarialna pożyczki na dowód milicz tani kredyt samochodowy forum alior bank kredyt konsolidacja pozyczka przez internet bez zaswiadczen o dochodach kredyty chwilówki kalisz kredyt bank warszawa zoliborz kredyty bez bik w rzeszowie kredyt w millenium banku opinie kredyt oddłużeniowy w banku pożyczki gotówkowe eurocent gdzie kredyt bez bik warszawa pożyczki rybnik kredyt bez bik glogow kredyty chwilówki bez bik online kredyt studencki pekao opinie kredyt bank infolinia 24h kredyty pozabankowe zgorzelec pożyczki chwilówki bez bik bydgoszcz pożyczki na dowod mlawa kredyt bank tygrysy europy kredyty w getin bank opinie kredyt bank sa legnica kredyt pozabankowy na firmę bank pekao sa kredyty dla firm kredyt bank lidzbark warm zwrot pożyczki urząd skarbowy pożyczki 18 lat tanie pożyczki bez bik pożyczka z unii europejskiej na slasku kredyt bank koscierzyna pożyczki kaśka kredyt orange pod nr pożyczki w wałczu neobank kredyt pod zastaw gruntow rolnych kredyt bez bik 2000 zł afera w kredyt banku kredyty bez bik kluczbork kredyt bank centrum kart płatniczych kredyt bank sa żyrardów kredyt bank zdolność kredytowa kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy spłata przed terminem pożyczki uprzywilejowane kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pko kredyt w banku bz wbk niebezpieczne pożyczki pro domo pozyczki grudziadz kredyt bank 1500 pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem kredyt bankowy wikipedia kredyty chwilówki 23 lutego kody na kredyt w orange bankowy kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób bez biku kredyt bez biku gdansk plus prowidus pozyczki kredyt pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik lukas bank kredyt bez biku bocian pozyczki kwidzyn pożyczki pod zastaw żory pożyczki dla bezrobotnych wzór umowy pożyczki raty pożyczki na dłuższy okres kredyty bankowe oferty pożyczki do domu białystok pożyczki banki kredyt bank poznan oddzialy kredyt bank pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt mieszkaniowy na singla kredyt obrotowy w idea banku opinie internetowe pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty bankowe ewidencja kredyt w banku przez internet kredyt bank pruszków kontakt kredyt dla firm na oświadczenie bez bik marka pożyczki białystok kredyt pozabankowy katowice kredyt bank gdynia świętojańska godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe gdzie najlepiej pożyczki łowicz kredyt bank żyrardów godziny otwarcia kredyt bank gdynia godziny otwarcia podżyrowanie pożyczki umowa pożyczki chwilówki wzór pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu kraków umowa pożyczki spółce jawnej kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz bocian pożyczki lubin kredyt konsolidacyjny zła historia bik kredyt konsolidacyjny 50000 pożyczki bez bik w suwałkach marka pożyczki ełk pożyczki ślimak bydgoszcz pozyczki bez bik i krd kredyty bankowe bez bik pożyczki 2000 zł pożyczki kokos kredyt samochodowy nordea bank kredyt chwilówka bochnia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń skok umorzenie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs finan pożyczki do domu pożyczki prywatne podkarpacie bocian pożyczki zg kredyt samochodowy otomoto forum kredyt bank warszawa ul marszałkowska szybkie pozyczki nysa bez zaświadczeń kredyty chwilówki toruń opinie kredyt studencki pekao opinie kredyt samochodowy dla 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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad