kredyt w lukas bank umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs gofin korona pozyczki konin open finance krakow pozyczki poza bankowe pożyczki pozabankowe chorzów kredyt bank główny oddział forum pożyczki bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości gdańsk kredyt mieszkaniowy walutowy pożyczki chwilówki wągrowiec kredyt bank bankomaty warszawa kredyt studencki pko transza za lipiec pożyczki w domu klienta płock kredyt getin bank bez bik alior bank kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyt konsolidacyjny na 15 lat kredyt bank lokata strukturyzowana opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny 20 tys pozyczki bez bik erif krd kredyt chwilówka gdansk pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik umowa pożyczki z akcjonariuszem pożyczki mieszkaniowe kalkulator pożyczki preferencyjne wikipedia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach online kredyty chwilówki dokumenty pozyczka prywatna veksel dzierzoniow pożyczki gotówkowe dla firm pożyczki unia europejska potrzebuję pożyczki blog 2014 kredyt bank inowrocław godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla singli kredyt bank infolinia żagiel polecane pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt mieszkaniowy dla studenta 2013 pożyczki bez bik gdańsk kredyt bez bik w krakowie kredyty bankowe praca pożyczki pod zastaw srem pożyczki w bedzinie kredyt bank awaria kredyty bez bik wadowice kredyt mieszkaniowy pko rodzina na swoim pożyczki pod nieruchomość kredyt mieszkaniowy marże pożyczki udzielane przez gminę kredyty prywatne bez biku kto płaci podatek od pożyczki z zagranicy prosta umowa pożyczki pożyczki do 4000 zł bocian pożyczki elbląg pcc od pożyczki wspólnika spółki jawnej bocian pożyczki zabrze kredyt bank placówki warszawa śródmieście kredyt bankowy i jego rodzaje kredyty bez bik olsztyn udzielę pożyczki kredyty chwilówki ostrowiec św pożyczki polska wschodnia allekasa pożyczki pożyczki w 15 minut bez bik pożyczki prywatne wyszków umorzenie pożyczki wspólnika jaki bank da pozyczke bez biku bocian pożyczki właściciel pożyczki koszalin kredyt bank w białymstoku godziny otwarcia wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej cesja pożyczki pcc kredyt w uk bez historii kredytowej akcess pozyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny zarobki za granica pożyczki ratunkowe świdnica pożyczki bocian mogilno łączny koszt pożyczki kredyt w ikano bank kredyt bank swarzędz godziny otwarcia oprocentowanie kredytu w idea banku czy w paribas kredyt jest bez bik pożyczki prywatne w lublinie kredyt bank sa regon pożyczki ratunkowe poznań pożyczki dla domu kredyt bez bik i krd katowice pożyczki na dowód szprotawa umorzenie pożyczki w księgach rachunkowych kredyt bank konstancin godziny otwarcia kredyt bank tychy umowa pożyczki pomiędzy podmiotami powiązanymi faktura na odsetki od pożyczki wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny wymogi alior bank kredyt dla zadłużonych pożyczki bez bik w zduńskiej woli kredyt bank grunwaldzka 345 gdańsk pożyczki w jakim banku bank pko sa kalkulator kredytu kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp opinie 2013 kredyt bank znin konsolidacja kredytów gdzie najlepiej pożyczki wonga opinie kredyt gotówkowy bez bik warszawa pożyczki mława kredyt bank santander 2012 kredyt samochodowy na firmę kalkulator kredyt bank toruń telefon pożyczki ekspresowe bez bik profinet pożyczki opinie kredyt bez bik skok kredyt bank czechowice kredyt bank sa address kredyt bez bik wniosek kredyt samochodowy dla firm mbank kalkulator procentowy pożyczki kredyty bankowe funkcje pożyczki pod zastaw gliwice pożyczki wspólników udzielane spółkom kapitałowym umowa pożyczki pieniędzy pcc pożyczki chwilówki nowogard wzór umowy pożyczki zfśs kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko kredyty bez bik katowice pismo o umorzenie kredytu z funduszu socjalnego umowa pożyczki w spółce komandytowej kredyt bank pleszew warunki pożyczki w provident kredyt samochodowy w ing pożyczki prywatnych pko bp rzeszów kredyt studencki kredyt bank chałubińskiego 8 banki kredyty z komornikiem wniosek o pozyczke z kronos bez online pożyczki gros kapitał kredyt bank suwałki godziny otwarcia kredyt w banku bph kalkulator jak 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klodzko kredyt bank piekary odmowa pożyczki kredyty chwilówki ełk kredyt bank ul mickiewicza białystok kredyt w banku hsbc umowa pożyczki z pracodawcą przedawnienie pożyczki od osoby prywatnej pożyczki prywatne chełm kredyty mieszkaniowe a umowa na czas określony kredyt bank ostatnie księgowanie kredyt bank legnica telefon kredyt na dowod do reki bez dochodow gryfino optima pożyczki bydgoszcz pożyczki chwilówki śrem kredyt bank łódź oddziały kredyt z orange 5 zł pozyczki z komornikiem w mielcu wypowiedzenie pożyczki wzór pożyczki dla pracowników a pcc w którym banku kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki bez zaświadczeń opinie umorzenie pożyczki kredyty bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik zielona góra kredyty chwilówki sieradz jak zdobyć kredyt bez bik pożyczki udziałowców dla spółki kredyt bank dubois białystok kredyty chwilówki opinie forum kredyt bez bik i krd przez internet pożyczki chwilówki przez internet 24h kredyty mieszkaniowe od 2014 roku pożyczki dla bezrobotnych i zadłużonych 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ing kredyty w meritum bank kredyt mieszkaniowy stałe oprocentowanie pożyczki chwilówki nowa sól kredyt bank zaświadczenie o zarobkach pdf pożyczki 100 tys kredyt bez bik tczew kredyt w banku jakie dokumenty kredyt bez bik ostrołęka placówki kredyt banku wrocław kredyty bez bik duze kwoty kredyt bank zawieszenie rat najtańszy kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt bank godziny księgowania pożyczki lider kredyt bank program praktyk wakacyjnych wzór umowy pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie kredyt na dowod od reki pożyczki od osób prywatnych gdańsk pożyczki długoterminowe definicja kredyt bank godziny otwarcia białystok pożyczki gdańsk ppozyczka na sam dowod osobisty zabrze kredyty konsolidacyjne olsztyn kredyt bank chrzanów kontakt kredyty bez bik chełm pożyczki bez bik oprocentowanie kredyt w banku pko opinie pożyczka chwilówka bez potwierdzania konta kredyt konsolidacyjny bank spółdzielczy oddział kredyt bank warszawa mokotów umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami a pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny odmowa oferty pożyczki prywatne kredyt studencki pko pierwsza transza pożyczki na działalnośc gospodarczą kredyt lombardowy w banku pożyczki lombardowe kredyt gotówkowy pozabankowy kalkulator pożyczki bankowej jaki jest kod na kredyt orange pożyczki bez zaświadczeń międzyrzecz tel kredyty chwilówki sanok odsetki od pożyczki kurs dokumentowanie odsetek od pożyczki zabezpieczenie pożyczki wfośigw kredyt bank 4 oddział warszawa umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki przychód pożyczki wbk kredyty pozabankowe bez bik krd pożyczki chwilówki ostrołęka pożyczki na dowód osobisty pożyczki 60 dni ikko projekt pożyczki pożyczki dla osób ze złą historią w bik pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń od 18 lat pożyczki bez biku pozyczki z dowozem do domu bez zaswiadczen warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości bez bik kredyt bank ekstralokum jaki jest numer na kredyt do orange kredyt mieszkaniowy kasa stefczyka kredyt bank rachunek depozytowy kredyt konsolidacyjny na 20 lat kredyt bank wołomin telefon nowe pozyczki udzielane w domu lublin w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy 2013 pożyczki ebc kredyt w getin banku 2013 pożyczki inowrocław pożyczki chwilówki najnowsze pożyczki pod zastaw auta gdańsk zmiana umowy pożyczki a pcc w jakim banku najszybszy kredyt kredyt bank chałubińskiego gdańsk podatek od pożyczki czynny żal umowa o spłatę pożyczki nowy kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki na dowód kłodzko helikon pożyczki opinie jaki jest kod na kredyt do orange amber mikropożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne gotówkowe pożyczki dla windykowanych kredyt bank otwock kontakt pożyczki online bez bik pożyczka pozabankowa do20tys alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt refinansowy eurobank dobre pożyczki bez biku wzór faktury na odsetki od pożyczki pożyczki bez krd przez internet pozyczki augustow przez internet pożyczki krótkoterminowe w uk kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bank zachodni pożyczka bocian miedzyrzecz nr tel kredyty pozabankowe jaworzno kredyt bank leasing pożyczki pod zastaw chojnice chce wziasc 15000 tysiecy kredytu w pko bp umowa pożyczki dla firmy wzór szukam pożyczki pozabankowej prywatnej finanse pożyczki bez bik pożyczki chwilówki ełk kredyt bank rachunek dla firm pan kowalski zaciagnal kredyt w banku w wysokosci 40000 pozyczki prywatne na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd tczew pożyczki na nową firmę pożyczki bez bik amber gold prywatne pożyczki częstochowa szybkie pozyczki mprywatne na procent warszawa kredyt wbk bank zachodni pożyczki dla firm opole atrakcyjne kredyty mieszkaniowe pożyczki bez bik nowa sól szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez biku kredyt bank łódź oddziały kredyt bank grajewo pożyczki na inwestycje alior bank kredyt przez telefon kredyt mieszkaniowy w credit agricole kredyty chwilówki radom opinie dorota król pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy szybsza spłata jak uzyskać kredyt bez bik kredyt bank opłata za monit czy ustna umowa pożyczki jest ważna pożyczki kredytowe kredyt bank ukraina kredyty w banku pocztowym opinie pożyczki na dowód nowy sacz kredyty mieszkaniowe symulator umowa pożyczki darmowy wzór kredyt idea bank dla firm kredyt ok siedlce godziny otwarcia kredyt przez internet bez bik getin noble bank sa kredyty kredyt bank problemy z logowaniem szybko i bez umowy pożyczki auto kredyt bez bik ciechanów w jakim banku wziac kredyt gotowkowy kredyt bank włocławek plac wolności kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok piast kredyt bank w radlinie kredyty chwilówki grudziądz kredyt bank wschowa kredyty chwilówki szczytno pożyczki udzielane z budżetu państwa są przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał zakładowy umowa pożyczki pracownikowi kredyt konsolidacyjny zabezpieczenie kredyt konsolidacyjny kudoz pozyczki chwilówki z komornikiem gdansk jaka kwota pożyczki bez podatku kredyt bank kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt bank sa oddział leszno kredyt bankowy a podatek umorzenie pożyczki zakładowej kredyt studencki zmiana banku umowa pożyczki prowizja kredyt bank karta do bankomatu warunki kredytu credit agricole pożyczki lombardowe lodz kredyt bank w busku szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bik kredyt bank sa warszawa kontakt millenium bank kredyt na mieszkanie wycena pożyczki od udziałowca na dzień bilansowy kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2013 pożyczki chwilówki kielce kredyt konsolidacyjny zagiel kredyt bank lokata junior kredyt bank w białymstoku ul warszawska pożyczka w domu klienta jelenia góra kredyt bank oddział lublin krakowskie przedmieście oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego alior bank pożyczki na dowód skierniewice kredyt bank sa ii oddział w olsztynie gdzie najlatwiej o pozyczke pod zastaw domu gdzie najłatwiej o kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bankowy praca dyplomowa potrącanie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia kredyty chwilowki plock pożyczki dla zadłużonych skok pożyczki chwilówki grodzisk mazowiecki waloryzacja kwoty pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki stargard getin bank kredyt jakie oprocentowanie kredyt chwilówki windykacja pożyczki dla inwalidów pożyczki dla pracujących w czechach kredyt bank w rawie mazowieckiej w jakim banku wziac kredyt gotowkowy kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator alior bank pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik poznań kredyt bank wita stwosza wrocław kredyt bank dywidenda 2012 kredyty płock bez bik kredyt w skok stefczyka bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy oplaty jaki jest numer na kredyt z orange pożyczki na dowód słupca kredyt bank sa 24 kredyt bank bielany wr pożyczki kredyty dla nowych firm kredyt pozabankowy do 20000 kredyt bank lokaty oprocentowanie 2013 pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem online kredyt bank raty żagiel pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości gorzów kredyt chwilówka wodzisław kredyt pod weksel pożyczki ślimak szczecin kredyty dla małych firm bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny w raiffeisen bank najbardziej korzystne pożyczki kredyt bank gryfice oprocentowanie pożyczki od rodziny pożyczki od ludzi allianz bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt bank geneza podobne pozyczki do vivuss pozyczki ostrow wlkp nie bocian gros i prowident pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu rzeszów kredyt bank wikipedia pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód bez bik kredyt bank szczecinek kontakt kredyt na samochód bez biku pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk pożyczki gotówkowej zabezpieczonej aktywami płynnymi kredyty chwilówki krosno kredyt bank rakowicka telefon

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad