pożyczki mieszkaniowe w zakładach pracy rarr pożyczki na start bocian pożyczki śrem praca kredyty mieszkaniowe jaki bank kredyt bank platforma wymiany walut kredyt bank lloyds szybki kredyt bez bik i big getin bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt bank jak aktywować kartę pożyczki 3000 zł kredyt bank fundusz nieruchomości ii umowa pożyczki między firmami a vat kredyt konsolidacyjny przelicznik numer finan pozyczki kredyt bank warszawa okęcie kto daje pożyczki z komornikiem pożyczki bez granic siemianowice śląskie pożyczki bez bik rypin kredyt bez bik na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank w tychach najkozystniejszy kredyt gotowkowy dla policjanta santander bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzaje kredyt bank w koninie umowa pożyczki odstąpienie kredyty chwilówki bytów szybkie pożyczki w uk opinie kredyt bankowy cechy kredyt bank placówki lublin kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz gdańska udzielenie pożyczki bratu kredyt bank24 pożyczki kredyt plus kredyt na mieszkanie oferty banków kredyt gotówkowy bank pekao sa axcess pozyczki pomorskie kredyt według prawa bankowego lublin pożyczki pozabankowe bank pocztowy kredyt gotówkowy forum pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej umowa pożyczki pit visset pożyczki bez bik na dowód umowa pożyczki jaki podatek pcc kredyt bank sa centrala pewny kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki z dofinansowaniem unijnym kredyt bank kartuzy kredyt bank sa siedziba główna kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim warunki pożyczki poza bankowe turek kredyt bank gryfino godziny otwarcia pismo o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki bez bik będzin kredyt bez zaświadczenia o dochodach forum bezpieczny kredyt bez bik forum pko bp kredyt studencki do kiedy legitymacja firma finan pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe bez biku pożyczki na dowód radom pożyczki prywatne opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy w deutsche banku finan pożyczki wrocław alior bank kredyt na pit pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach novum pozyczki oddział gdańsk kredyt samochodowy bez bik kredyt bank prowadzenie konta alior bank kredyt na pit z zajęciem kredytowym kredyt bank skawina godziny otwarcia kredyt bank licytacje kredyt bank oddział kondratowicza kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zielona góra optima pożyczki forum kredyty mieszkaniowe jakie zarobki pożyczki bochnia kredyt bank radom tel kredyt konsolidacyjny oplaca sie kredyt bank kapelanka godziny kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu duet pożyczki częstochowa kredyt bank krakowskie lublin kredyty pozabankowe poznan kredyt bank godziny pożyczki ostrzeszów pożyczki internetowe opinie kredyt na remont mieszkania bank pocztowy pro domo pozyczki kolobrzeg kredyty bez bik wloclawek kredyt bank łuków godziny otwarcia kredyt bank najlepsza lokata kredyt bank stalowa wola kontakt umowa cywilna pożyczki pieniędzy lokata constans kredyt bank iii oddział kredyt banku w poznaniu kredyt w banku pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki na oświadczenie warszawa wola kredyt samochodowy otomoto forum getin noble bank kredyty samochodowe szybkie mikropożyczki kredyt samochodowy deutsche bank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny w sygma bank umorzenie pożyczki przez gminę kredyty bankowe sciaga obligacja 4 pożyczki konsolidacyjnej pożyczki w 24h przez internet bez zaświadczeń oblicz ratę pożyczki w pko bp kurs chf w kredyt banku kredyt studencki bank millenium pożyczki chwilówki pomysł na biznes kredyt studencki jakie banki pożyczki chwilówki olkusz kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe concerto kredyt bank problemy promotor pożyczki kredyt bank mława godziny otwarcia pożyczki do domu dolnośląskie mikropożyczki ekonomia społeczna pożyczki w banku pocztowym kredyt bez bik września bocian pożyczki nidzica kredyt chwilowka bydgoszcz ul gdanska jaki jest kod na kredyt w orange kredyt bank świecie kredyt bez biku poznań kredyt bank lidzbark warm kredyt bank pocztowy wasze opinie kredyt bank dąbrowskiego poznań pożyczki na innowacje pożyczki bez oprocentowania pożyczki chwilówki wąbrzeźno w jakim banku wziac kredyt marka puławy pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank wypłaty za granicą pożyczki na dowód kontakt pożyczki prywatne łódź forum szybka pozyczka bez bik kolbuszowa kredyt bank w mińsku maz pożyczki ranking euro pożyczki limanowa pożyczki w uk na rok kredyt bank koszalin zwycięstwa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank bełchatów kredyt bank sa iii oddział w warszawie pożyczki bez meldunku i dochodu stargard kredyt konsolidacyjny najmniejsze oprocentowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny najmniejsze oprocentowanie kredyt bank żeromskiego radom koszt ubezpieczenia pożyczki mbank pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt studencki pko sa dokumenty kredyty bez bik big komornik konsolidacja pożyczki na dowód od 18 lat online pożyczki chwilówki ekspres kasa w jakim kraju najlepiej dostać pożyczkę forta pożyczki opinie kredyt firmowy bez biku kokos pożyczki gotówkowe pozyczka pod weksel czestochowa pożyczki 10000 bez bik katowice pożyczki bez erif, pożyczki jako źródło finansowania kredyty chwilówki prokuratura kredyt bez biku jaworzno kredyt bank piaseczno kredyt bank wpłaty ile zarabiaja w kredyt banku kredyty chwilówki praca kalisz odsetki od pożyczki cypr źyrafa pożyczki bocian pożyczki opinia kredyt gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy szybkie kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank w łodzi kredyty w meritum bank kredyt bank aktualności szybki kredyt bez bik 10000 kredyty chwilówki łowicz wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego konwersja pożyczki na dopłaty do kapitału bocian pożyczki tczew kredyt bank wolomin druk umowy pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank prabuty kredyty konsolidacyjny z komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób z bik ewidencja księgowa umorzenia pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli kalkulator kredyt bank kobierzyńska kredyt bank bb kredyt bank tomaszów mazowiecki telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny we frankach najtańszy kredyt na 30 tyś bez bik pożyczki a urząd skarbowy kredyty samochodowe bank pocztowy przetarg na kredyt bankowy 2013 radan pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt konsolidacyjny pozabankowy bank pko bp kredyt odnawialny wzór umowy pożyczki osób prywatnych alior bank kredyt na remont kredyt 1000 krótkoterminowe pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim pekao sa kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa na czas określony kredyt bank lukow godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla 2013 kredyty chwilówki jaki procent gdzie daja kredyt bez biku kredyty chwilowki strzegomska w ktorym banku wziasc kredyt umowa pożyczki zastaw wzór kredyt bank chmielna prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań pożyczki gotówkowe olsztyn pożyczki 15 optima pożyczki reklama wzór umowy umorzenia pożyczki kredyt bank infolinia z zagranicy nieoprocentowane pożyczki z zfśs kredyty pozyczki bez bik big krd kredyt bank w warszawie godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki a skutki podatkowe dziedziczenie pożyczki kredyt bez bik żary nie oddaje pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny na 15 lat bez zabezpieczeń kredyt mieszkaniowy na singla kredyt konsolidacyjny poczta polska szybka pozyczka w uk bez formalnosci do 2000f pożyczki firmowe kredyt bank goldenline kredyt bank sokółka kontakt kredyt samochodowy w banku millenium kredyt bank departament prawny kredyt bank książkowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik rybnik kredyty chwilówki koło kredyt bank kod aktywacyjny ubezpieczenie pożyczki kredyt bank kryzys pożyczki bez bik legionowo jak odmówić komuś pożyczki kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kalkulator lokata w kredyt banku 6 5 plus cash pożyczki szybki kredyt bez bik online umowa pożyczki strony kredyt bez bik myszkow umowa pożyczki urząd skarbowy bezpieczne pożyczki prywatne pożyczka bez bik przez internet w 15 minut forum kredyt jako produkt bankowy praca licencjacka kredyt bank gdansk zaspa kredyt na już bez bik gdzie szybki kredyt bez bik kredyty konsolidacyjne bzwbk szybki kredyt bez bik rzeszów pożyczki pod weksel wrocław kredyty bez bik zgorzelec umowa pożyczki kurs getin bank kredyty samochodowe tel pożyczki hitlera pożyczki w banku pocztowym banki udzielajace kredyt na pit krakow poręczenie pożyczki z urzędu pracy oprocentowanie pożyczki w skoku stefczyka kredyt bank bankomaty piła pożyczki pod zastaw kołobrzeg kredyt bank białystok radzymińska duży kredyt pozabankowy kredyt bank słubice godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki udziałowca wzór kredyt bankowy ranking zabezpieczenie pożyczki po angielsku kredyt bez bik w koninie oświadczenie spłaty pożyczki pożyczka na uwowa zlecenie czwa kredyt bank warszawa książkowa godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw 2014 kredyty bez bik i krd łódź pożyczki z poręczycielem pozyczki bez bik ktore mozna wyplacic na poczcie umowa pożyczki z wekslem wzór pożyczki gryfino kredyt bank połączenie z bz wbk szybkie pożyczki internetowe bez bik kredyt w banku bph forum kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższa rata umowa pożyczki gotówki kredyt bank zamość partyzantów 12 kredyt bank warszawa kontakt szybki kredyt bez bik online prywatne pożyczki na sam dowód kredyty bez bik w lesznie jak zrobić przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki z pracodawcą kredyt bank ciechocinek kredyt chwilowka zielona gora kalkulator zdolności kredytowej 2012 kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki chwilówki bez zaświadczeń o dochodach skok pożyczki bez zaswiadczen o dochodach księgowanie pożyczki otrzymanej kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator skok stefczyka kredyt z komornikiem wroclaw wysokie pożyczki pozabankowe księgowanie wpłat w kredyt banku pożyczki chwilówki mysłowice microfinance pożyczki kredyt bank zapomniałem pin umowa pożyczki a śmierć pożyczkodawcy które banki dają kredyt w euro prywatne pozyczki na weksel pożyczki profit kredyt bank wąwozowa kredyty bankowe książki chomikuj kredyt samochodowy volkswagen bank polska pożyczki bez bik big i krd online kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny dla rolników getin bank oprocentowanie kredytów gotówkowych ppozyczka na sam dowod osobisty zabrze kredyty bez bik zary kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych w uk getin noble bank spłata kredytu pozyczka gratka opinie kredyty chwilówki mysłowice grunwaldzka kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki bez bik bytom kredyty chwilówki a knf udziele pożyczki prywatnie ubezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki na dowód żywiec alior bank kredyt na start pozyczka jak provident bez big rekrutacja w kredyt banku pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości poznań kredyt w lukas banku kredyt mieszkaniowy pko londyn umorzenie pożyczki z pup pozyczki społecznościowe pozabankowe pożyczki chwilówki gorlice co potrzeba zeby wziasc pozyczke z oakam kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową dla singli kredyt bank żniwna poznań godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sokółka kontakt w którym banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt gotówkowy kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pko kredyt bank oddział łódź kościuszki kredyt konsolidacyjny wzór pożyczki dla uczących się kredyty bez bik brodnica kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank oprocentowanie getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik big krd pożyczki żagań kredyty bez bik chorzów pożyczki pozabankowe 2012 pożyczki chwilówki współpraca kredyt bez bik rybnik pożyczki do 10tys bocian pożyczki poznań praca promocja w kredyt banku kredyt bank międzyzdroje pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kielce pożyczki pod zastaw głogów mbank pożyczki dla bezrobotnych pozyczki pod zastaw auta warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firmy kredyt bank zmiana danych osobowych kasa branickiego pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy pko kalkulator kredyty bez bik pod zastaw samochodu kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób po 50 kredyt bez bik oferty kredyt konsolidacyjny bez biku kredyt refinansowy w banku pocztowym kredyty chwilówki praca forum kredyt bez bik dla emeryta pożyczki rolowane kredyt bankowy a akt notarialny kredyty chwilówki będzin pożyczki społecznościowe dla zadłużonych kredyt bank w olsztynie godziny otwarcia pożyczki sezam wieluń pożyczki bez biku lublin oprocentowanie pożyczki dla firmy kredyty chwilówki nysa rynek chwilówki kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki pruszków pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych pożyczki pozabankowe krasnystaw chwjlowki pozyczki bez bik krd gliwice kredyt bank prowizja za przelew zagraniczny kredyt bankowy w rachunkowości pan kowalski zaciągnął kredyt w banku kredyt studencki pko legitymacja po terminie pożyczki gotówkowe koszalin kredyty chwilówki dg kredyt bank sa warszawa kontakt wanluks pożyczki szybkie pożyczki w szkocji kredyt bank strzelce opolskie godziny otwarcia pozyczka na umowe cywilno prawna czestochowa kredyt dla firm w getin banku pożyczki pozabankowe bez odsetek kredyt bank warszawa iv oddział pożyczki prywatne mogilno kredyt w banku ślaskim kredyty studenckie mieszkaniowe cash flow pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe tychy dobre pożyczki bez bik forum pozyczki osoby prywatne bydgoszcz szybka pożyczki dla zadłużonych umowa pożyczki żyrant pożyczki pod zastaw złota warszawa abis pożyczki opinie kredyt bank warszawa wlochy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości śląskie mikropożyczki opinie pożyczki oddłużeniowo komornicze pożyczki ślimak poznań jaki bank 10000 pozyczka na splate komornika jakie oprocentowanie pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt studencki pekao wniosek szybkie pożyczki przez internet opinie oddzialy kredyt banku w warszawie kredyt konsolidacyjny wniosek online kredyt bank filia krasnystaw pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla nauczycieli kredyt bank gdansk noskowskiego pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic pożyczki okey kredyt bank emerytura idea bank kredyt przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny plus gotówka pożyczki między internautami bankomaty kredyt bank suwałki pożyczki chwilówki olkusz kredyt konsolidacyjny legnica pożyczki w idea bank odsetki ustawowe pożyczki przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki ekspres kasa kredyt studencki pko zaświadczenie z uczelni kredyt bank w koninie kredyty mieszkaniowe nowe przepisy kredyt bank fiz umowa pożyczki raty wzór pozyczki 7 pożyczki na procent gdańsk kredyt bank patriotów godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki stargard szczeciński kredyt bank jelenia góra kontakt szybkie pożyczki mińsk mazowiecki kredyt bank zeromskiego godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki rzeszów bank pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie pożyczki bez weryfikacji wniosku kredyt bankowy dla mśp kredyty chwilówki praca ulotki pożyczki dla bezrobotnych pila pożyczki pod zastaw olsztyn best partner pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy starego portfela kredyt bank sa nip regon praca w kredyt banku opinie 2011 kredyt chwilówki żywiec pożyczki gotówkowe finan pożyczki bez bik i krd zamość kredyt gotówkowy w getin bank forum kredyt chwilówki żary bnp paribas kredyt umowa zlecenie pożyczki z zakladowego funduszu świadczeń socjalnych pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik kraków pożyczki pod zastaw chorzów kredyt bank olsztyn wojska polskiego kredyt w banku ze złą historią kredyt bank sopot kontakt umowa pożyczki pieniędzy spłata w ratach pożyczki pod kontrakt kredyt bank białystok warszawska pożyczki udzielane przez internet pożyczki chwilówki pruszków kredyty bez biku pozabankowe kredyt bank radość kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen o dochodach łatwe pożyczki bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny polbank pożyczki uprzywilejowane kredyt chwilówka 0 firmy udzielające pożyczki pozabankowe kredyty sms bez bik kredyt bank chałubińskiego warszawa kredyt studencki bank bps idea bank opinie kredyt dla firm kredyty konsolidacyjne lodz szybkie pożyczki na dowód wrocław kredyty bez bik dla zadłużonych odsetki od pożyczki nkup kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator eurobank

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad